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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345613/comparative-transcriptomics-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-strains-upon-exposure-to-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#1
Tonya N Watkins, Hong Liu, Matthew Chung, Tracy H Hazen, Julie C Dunning Hotopp, Scott G Filler, Vincent M Bruno
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic, ubiquitous, saprophytic mould that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals as well as life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. A critical step in the establishment of infection is the invasion of airway epithelial cells by the inhaled fungi. Understanding how A. fumigatus senses and responds to airway cells is important to understand the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Here, we analysed the transcriptomes of two commonly used clinical isolates, Af293 and CEA10, during infection of the A549 type II pneumocyte cell line in vitro...
January 18, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344701/the-fate-of-immunocompromised-patients-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-single-centre-experience
#2
Baochao Ji, Xiaogang Zhang, Boyong Xu, Jiangdong Ren, Wentao Guo, Wenbo Mu, Li Cao
PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) are rare and currently there are no reliable guidelines according to which these infections can be successfully managed. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical course of different strategies for treatment of PJI in frail patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis between 2004 and 2015 included 29 immunocompromised patients (13 hips and 16 knees) with chronic PJI who underwent one-stage revision or debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR)...
January 17, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341586/development-of-a-novel-cytopathic-effect-based-phenotypic-screening-assay-against-cryptosporidium
#3
Alexander T Chao, Boon Heng Lee, Kah Fei Wan, Jeremy Selva, Bin Zou, Peter Gedeck, David Beer, Thierry T Diagana, Ghislain Bonamy, Ujjini H Manjunatha
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease predominantly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) and Cryptosporidium hominis (Ch), apicomplexan parasites which infect the intestinal epithelial cells of their human hosts. The only approved drug for cryptosporidiosis is nitazoxanide, which shows limited efficacy in immunocompromised children, the most vulnerable patient population. Thus, new therapeutics and in vitro infection models are urgently needed to address the current unmet medical need. Toward this aim, we have developed novel cytopathic effect (CPE)-based Cp and Ch assays in human colonic tumor (HCT-8) cells and compared them to traditional imaging formats...
January 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338706/miliary-tuberculosis-with-co-existing-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-non-hiv-patient-without-underlying-diseases-a-case-report
#4
Toyomitsu Sawai, Takumi Nakao, Satoru Koga, Shotaro Ide, Sumako Yoshioka, Nobuko Matsuo, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and cryptococcosis co-infection usually occurs in immunosuppressed patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. However, there are few reports about such co-infection in non-HIV patients without underlying diseases. Here, we report a case of miliary tuberculosis with co-existing pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV patient without underlying diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Asian female presented to our hospital with complaints of a 1-week history of abdominal pain and appetite loss...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332650/amplification-of-hsp-65-gene-and-usage-of-restriction-endonuclease-for-identification-of-non-tuberculous-rapid-grower-mycobacterium
#5
Ajoy Kumar Verma, Rohit Sarin, Vijay Kumar Arora, Gavish Kumar, Jyoti Arora, Paras Singh, Vithal Prasad Myneedu
BACKGROUND: The rapid grower mycobacteria have emerged as significant group of human pathogen amongst the Runyon group IV organisms that are capable of causing infection in both the healthy and immunocompromised hosts. Study aimed to identification of species amongst rapid grower non tuberculous mycobacterial isolates by polymerase chain reaction - restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). Analysis and comparison of results with standard biochemical tests. METHODS: Rapid grower non tuberculous mycobacteria had been collected from liquid culture section during the study period...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327534/gastric-angioinvasive-mucormycosis-in-immunocompetent-adult-a-rare-occurrence
#6
Mukesh Nasa, Zubin Sharma, Lipika Lipi, Randhir Sud
Mucormycosis is a rare, opportunistic fungal infection that occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts such as patients with diabetes mellitus, leukemia, lymphoma, renal disease, septicemia, burns, malnutrition, and following long-term treatment with steroids and antibiotics. Based on the clinical presentation and involvement, mucormycosis is classified as six major forms, namely, rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal (GI), disseminated and miscellaneous, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary being the common forms...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327531/isolated-pancreatic-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#7
