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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428505/optimising-training-adaptations-and-performance-in-military-environment
#1
REVIEW
Heikki Kyröläinen, Kai Pihlainen, Jani P Vaara, Tommi Ojanen, Matti Santtila
OBJECTIVES: Worldwide decreases in physical fitness and increases in body fat among youth have set challenges for armed forces to recruit physically capable soldiers. Therefore, knowledge of optimizing physical adaptation and performance through physical training is vital. In addition, maintaining or improving physical performance among professional soldiers in various military environments is crucial for overall military readiness. The present review focuses on the effects of military training on physical performance by searching for optimal methods to do it...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387636/the-time-has-come-to-incorporate-a-greater-focus-on-rate-of-force-development-training-in-the-sports-injury-rehabilitation-process
#2
REVIEW
Matthew Buckthorpe, Giulio Sergio Roi
This narrative and literature review discusses the relevance of Rate of Force Development (RFD) (the slope of the force time curve) for Return To Sport (RTS), its determinants and the influence of training practices on it expression, with the purpose to enhance clinicians' awareness of how RFD training may enhance RTS success. RFD is considered functionally more relevant than maximal muscle strength during certain very fast actions including rapid joint stabilisation following mechanical perturbation. Deficits in RFD are reported following conventional rehabilitation programmes despite full restoration of maximal strength, which may contribute to the less than satisfactory RTS outcomes reported in the literature...
July 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337834/manipulating-field-dimensions-during-small-sided-games-impacts-the-technical-and-physical-profiles-of-australian-footballers
#3
Fleay Brock, Joyce Christopher, Banyard Harry, Woods T Carl
This study investigated the effect of manipulating field dimensions on the technical and physical profiles of Australian football (AF) players during small-sided games (SSGs). A total of 40 male players (23.9 ± 3.5 y) participated in three, five-a-side SSGs; defined as 'small' (20m x 30m; 600m), 'medium' (30m x 40m; 1200m), and 'large' (40m x 50m; 2000m). Notational analyses enabled the quantification of technical skill indicators, while physical activity profiles were measured using microtechnology, resulting in 18 criterion variables...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334283/effects-of-an-exercise-program-on-the-physiological-biological-and-psychological-profiles-in-patients-with-mood-disorders-a-pilot-study
#4
Mario Leone, Daniel Lalande, Linda Thériault, Émilia Kalinova, Audrey Fortin
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the impact of an 8-week physical training program on physiological, biological and psychological profiles in individual with mood disorders. METHODS: Seven patients participated in the study. Patients were trained twice weekly (75 min/session) for 8 weeks. The training program aimed to improve muscular and cardiorespiratory reserves as well as functional capacity. Bioassays were also measured (lipid profile, blood glucose and cortisol)...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182410/the-effect-of-periodisation-and-training-intensity-distribution-on-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#5
Mark Kenneally, Arturo Casado, Jordan Santos-Concejero
This review aimed to examine the current evidence for three primary training intensity distribution types; 1) Pyramidal Training, 2) Polarised Training and 3) Threshold Training. Where possible, we calculated training intensity zones relative to the goal race pace, rather than physiological or subjective variables. We searched 3 electronic databases in May 2017 (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) for original research articles. After analysing 493 resultant original articles, studies were included if they met the following criteria: a) participants were middle- or long-distance runners; b) studies analysed training intensity distribution in the form of observational reports, case studies or interventions; c) studies were published in peer-reviewed journals and d) studies analysed training programs with a duration of 4 weeks or longer...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045316/understanding-the-relationship-between-coach-and-athlete-perceptions-of-training-intensity-in-youth-sport
#6
Sean Scantlebury, Kevin Till, Tom Sawczuk, Jonathon Weakley, Ben Jones
To alleviate issues arising from the over/under prescription of training load, coaches must ensure that desired athlete responses to training are being achieved. The present study aimed to assess the level of agreement between the coach intended (pre-session) and observed (post-session) rating of perceived exertion (RPE), with athlete RPE during different training intensities (easy, moderate, hard). Coach intended RPE was taken prior to all field based training sessions over an 8 week in-season period. Following training, all coaches and athletes, whom were participants in hockey, netball, rugby and soccer were asked to provide an RPE measure for the completed session...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857336/aerobic-exercise-training-does-not-alter-vascular-structure-and-function-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Jinelle C Gelinas, Nia C Lewis, Megan I Harper, Bernie Melzer, Gloria Agar, J Douglass Rolf, Neil D Eves
What is the central question of this study? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness and systemic inflammation, which are linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk. We asked whether periodized aerobic exercise training could improve vascular structure and function in patients with COPD. What is the main finding and its importance? Eight weeks of periodized aerobic training did not improve endothelial function, arterial stiffness or systemic inflammation in COPD, despite improvements in aerobic capacity, blood pressure and dyspnoea...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841667/the-effects-of-d-aspartic-acid-supplementation-in-resistance-trained-men-over-a-three-month-training-period-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Geoffrey W Melville, Jason C Siegler, Paul W M Marshall
CONTEXT: Research on d-aspartic acid (DAA) has demonstrated increases in total testosterone levels in untrained men, however research in resistance-trained men demonstrated no changes, and reductions in testosterone levels. The long-term consequences of DAA in a resistance trained population are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of DAA to alter basal testosterone levels over 3 months of resistance training in resistance-trained men. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in healthy resistance-trained men, aged 18-36, had been performing regular resistance training exercise for at least 3 d...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698349/a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-periodised-resistance-training-and-protein-supplementation-intervention-in-prostate-cancer-survivors-on-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#9
Jacqueline L Kiwata, Tanya B Dorff, E Todd Schroeder, George J Salem, Christianne J Lane, Judd C Rice, Mitchell E Gross, Christina M Dieli-Conwright
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer survivors (PCS) receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) experience deleterious side effects such as unfavourable changes in cardiometabolic factors that lead to sarcopenic obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). While loss of lean body mass (LBM) compromises muscular strength and quality of life, MetS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and may influence cancer recurrence. Exercise can improve LBM and strength, and may serve as an alternative to the pharmacological management of MetS in PCS on ADT...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401310/the-efficacy-of-periodised-resistance-training-on-neuromuscular-adaptation-in-older-adults
#10
Jenny A Conlon, Robert U Newton, James J Tufano, Luis E Peñailillo, Harry G Banyard, Amanda J Hopper, Ashley J Ridge, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: This study compared the effect of periodised versus non-periodised (NP) resistance training on neuromuscular adaptions in older adults. METHODS: Forty-one apparently healthy untrained older adults (female = 21, male = 20; 70.9 ± 5.1 years; 166.3 ± 8.2 cm; 72.9 ± 13.4 kg) were recruited and randomly stratified to an NP, block periodised (BP), or daily undulating periodised (DUP) training group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and following a 22-week resistance training intervention (3 day week(-1)), including: muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), vertical jump performance, isometric and isokinetic peak torque, isometric rate of force development (RFD), and muscle activation...
