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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088708/germinal-centers-programmed-for-affinity-maturation-and-antibody-diversification
#1
REVIEW
Oliver Bannard, Jason G Cyster
The seminal discovery by Eisen that antibodies undergo improvements in antigen-binding affinity over the course of an immune response led to a long running search for the underlying mechanism. Germinal centers in lymphoid organs are now recognized to be critically involved in this phenomenon, known as antibody affinity maturation. As well as improving in affinity for specific epitopes, some antibody responses maintain or even increase their breadth of antigen-recognition over time. This has led to another intense line of research aimed at understanding how broadly neutralizing anti-pathogen responses are generated...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088610/the-effects-of-voluntary-wheel-running-on-neuroinflammatory-status-role-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1
#2
Lindsay J Spielman, Mehrbod Estaki, Sanjoy Ghosh, Deanna L Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The health benefits of exercise and physical activity (PA) have been well researched and it is widely accepted that PA is crucial for maintaining health. One of the mechanisms by which exercise and PA exert their beneficial effects is through peripheral immune system adaptations. To date, very few studies have looked at the regulation of neuroimmune reactions in response to PA. We studied the effect of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, patterns of glial cell activation and expression of immune receptors in the brains of female C57BL/6 mice...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088566/removal-of-salicylic-acid-as-an-emerging-contaminant-by-a-polar-nano-dendritic-adsorbent-from-aqueous-media
#3
M Arshadi, F Mousavinia, M K Abdolmaleki, M J Amiri, A Khalafi-Nezhad
A polar nano-dendritic adsorbent containing amine groups (SAPAMAA) was synthesized onto the nanoparticles of SiO2Al2O3 and its uptake of salicylic acid (SA) from the synthetic and real water was investigated. The synthesized nanomaterials were fully studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta potential (ζ), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and elemental analysis...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087883/defining-genetic-and-chemical-diversity-in-wheat-grain-by-1h-nmr-spectroscopy-of-polar-metabolites
#4
Peter R Shewry, Delia I Corol, Huw D Jones, Michael H Beale, Jane L Ward
SCOPE: The application of high throughput 1H-NMR of unpurified extracts to determine to determine genetic diversity and the contents of polar components in grain of wheat. METHODS AND RESULTS: milled whole wheat grain was extracted with 80:20 D2O:CD3OD containing 0.05% d4- trimethylsilylpropionate (TSP). 1H-NMR spectra were acquired under automation at 300 °K using an Avance Spectrometer operating at 600.0528 MHz. Regions for individual metabolites were identified by comparison to a library of known standards run under identical conditions...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087758/method-for-the-determination-of-carbonyl-compounds-in-e-cigarette-aerosols
#5
Jason W Flora, Celeste T Wilkinson, James W Wilkinson, Peter J Lipowicz, James A Skapars, Adam Anderson, John H Miller
Low levels of thermal degradation products such as carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde) have been reported in e-cigarette aerosols. The collection and analysis of e-cigarette aerosol carbonyls are often adapted from methods developed for tobacco cigarette smoke. These methodologies are often not sensitive enough to detect low carbonyl levels in e-cigarette aerosols. One objective of this work was to develop and validate a rapid, selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method optimized for analysis of carbonyls in e-cigarette aerosols...
