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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777376/comprehensive-molecular-diagnosis-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphoproliferative-diseases-using-next-generation-sequencing
#1
Shintaro Ono, Manabu Nakayama, Hirokazu Kanegane, Akihiro Hoshino, Saeko Shimodera, Hirofumi Shibata, Hisanori Fujino, Takahiro Fujino, Yuta Yunomae, Tsubasa Okano, Motoi Yamashita, Takahiro Yasumi, Kazushi Izawa, Masatoshi Takagi, Kohsuke Imai, Kejian Zhang, Rebecca Marsh, Capucine Picard, Sylvain Latour, Osamu Ohara, Tomohiro Morio
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several life-threatening diseases, such as lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Some categories of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) including X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), are characterized by susceptibility and vulnerability to EBV infection. The number of genetically defined PIDs is rapidly increasing, and clinical genetic testing plays an important role in establishing a definitive diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing is performed for diagnosing rare genetic diseases, but is both expensive and time-consuming...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772771/a-novel-hepadnavirus-identified-in-an-immunocompromised-domestic-cat-in-australia
#2
Mahdis Aghazadeh, Mang Shi, Vanessa R Barrs, Alicia J McLuckie, Scott A Lindsay, Barbara Jameson, Bronte Hampson, Edward C Holmes, Julia A Beatty
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic cats we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of tissues from cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). A novel member of the Hepadnaviridae , tentatively named domestic cat hepadnavirus, was discovered in a lymphoma sample and its complete 3187 bp genome characterized...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771758/opportunistic-fungal-infection-in-children-and-management
#3
Joseph M Lam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An opportunistic mycosis is a fungal agent of low pathogenicity that specifically infects immunocompromised hosts. Advances in transplantation, preterm care, immunosuppressive therapies and intensive care, have lead to the emergence of pediatric patients with serious immunodeficiency who are vulnerable to nonpathogenic fungi. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of the use of biologic agents in pediatric disease as well as the advances in care of preterm and immunosuppressed patients opens up a new cohort of patients at risk of opportunistic mycotic infections...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755958/gut-microbiota-contributes-to-resistance-against-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-immunodeficient-rag-mice
#4
Krysta M Felix, Ivan A Jaimez, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Heqing Ma, Walid A Raslan, Christina N Klinger, Kristian P Doyle, Hsin-Jung J Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes infection-related mortality worldwide. Immunocompromised individuals, including young children, the elderly, and those with immunodeficiency, are especially vulnerable, yet little is known regarding S. pneumoniae- related pathogenesis and protection in immunocompromised hosts. Recently, strong interest has emerged in the gut microbiota's impact on lung diseases, or the "gut-lung axis." However, the mechanisms of gut microbiota protection against gut-distal lung diseases like pneumonia remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755935/aspergillus-endocarditis-of-the-mitral-valve-with-ventricular-myocardial-invasion-cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-mycotic-aneurysm-formation-in-a-patient-with-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#5
Bibin Varghese, Kevin Ting, Juan Lopez-Mattei, Cezar Iliescu, Joseph Kim, Peter Kim
Aspergillus endocarditis is a rare infection and reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of mitral valve aspergillus endocarditis with ventricular myocardial invasion, cerebral vasculitis and intracranial fungal aneurysm formation in a patient with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). This case illustrates the importance of prompt investigation and treatment of masses seen on an echocardiogram for rare infections such as Aspergillus endocarditis in immunocompromised patients.
September 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755697/natural-killer-cells-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-infectious-diseases-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Stanislaw Schmidt, Lars Tramsen, Bushra Rais, Evelyn Ullrich, Thomas Lehrnbecher
Natural Killer (NK) cells are involved in the host immune response against infections due to viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens, all of which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Since the recovery of the immune system has a major impact on the outcome of an infectious complication, there is major interest in strengthening the host response in immunocompromised patients, either by using cytokines or growth factors or by adoptive cellular therapies transfusing immune cells such as granulocytes or pathogen-specific T-cells...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754971/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#7
Shi-Qi An, Gabriele Berg
This infographic describes the key regulated traits of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, important for beneficial plant interactions, and also its increasing incidence as a nosocomial and community-acquired infection. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a cosmopolitan and ubiquitous bacterium found in a range of environmental habitats, including extreme ones, although in nature it is mainly associated with plants. S. maltophilia fulfils important ecosystem functions in the sulfur and nitrogen cycles, in degradation of complex compounds and pollutants, and in promoti on of plant growth and health...
