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Jenny A Conlon, Robert U Newton, James J Tufano, Luis E Peñailillo, Harry G Banyard, Amanda J Hopper, Ashley J Ridge, G Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: This study compared the effect of periodised versus non-periodised (NP) resistance training on neuromuscular adaptions in older adults. METHODS: Forty-one apparently healthy untrained older adults (female = 21, male = 20; 70.9 ± 5.1 years; 166.3 ± 8.2 cm; 72.9 ± 13.4 kg) were recruited and randomly stratified to an NP, block periodised (BP), or daily undulating periodised (DUP) training group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and following a 22-week resistance training intervention (3 day week(-1)), including: muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), vertical jump performance, isometric and isokinetic peak torque, isometric rate of force development (RFD), and muscle activation...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Amanda D Hagstrom, Kathleen A Shorter, Paul W M Marshall
Upper limb strength deficits are frequently observed following breast cancer and its treatments. It is currently unknown whether these unilateral deficits can be corrected by a standard bilateral strength training intervention. Twenty three survivors of breast cancer were included in this analysis. Fourteen performed a 16 week resistance training (RT) intervention, 9 were assigned to a usual care waitlist control group. Electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii were monitored during three maximal isometric contractions and a fatiguing endurance task...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sam Robertson, David Joyce
The planned peaking for matches or events of perceived greatest priority or difficulty throughout a competitive season is commonplace in high-level team sports. Despite this prevalence in the field, little research exists on the practice. This study aimed to provide a framework for strategic periodisation which team sport organisations can use to evaluate the efficacy of such plans. Data relating to factors potentially influencing the difficulty of matches were obtained for games played in the 2014 Australian Football League season...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Julia R Casadio, Andrew E Kilding, James D Cotter, Paul B Laursen
As major sporting events are often held in hot environments, increased interest in ways of optimally heat acclimating athletes to maximise performance has emerged. Heat acclimation involves repeated exercise sessions in hot conditions that induce physiological and thermoregulatory adaptations that attenuate heat-induced performance impairments. Current evidence-based guidelines for heat acclimation are clear, but the application of these recommendations is not always aligned with the time commitments and training priorities of elite athletes...
December 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
KEY POINTS: Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support. Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole-body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities. The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real-life race performance in elite race walkers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Damian Farrow, Sam Robertson
Unlike physical training, skill acquisition does not currently utilise periodisation to plan, monitor and evaluate programs. Development of a skill acquisition periodisation framework would allow for systematic investigation into the acute and longitudinal effectiveness of such interventions. Using the physical training literature as a reference point, a skill-training periodisation framework was developed for use in high-performance sport. Previous research undertaken in skill acquisition was used to provide support for the framework...
November 21, 2016: Sports Medicine
Leesa Huguenin
BACKGROUND: Paediatric sports injuries are common. Fortunately, most children self-modulate their activity levels when injured until they recover, but some will seek medical help. Injury pattern varies with age, mechanism and the chosen sport. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to give a general overview of some of the more common paediatric sports injuries, including common patterns of pathogenesis, the effects of growth and biomechanics on tissue load, and issues particular to specific sports...
July 2016: Australian Family Physician
Thomas Paulson, Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey
Despite the growing interest in Paralympic sport, the evidence-base for supporting elite wheelchair sport performance remains in its infancy when compared to able-bodied (AB) sport. Subsequently, current practice is often based on theory adapted from AB guidelines, with a heavy reliance on anecdotal evidence and practitioner experience. Many principles in training prescription and performance monitoring with wheelchair athletes are directly transferable from AB practice, including the periodisation and tapering of athlete loads around competition...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Herbert Groeller, Simon D Burley, John A Sampson, Bradley C Nindl, Jace Drain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mark Atkinson, Simon Rosalie, Kevin Netto
The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand...