February 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087535/efficient-low-ph-iron-removal-by-a-microbial-iron-oxide-mound-ecosystem-at-scalp-level-run
#6
Christen L Grettenberger, Alexandra R Pearce, Kyle J Bibby, Daniel S Jones, William D Burgos, Jennifer L Macalady
: Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of km of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron-oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable across sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County PA), first-order iron-oxidation rates are ten times faster than at other coal associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087244/practice-makes-perfect-correlations-between-prior-experience-in-high-level-athletics-and-robotic-surgical-performance-do-not-persist-after-task-repetition
#7
Kevin Shee, Fady M Ghali, Elias S Hyams
OBJECTIVE: Robotic surgical skill development is central to training in urology as well as in other surgical disciplines. Here, we describe a pilot study assessing the relationships between robotic surgery simulator performance and 3 categories of activities, namely, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics. DESIGN: A questionnaire was administered to preclinical medical students for general demographic information and prior experiences in surgery, videogames, musical instruments, and athletics...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087234/interference-from-related-actions-in-spoken-word-production-behavioural-and-fmri-evidence
#8
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087113/video-assisted-thoracoscopic-diaphragm-plication-using-a-running-suture-technique-is-durable-and-effective
#9
David S Demos, Mark F Berry, Leah M Backhus, Joseph B Shrager
OBJECTIVE: Surgeons have hesitated to adopt minimally invasive diaphragm plication techniques because of technical limitations rendering the procedure cumbersome or leading to early failure or reduced efficacy. We sought to demonstrate efficacy and durability of our thoracoscopic plication technique using a single running suture. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent our technique for diaphragm plication since 2008. We used a single, buttressed, double-layered, to-and-fro running suture with additional plicating horizontal mattress sutures as needed...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086746/mviaeval-a-web-tool-for-comprehensively-evaluating-the-performance-of-a-new-missing-value-imputation-algorithm
#10
Wei-Sheng Wu, Meng-Jhun Jhou
BACKGROUND: Missing value imputation is important for microarray data analyses because microarray data with missing values would significantly degrade the performance of the downstream analyses. Although many microarray missing value imputation algorithms have been developed, an objective and comprehensive performance comparison framework is still lacking. To solve this problem, we previously proposed a framework which can perform a comprehensive performance comparison of different existing algorithms...
January 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081503/in-silico-identification-of-alternative-oxidase-2-aox2-in-monocots-a-new-evolutionary-scenario
#11
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Beatriz de Sousa E Lima, Anthônio Nunes Moreira Netto, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
We identified AOX2 genes in monocot species from Lemnoideae (Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata), Pothoideae (Anthurium andraeanum and Anthurium amnicola) and Monsteroideae (Epipremnum aureum) subfamilies within the Araceae, an early-diverging monocot family. These findings highlight the presence of AOX2 in the most ancient monocot ancestor and also that at least partial loss of this gene occurred during speciation events within several monocot orders. The presence of AOX2 in monocot species challenges (1) new understanding of the evolutionary history of the AOX gene family in angiosperms and (2) drives experimental and bioinformatics efforts to explore functional relevance of the two AOX gene family members for plant growth and development...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081502/quantitative-determinations-using-portable-raman-spectroscopy
#12
Chelliah V Navin, Chaitanya Tondepu, Roxana Toth, Latevi S Lawson, Jason D Rodriguez
A portable Raman spectrometer was used to develop chemometric models to determine percent (%) drug release and potency for 500mg ciprofloxacin HCl tablets. Parallel dissolution and chromatographic experiments were conducted alongside Raman experiments to assess and compare the performance and capabilities of portable Raman instruments in determining critical drug attributes. All batches tested passed the 30min dissolution specification and the Raman model for drug release was able to essentially reproduce the dissolution profiles obtained by ultraviolet spectroscopy at 276nm for all five batches of the 500mg ciprofloxacin tablets...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081498/enhancing-analysis-throughput-sensitivity-and-specificity-in-lc-esi-ms-ms-assay-of-plasma-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-by-derivatization-with-triplex-4-4-dimethylaminophenyl-1-2-4-triazoline-3-5-dione-daptad-isotopologues
#13
Shoujiro Ogawa, Hiroki Kittaka, Akiho Nakata, Kenji Komatsu, Takahiro Sugiura, Mamoru Satoh, Fumio Nomura, Tatsuya Higashi
The plasma/serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] is a diagnostic index for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, which is associated with a wide range of diseases, such as rickets, cancer and diabetes. We have reported that the derivatization with 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (DAPTAD) works well in the liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) assay of the serum/plasma 25(OH)D3 for enhancing the sensitivity and the separation from a potent interfering metabolite, 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [3-epi-25(OH)D3]...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081126/a-pan-lyssavirus-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-highly-variable-rabies-virus-and-other-lyssaviruses
#14
Ashutosh Wadhwa, Kimberly Wilkins, Jinxin Gao, Rene Edgar Condori Condori, Crystal M Gigante, Hui Zhao, Xiaoyue Ma, James A Ellison, Lauren Greenberg, Andres Velasco-Villa, Lillian Orciari, Yu Li
Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079879/the-cluspro-web-server-for-protein-protein-docking
#15
Dima Kozakov, David R Hall, Bing Xia, Kathryn A Porter, Dzmitry Padhorny, Christine Yueh, Dmitri Beglov, Sandor Vajda
The ClusPro server (https://cluspro.org) is a widely used tool for protein-protein docking. The server provides a simple home page for basic use, requiring only two files in Protein Data Bank (PDB) format. However, ClusPro also offers a number of advanced options to modify the search; these include the removal of unstructured protein regions, application of attraction or repulsion, accounting for pairwise distance restraints, construction of homo-multimers, consideration of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data, and location of heparin-binding sites...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079706/ibuprofen-before-exercise-does-not-prevent-cortical-bone-adaptations-to-training
#16
Vanessa D Sherk, R Dana Carpenter, Erin D Giles, Janine A Higgins, Robera M Oljira, Ginger C Johnson, Samuel Mills, Paul S MacLean
: Using a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) before a single bout of mechanical loading can reduce bone formation response. It is unknown whether this translates to an attenuation of bone strength and structural adaptations to exercise training. PURPOSE: To determine whether NSAID use before exercise prevents increases in bone structure and strength in response to weight-bearing exercise. METHODS: Adult female Wistar rats (n=43) were randomized to Ibuprofen (IBU) or Vehicle (VEH) and Exercise (EX) or Sedentary (SED) groups in a 2x2 (drug, activity) ANCOVA design with body weight as the covariate, and data are reported as mean±SE...