June 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277433/changes-in-unilateral-upper-limb-muscular-strength-and-emg-activity-following-a-16-week-strength-training-intervention-survivors-of-breast-cancer
#11
Amanda D Hagstrom, Kathleen A Shorter, Paul W M Marshall
Upper limb strength deficits are frequently observed following breast cancer and its treatments. It is currently unknown whether these unilateral deficits can be corrected by a standard bilateral strength training intervention. Twenty three survivors of breast cancer were included in this analysis. Fourteen performed a 16 week resistance training (RT) intervention, 9 were assigned to a usual care waitlist control group. Electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii were monitored during three maximal isometric contractions and a fatiguing endurance task...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266908/evaluating-strategic-periodisation-in-team-sport
#12
Sam Robertson, David Joyce
The planned peaking for matches or events of perceived greatest priority or difficulty throughout a competitive season is commonplace in high-level team sports. Despite this prevalence in the field, little research exists on the practice. This study aimed to provide a framework for strategic periodisation which team sport organisations can use to evaluate the efficacy of such plans. Data relating to factors potentially influencing the difficulty of matches were obtained for games played in the 2014 Australian Football League season...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035584/from-lab-to-real-world-heat-acclimation-considerations-for-elite-athletes
#13
Julia R Casadio, Andrew E Kilding, James D Cotter, Paul B Laursen
As major sporting events are often held in hot environments, increased interest in ways of optimally heat acclimating athletes to maximise performance has emerged. Heat acclimation involves repeated exercise sessions in hot conditions that induce physiological and thermoregulatory adaptations that attenuate heat-induced performance impairments. Current evidence-based guidelines for heat acclimation are clear, but the application of these recommendations is not always aligned with the time commitments and training priorities of elite athletes...
August 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012184/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-exercise-economy-and-negates-the-performance-benefit-from-intensified-training-in-elite-race-walkers
#14
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
KEY POINTS: Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support. Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole-body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities. The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real-life race performance in elite race walkers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873190/development-of-a-skill-acquisition-periodisation-framework-for-high-performance-sport
#15
REVIEW
Damian Farrow, Sam Robertson
Unlike physical training, skill acquisition does not currently utilise periodisation to plan, monitor and evaluate programs. Development of a skill acquisition periodisation framework would allow for systematic investigation into the acute and longitudinal effectiveness of such interventions. Using the physical training literature as a reference point, a skill-training periodisation framework was developed for use in high-performance sport. Previous research undertaken in skill acquisition was used to provide support for the framework...
June 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610427/paediatric-sports-injuries
#16
Leesa Huguenin
BACKGROUND: Paediatric sports injuries are common. Fortunately, most children self-modulate their activity levels when injured until they recover, but some will seek medical help. Injury pattern varies with age, mechanism and the chosen sport. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to give a general overview of some of the more common paediatric sports injuries, including common patterns of pathogenesis, the effects of growth and biomechanics on tissue load, and issues particular to specific sports...
July 2016: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448391/current-perspectives-on-profiling-and-enhancing-wheelchair-court-sport-performance
#17
Thomas Paulson, Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey
Despite the growing interest in Paralympic sport, the evidence-base for supporting elite wheelchair sport performance remains in its infancy when compared to able-bodied (AB) sport. Subsequently, current practice is often based on theory adapted from AB guidelines, with a heavy reliance on anecdotal evidence and practitioner experience. Many principles in training prescription and performance monitoring with wheelchair athletes are directly transferable from AB practice, including the periodisation and tapering of athlete loads around competition...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360092/a-periodised-low-volume-high-training-load-regimen-reduces-the-rate-of-recruit-injury-within-basic-military-training-949-board-265-june-1-2-00-pm-3-30-pm
#18
Herbert Groeller, Simon D Burley, John A Sampson, Bradley C Nindl, Jace Drain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240038/physical-demand-of-seven-closed-agility-drills
#19
Mark Atkinson, Simon Rosalie, Kevin Netto
The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536538/quantification-of-training-load-during-one-two-and-three-game-week-schedules-in-professional-soccer-players-from-the-english-premier-league-implications-for-carbohydrate-periodisation
#20
Liam Anderson, Patrick Orme, Rocco Di Michele, Graeme L Close, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust, James P Morton
Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P < 0.05) in 3 days prior to match day (total distance = 5223 ± 406, 3097 ± 149 and 2912 ± 192 m for day 1, 2 and 3, respectively)...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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