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Immunocompromised host

Saqib Walayat
Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium which is ubiquitous in nature. While it can cause line related infections in immunocompromised host, case reports of urinary tract infections, cutaneous infections, pulmonary infections, and meningoencephalitis have also been reported. We report the first case of Mycobacterium neoaurum line related bacteremia with concomitant pulmonary involvement. Our patient responded well to a nine week course of antimicrobials after removal of infected central line...
2018: IDCases
Andrej Steyer, Tilen Konte, Martin Sagadin, Marko Kolenc, Andrej Škoberne, Julija Germ, Tadeja Dovč-Drnovšek, Miha Arnol, Mateja Poljšak-Prijatelj
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, and they can affect humans of all age groups. In immunocompromised patients, norovirus infections can develop into chronic diarrhea or show prolonged asymptomatic virus shedding. Chronic norovirus infections are frequently reported for solid organ transplant recipients, with rapid intrahost norovirus evolution seen. In this report, we describe a case of chronic norovirus infection in an immunocompromised patient who was followed up for over 5 years...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luiz Guilherme Darrigo, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Clarisse Martins Machado
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the characteristics of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika in transplant recipients and immunocompromised hosts. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cell/bone marrow grafts, organs, and blood transfusions can transmit CHIKV/DENV/ZIKV infections, which are clinically similar, resembling influenza-like illness. Laboratory confirmation is necessary. In the acute phase, RT-PCR is preferred. DENV and ZIKV serology may cross-react. Delayed engraftment and extended viruria is observed in ZIKV+/HSCT recipients, while longer viremia is observed in DENV+/HSCT patients...
March 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de Morais, Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños, Ana Carolina Alves, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Rogério Giuffrida, Fernando Paganini Listoni, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Rodrigo Garcia Motta, Shinji Takai, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro
Mycobacterium species and the virulence-associated proteins (vapA, vapB, and vapN genes) of Rhodococcus equi isolated from 330 lymph nodes of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) intended for human consumption were investigated. Thirty-six (10.9%) R. equi strains were isolated; 3.3% (n = 11/330) were from white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 7.6% (25/330) were from collared peccary lymph nodes. Among the 11 isolates of R. equi from the white-lipped peccaries, 90...
March 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Valerie F L Yong, Min Min Soh, Tavleen Kaur Jaggi, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous "quorum sensing" (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones...
March 14, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Bryan R Anderson, Jaron Marriott, Chinthaka Bulathsinghala, Humayun Anjum, Salim Surani
Introduction: Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GH) is a well-described albeit uncommon disease. It is found almost exclusively in the immunocompromised host, especially those with untreated HIV and low CD4 counts. Presentation with intestinal perforation is seen mostly commonly in the colon. We present a patient with jejunal perforation, and there have been only 3 previous cases reported in the literature. Case: A 39-year-old male with known, untreated HIV presented to the ED with an acute abdomen after experiencing worsening intermittent abdominal pain for 2 months before that was associated with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Miri Shnayder, Aharon Nachshon, Benjamin Krishna, Emma Poole, Alina Boshkov, Amit Binyamin, Itay Maza, John Sinclair, Michal Schwartz, Noam Stern-Ginossar
Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in a lifelong infection due to its ability to establish latent infection, with one characterized viral reservoir being hematopoietic cells. Although reactivation from latency causes serious disease in immunocompromised individuals, our molecular understanding of latency is limited. Here, we delineate viral gene expression during natural HCMV persistent infection by analyzing the massive transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) atlas generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Kristine M Thompson, Brian T Kruse, Mary Ann S Hedges
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is usually associated with a surgical or traumatic wound. Clostridial myonecrosis is an uncommon but deadly infection that can develop in the absence of a wound and is often associated with occult gastrointestinal cancer or immunocompromise, or both. CASE REPORT: We report a case of catastrophic atraumatic Clostridium septicum infection in an immunocompromised host. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians most commonly associate necrotizing fasciitis with superinfection of an open wound...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Youkyung H Choi, Xiugen Zhang, Coleen Tran, Brianna Skinner
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt) 3 infection is food-borne causing sporadic infections in older individuals and gt1 infection is water-borne, often causing epidemics affecting primarily young adults. Although HEV infection causes self-limited disease, gt3 induces chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Hepatic host gene expression against gt3 infection remains unknown. Host gene expression profiles for HEV gt1 (n=3) and gt3 (n=7) infections were analyzed in the livers of experimentally infected rhesus macaques...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Ashok Kumar Singh, Aditya Shukla, R Bajwa, Roshni Agrawal, Neha Srivastwa
Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare disease, which mainly affects immunocompromised hosts such as uncontrolled diabetics; HIV patients; and patients on immunosuppressive therapies such as anticancer drugs, systemic steroids, and transplant recipients. The diagnosis is often missed and delayed, resulting in inappropriate treatment and thus higher mortality. We are reporting a case of pulmonary nocardiosis with acute presentation in an immune-competent host, who presented with community-acquired pneumonia to the Intensive Care Unit...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Subrat Khanal, Pranita Ghimire, Amit S Dhamoon
Adenoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that are a significant cause of upper respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Less commonly, the adenovirus family can cause a variety of gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, genitourinary, and neurologic diseases. Most adenovirus infections are self-limited in the immunocompetent host and are treated with supportive measures. Fatal infections can occur in immunocompromised patients and less frequently in the healthy. Adenoviral vectors are being studied for novel biomedical applications including gene therapy and immunization...