Pankaj Singhai, Ravi Gadhadh, Sangeeta Joshi, Shruti Krishnan, Aparna
Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, pancreatic TB is rare. When present, pancreatic TB is frequently associated with miliary TB, often in immunocompromised hosts. Pancreatic TB may present as a pancreatic abscess, acute or chronic pancreatitis, and cystic or solid pancreatic masses. This is a case of isolated Tubecular infection of the pancreas in an immunocompetent patient, who presented with a discrete pancreatic abscess, and was subsequently diagnosed with isolated pancreatic TB. This case suggests that clinicians should have a heightened suspicion of pancreatic TB when faced with discrete pancreatic lesions, especially in patients from areas where the infection is endemic...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325543/persistent-mammalian-orthoreovirus-coxsackievirus-and-adenovirus-co-infection-in-a-child-with-a-primary-immunodeficiency-detected-by-metagenomic-sequencing-a-case-report
#8
Dagmara W Lewandowska, Riccarda Capaul, Seraina Prader, Osvaldo Zagordi, Fabienne-Desirée Geissberger, Martin Kügler, Marcus Knorr, Christoph Berger, Tayfun Güngör, Janine Reichenbach, Cyril Shah, Jürg Böni, Andrea Zbinden, Alexandra Trkola, Jana Pachlopnik Schmid, Michael Huber
BACKGROUND: We report a rare case of Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) infection in a child with a primary immunodeficiency (PID). Infections with Mammalian orthoreovirus are very rare and probably of zoonotic origin. Only a few cases have been described so far, including one with similar pathogenesis as in our case. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient, age 11, presented with flu-like symptoms and persistent severe diarrhea. Enterovirus has been detected over several months, however, exact typing of a positive cell culture remained inconclusive...
January 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323725/serum-igg-antibodies-from-healthy-subjects-up-to-100-years-old-react-to-jc-polyomavirus
#9
Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Marco Manfredini, Elena Trregiani, Marika Rossini, Francesca Lotito, Giovanni Guerra, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321332/erk-is-a-critical-regulator-of-jc-polyomavirus-infection
#10
Jeanne K DuShane, Michael P Wilczek, Colleen L Mayberry, Melissa S Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidney. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on LSTc, while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311248/differential-in-vitro-cytokine-induction-by-the-species-of-cryptococcus-gattii-complex
#11
Patricia F Herkert, Jessica C Dos Santos, Ferry Hagen, Fatima Ribeiro-Dias, Flávio Queiroz-Telles, Mihai G Netea, Jacques F Meis, Leo A B Joosten
Cryptococci species are variable in capsule and cell size, thermotolerance, geographic distribution, and population affected. C. gattii sensu stricto and C. deuterogattii mainly affect immunocompetent hosts; however, C. bacillisporus, C. decagattii and C. tetragattii are mainly causing infections in immunocompromised hosts. This study aimed to compare the capacity of different species of the C. gattii species complex to induce cytokines and antimicrobial molecules in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310381/primary-cutaneous-aspergillosis-caused-by-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report
#12
Xiaoyan Liu, Jun Yang, Weiyuan Ma
RATIONALE: Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients has been well described in extensive investigations. However, in immunocompetent hosts, primary cutaneous infection of aspergillus occurs rarely, and remains poorly characterized. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis manifested by erythematous plague covered with flava eschar. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with primary cutaneous aspergillosis...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310378/isolated-cerebral-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompetent-woman-on-treatment-for-bacterial-infected-necrotizing-pancreatitis-a-case-report
#13
Shaoyang Zhang, Qinghui Fu, Qi Chen, Ting-Bo Liang
RATIONALE: Cerebral aspergillosis (CA) is a rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis. It usually affects seriously immunocompromised hosts. Pancreatic bacterial or/and fungal infection is common in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the first case of an immunocompetent woman with infected necrotizing pancreatitis due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii who, in the course of treatment, developed isolated CA. DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance imaging, rather than computed tomography, revealed latent homolateral sinus disease-the possible source of the Aspergillus infection...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306010/high-resolution-melting-curve-hrm-analysis-for-c-meleagridis-identification-in-stool-samples
#14
Hanen Chelbi, Rym Essid, Refka Jelassi, Nesrine Bouzekri, I Zidi, Hamza Ben Salah, Ilhem Mrad, Iness Ben Sgaier, Rym Abdelmalek, Sameh Aissa, Aida Bouratbine, Karim Aoun