January 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079568/two-dimensional-and-three-dimensional-transperineal-ultrasound-findings-in-women-with-high-pressure-voiding-after-midurethral-sling-placement
#17
Kindra Larson, Lauren Scott, Tina D Cunningham, Yili Zhao, Alfred Abuhamad, Peter Takacs
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate dynamic two-dimensional (2D) and 3D transperineal pelvic ultrasound findings with urodynamic studies in women with lower urinary tract symptoms after midurethral sling placement. METHODS: On 2D images, the sling position, and on 3D imaging the sling angle, urethral diameter, urethral height, and urethral cross sectional area were recorded with and without Valsalva. Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on 2D imaging: group 1-at rest, the sling lies parallel to the urethral lumen, and during Valsalva, the sling becomes C shaped; group 2-both at rest and during Valsalva, the sling runs parallel to the urethral lumen; group 3-at rest, the sling is C shaped, and during Valsalva, this curved shape is maintained...
January 10, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079215/selective-releasing-affected-lubricant-mechanism-of-a-self-assembled-mos2-mo-s-c-nanoperiod-multilayer-film-sliding-in-diverse-atmospheres
#18
J Xu, T F He, L Q Chai, L Qiao, X Q Zhang, P Wang, W M Liu
A self-assembled MoS2/Mo-S-C multilayer film prepared by r.f. co-sputtering of MoS2 and graphite targets was tribotested in diverse sliding atmospheres, and the lubricant mechanism and its correlations to the selective releasing behavior of non-lubricant component were analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis of composition and structural transformation of transferred materials by Raman and HRTEM characterizations, selective releasing behavior according to the sliding atmospheres were found to be particularly apparent in vacuum and dry inert atmospheres...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079152/a-novel-toolbox-for-the-in-vitro-assay-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection
#19
Jing-Hua Zhao, Ya-Li Zhang, Tian-Ying Zhang, Lun-Zhi Yuan, Tong Cheng, Pei-Jer Chen, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its life cycle. The in vitro HDV infection system is widely used as a surrogate model to study cellular infection with both viruses owing to its practical feasibility. However, previous methods for running this system were less efficient for high-throughput screening and large-scale studies. Here, we developed a novel method for the production of infectious HDV by adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated transduction...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079022/lifitegrast-for-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-disease-results-of-a-phase-iii-randomized-double-masked-placebo-controlled-trial-opus-3
#20
Edward J Holland, Jodi Luchs, Paul M Karpecki, Kelly K Nichols, Mitchell A Jackson, Kenneth Sall, Joseph Tauber, Monica Roy, Aparna Raychaudhuri, Amir Shojaei
PURPOSE: Lifitegrast is a lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 antagonist developed to reduce inflammation in dry eye disease (DED). We report the results of OPUS-3 (NCT02284516), a phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast versus placebo in participants with DED. DESIGN: Twelve-week, phase III, randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged ≥18 years with Schirmer tear test (without anesthesia) ≥1 and ≤10 mm, corneal fluorescein staining score ≥2...
January 2017: Ophthalmology
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