March 7, 2018: Biomedicines
Stefan D Dojcinov, Falko Fend, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez
The contribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to the development of specific types of benign lymphoproliferations and malignant lymphomas has been extensively studied since the discovery of the virus over the last 50 years. The importance and better understanding of the EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of B, T or natural killer (NK) cell type has resulted in the recognition of new entities like EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer or the addition of chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection in the revised 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification...
March 7, 2018: Pathogens
Tomohiro Morio, Yuriko Fujita, Satoshi Takahashi
Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
I M Markusse, S P van Mens, P J de Vries
A 40-year-old woman with a history of liver cirrhosis presented with septic shock caused by an Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteraemia after a cat bite. A. succiniciproducens sepsis can develop after a cat or dog bite, especially in immunocompromised hosts, or might occur after translocation from the gut flora. It is a potentially lethal infection.
March 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Cai Yuan, Candace Deberardinis, Rushang Patel, Seema M Shroff, Steven A Messina, Steven Goldstein, Shahram Mori
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, yet typically fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is caused by reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) virus in an immunocompromised host. This report describes an unfortunate case of PML in a recipient of an allogeneic stem cell transplant for acute myelogenous leukemia. The JC virus was undetectable in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid by PCR; however, a positive diagnosis was made after a brain biopsy. This and other published cases demonstrate that recipients of allogeneic stem cells can develop PML...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Tian-Zhang Song, Ming-Xu Zhang, Yu-Jie Xia, Yu Xiao, Wei Pang, Yong-Tang Zheng
Parasites can increase infection rates and pathogenicity in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, in vitro studies and epidemiological investigations also suggest that parasites might escape immunocompromised hosts during HIV infection. Due to the lack of direct evidence from animal experiments, the effects of parasitic infections on immunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here, we detected 14 different parasites in six northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) before or at the 50th week of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by ELISA...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Hella Schmidt, Sebastian Vlaic, Thomas Krüger, Franziska Schmidt, Johannes Balkenhohl, Thomas Dandekar, Reinhard Guthke, Olaf Kniemeyer, Thorsten Heinekamp, Axel A Brakhage
Invasive infections by the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus start with the outgrowth of asexual, airborne spores (conidia) into the lung tissue of immunocompromised patients. The resident alveolar macrophages phagocytose conidia, which end up in phagolysosomes. However, A. fumigatus conidia resist phagocytic degradation to a certain degree. This is mainly attributable to the pigment 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin located in the cell wall of conidia, which manipulates the phagolysosomal maturation and prevents their intracellular killing...
March 5, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Hamid Heidari, Reza Khashei, Seyed Hesamedin Nabavizadeh
Infections due to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, a Gram-negative oxidative bacterium are frequently founded in neonatal and immunocompromised individuals. The notable characteristic of this organism is its multi-drug resistance to common antibiotics used for infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. We report a rare case of complicated pericardial effusion due to E. meningoseptica in a 2-year-old boy, who was admitted with chief complaints of fever and tachypnea (mentioned by his parents) and suffered from a rare lung malignancy (lymphangioleiomyomatosis)...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Jata Shankar, Gustavo C Cerqueira, Jennifer R Wortman, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens
With the increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts, Aspergillus fumigatus emerges as a lethal opportunistic fungal pathogen. Understanding innate and acquired immunity responses of the host is important for a better therapeutic strategy to deal with aspergillosis patients. To determine the transcriptome in the kidneys in aspergillosis, we employed RNA-Seq to obtain single 76-base reads of whole-genome transcripts of murine kidneys on a temporal basis (days 0; uninfected, 1, 2, 3 and 8) during invasive aspergillosis...
March 2, 2018: Mycopathologia
Hicret Islamoglu, Ruoqiong Cao, Garrett Teskey, Karo Gyurjian, Sebastian Lucar, Marcel P Fraix, Airani Sathananthan, John K Chan, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), a rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium, is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). TB remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Additionally, approximately one-third of the world's population has latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) as a result of the body's primary mechanism of defense against M. tb infection, the formation of a granuloma. A granuloma is the aggregation of immune cells that encapsulate the bacteria to keep them localized to prevent further infection and thus the bacteria become quiescent...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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