November 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Liam Anderson, Patrick Orme, Rocco Di Michele, Graeme L Close, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust, James P Morton
Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P < 0.05) in 3 days prior to match day (total distance = 5223 ± 406, 3097 ± 149 and 2912 ± 192 m for day 1, 2 and 3, respectively)...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Rohan Edmonds, Brendan Burkett, Anthony Leicht, Mark McKean
The purpose of this study was to a) determine the heart rate variability (HRV) and saliva markers of immunity (salivary immunoglobulin A; sIgA) and stress (salivary alpha-amylase; sAA) responses to chronic training in elite swimmers with a disability; and b) identify the relationships between HRV, sIgA, sAA and training volume. Eight members of a high performance Paralympic swimming program were monitored for their weekly resting HRV, sIgA and sAA levels in the 14 weeks leading up to a major international competition...
2015: PloS One
Jocelyn K Mara, Kevin G Thompson, Kate L Pumpa, Nick B Ball
PURPOSE: To investigate the variation in training demands, physical performance, and player well-being across a women's soccer season. METHODS: Seventeen elite female players wore GPS tracking devices during every training session (N=90) throughout 1 national-league season. Intermittent high-speed-running capacity and 5-, 15-, and 25-m-sprint testing were conducted at the beginning of preseason, end of preseason, midseason, and end of season. In addition, subjective well-being measures were self-reported daily by players over the course of the season...
July 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
William B Haug, Eric J Drinkwater, Dale W Chapman
The investment in learning required to reach benefit with weightlifting training is currently not well understood in elite athletes. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify changes in vertical jump power production and kinematic variables in hang power clean (HPC) performance during the learning process from a naive state in a multiple single-subject research design. Four elite athletes undertook HPC learning for approximately 20-30 minutes twice per week over a 169-day period. Changes in parameters of vertical power production during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) were monitored from baseline (day 0) and at 3 additional occasions...
July 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Samuel J Robertson, David G Joyce
In team sports, tactical periodisation refers to the planned manipulation of training loads with the aim of prioritising athlete readiness for matches of greatest importance. Although monitoring of athletes' physical condition is often used to inform this planning, the direct influence of external factors on match difficulty has not been well quantified. In this study, a 'match difficulty index' (MDI) for use in Super Rugby was developed, based on the influence imparted by five external factors on previous match outcomes...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
R V Gomes, A Moreira, L Lodo, K Nosaka, A J Coutts, M S Aoki
The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10) were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress) were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A...
September 2013: Biology of Sport
Daniel J Plews, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding, Martin Buchheit
PURPOSE: Elite endurance athletes may train in a polarized fashion, such that their training-intensity distribution preserves autonomic balance. However, field data supporting this are limited. METHODS: The authors examined the relationship between heart-rate variability and training-intensity distribution in 9 elite rowers during the 26-wk build-up to the 2012 Olympic Games (2 won gold and 2 won bronze medals). Weekly averaged log-transformed square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD) was examined, with respect to changes in total training time (TTT) and training time below the first lactate threshold (<LT(1)), above the second lactate threshold (LT(2)), and between LT(1) and LT(2) (LT(1)-LT(2))...
November 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Vicente Javier Clemente Suárez, Jose M González-Ravé
Although numerous authors have studied the effect of different training procedures on athlete's resistance performance, there are no studies on how the improvement of aerobic resistance is affected by the distribution of training loads. This research sets out to analyse the effectiveness on aerobic activity of distributions with a constant load (CON) and with increments in intensity (INC) over a 4-week period. A total of 30 athletes took part in the analysis (38.7 ± 9.8 years; 174.7 ± 6.5 cm; 72.0 ± 9.8 kg)...
2014: European Journal of Sport Science
Caroline F Finch, Kathy Diamantopoulou, Dara M Twomey, Tim L A Doyle, David G Lloyd, Warren Young, Bruce C Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1-8) and 18-week playing season. PARTICIPANTS: 1564 community Australian football players...
April 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Rocío Robledo-Martínez, Carlos A Agudelo-Calderón
Definitions of healthcare promotion were examined from the theory of knowledge regarding its ontological and epistemological aspects as considered by several paradigms. Three-phase periodisation was used. The first distancing regarding the positivist paradigm and healthcare promotion through definitions of public health was made during the background phase (1920-1973). The promotion of healthcare acquired its own identity and became explicit policy in the midst of scenarios involving the confluence of paradigms during the foundational phase (1974-1986)...
December 2011: Revista de Salud Pública
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