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium, has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. In the immunocompetent host, the typical watery diarrhea can be self-limiting. However, it is severe and chronic, in the immunocompromised host and may cause death. Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, which complete their life cycle in both humans and animals. The two species C...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305551/development-and-evaluation-of-a-broad-bead-based-multiplex-immunoassay-to-measure-igg-seroreactivity-against-human-polyomaviruses
#15
Sergio Kamminga, Els van der Meijden, Herman F Wunderink, Antoine Touzé, Hans L Zaaijer, Mariet C W Feltkamp
Introduction The family of polyomaviruses, which cause severe disease in immunocompromised hosts, has expanded substantially in recent years. To accommodate measurement of IgG seroresponses against all currently known human polyomavirus (HPyV), including the Lyon IARC polyomavirus (LIPyV), we extended our custom multiplex bead-based HPyV immunoassay and evaluated the performance of this pan-HPyV immunoassay.Methods VP1 protein of fifteen HPyVs belonging to 13 polyomavirus species were expressed as recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and coupled to fluorescent Luminex beads...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298988/oxidative-stress-preconditioning-of-mouse-perivascular-myogenic-progenitors-selects-a-subpopulation-of-cells-with-a-distinct-survival-advantage-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Cesare Gargioli, Giuseppina Turturici, Maria M Barreca, Walter Spinello, Claudia Fuoco, Stefano Testa, Salvatore Feo, Stefano M Cannata, Giulio Cossu, Gabriella Sconzo, Fabiana Geraci
Cell engraftment, survival and integration during transplantation procedures represent the crux of cell-based therapies. Thus, there have been many studies focused on improving cell viability upon implantation. We used severe oxidative stress to select for a mouse mesoangioblast subpopulation in vitro and found that this subpopulation retained self-renewal and myogenic differentiation capacities while notably enhancing cell survival, proliferation and migration relative to unselected cells. Additionally, this subpopulation of cells presented different resistance and recovery properties upon oxidative stress treatment, demonstrating select advantages over parental mesoangioblasts in our experimental analysis...
January 3, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287987/observations-on-bradyzoite-biology
#17
Vincent Tu, Rama Yakubu, Louis M Weiss
Tachyzoites of the Apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii cause acute infection, disseminate widely in their host, and eventually differentiates into a latent encysted form called bradyzoites that are found within tissue cysts. During latent infection, whenever transformation to tachyzoites occurs, any tachyzoites that develop are removed by the immune system. In contrast, cysts containing bradyzoites are sequestered from the immune system. In the absence of an effective immune response released organisms that differentiate into tachyzoites cause acute infection...
December 26, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285995/the-challenges-of-treating-aspergillus-abdominal-aneurysm-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-rapid-voriconazole-metabolizer
#18
Justin A Wasko, Celalettin Ustun, Mark Birkenbach, Rumi Faizer, Jaime S Green
Mycotic aneurysms are a fatal manifestation of disseminated fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts. We present a patient with an Aspergillus mycotic aneurysm after hematopoietic cell transplant. Due to CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer phenotype (*1/*17), therapeutic levels of voriconazole were unobtainable. Successful therapy was achieved with posaconazole salvage therapy and early, aggressive surgery. This case demonstrates the consequences of voriconazole rapid metabolism and the potential impact of genetic variants...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285885/a-mutation-in-the-progesterone-receptor-predisposes-to-hev-infection-in-hiv-positive-patients
#19
Jose D Debes, Suzan D Pas, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Marchina E van der Ende, Robert A de Man, Andre Boonstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infection with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause chronic liver disease in immunocompromised hosts. In transplant recipients the use of certain immunosuppressants and food habits have been proposed as risk factors for HEV. In individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), risk factors for HEV infection are less clear. We aimed to study the association between a mutation in the progesterone receptor (PR) named PROGINS and HEV-infection in HIV-positive individuals...
December 28, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282103/within-host-evolution-of-enterococcus-faecium-during-longitudinal-carriage-and-transition-to-bloodstream-infection-in-immunocompromised-patients
#20
Danesh Moradigaravand, Theodore Gouliouris, Beth Blane, Plamena Naydenova, Catherine Ludden, Charles Crawley, Nicholas M Brown, M Estée Török, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection, particularly in the immunocompromised. Here, we use whole genome sequencing of E. faecium to study within-host evolution and the transition from gut carriage to invasive disease. METHODS: We isolated and sequenced 180 E. faecium from four immunocompromised patients who developed bloodstream infection during longitudinal surveillance of E. faecium in stool and their immediate environment...
December 27, 2017: Genome Medicine
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