May 10, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753657/irf-1-rig-i-and-mda5-display-potent-antiviral-activities-against-norovirus-coordinately-induced-by-different-types-of-interferons
#8
Wen Dang, Lei Xu, Yuebang Yin, Sunrui Chen, Wenshi Wang, Mohamad S Hakim, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Norovirus represents the main cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In immunocompromised patients, it bears high risk of causing chronic infection with significant morbidity and mortality. The lack of specific treatment prompts the development of anti-norovirus agents. In this study, we have investigated the role of interferon (IFN) response and evaluated antiviral activities of different IFNs against human norovirus (HuNoV) replication using a HuNoV replicon model. We found that HuNoV RNA replication was sensitive to all types of IFNs, including IFNα (type I), IFNγ (type II), IFNλ1 and 3 (type III)...
May 10, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746596/the-hyr1-protein-from-the-fungus-candida-albicans-is-a-cross-kingdom-immunotherapeutic-target-for-acinetobacter-bacterial-infection
#9
Priya Uppuluri, Lin Lin, Abdullah Alqarihi, Guanpingsheng Luo, Eman G Youssef, Sondus Alkhazraji, Nannette Y Yount, Belal A Ibrahim, Michael Anthony Bolaris, John E Edwards, Marc Swidergall, Scott G Filler, Michael R Yeaman, Ashraf S Ibrahim
Different pathogens share similar medical settings and rely on similar virulence strategies to cause infections. We have previously applied 3-D computational modeling and bioinformatics to discover novel antigens that target more than one human pathogen. Active and passive immunization with the recombinant N-terminus of Candida albicans Hyr1 (rHyr1p-N) protect mice against lethal candidemia. Here we determine that Hyr1p shares homology with cell surface proteins of the multidrug resistant Gram negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii including hemagglutinin (FhaB) and outer membrane protein A (OmpA)...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744035/human-metapneumovirus-what-we-know-now
#10
REVIEW
Nazly Shafagati, John Williams
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection, particularly in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. HMPV, which is closely related to avian metapneumovirus subtype C, has circulated for at least 65 years, and nearly every child will be infected with HMPV by the age of 5. However, immunity is incomplete, and re-infections occur throughout adult life. Symptoms are similar to those of other respiratory viral infections, ranging from mild (cough, rhinorrhea, and fever) to more severe (bronchiolitis and pneumonia)...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743366/regulation-of-virus-associated-lymphoma-growth-and-gene-expression-by-bacterial-quorum-sensing-molecules
#11
Jing Qiao, Yueyu Cao, Jovanny Zabaleta, Liang Yang, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can cause several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which frequently occur in immunocompromised patients. KSHV infected patients often suffer from polymicrobial infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how these co-infected microorganisms or their secreted metabolites may affect KSHV infection and virus-associated malignancies pathogenesis. Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-based intercellular communication system, employs extracellular diffusible signaling molecules to regulate bacterial virulence mechanisms in a wide range of bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which is one of mostly common opportunistic microorganisms found in immunocompromised individuals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743364/t-cell-derived-lymphotoxin-is-essential-for-anti-hsv-1-humoral-immune-response
#12
Kaiting Yang, Yong Liang, Zhichen Sun, Diyuan Xue, Hairong Xu, Mingzhao Zhu, Yang-Xin Fu, Hua Peng
B cell-derived lymphotoxin (LT) is required for the development of follicular dendritic cell clusters for the formation of primary and secondary lymphoid follicles, but the role of T cell-derived LT in antibody response has not been well demonstrated. We observed that lymphotoxin-β-receptor (LTβR) signaling is essential for optimal humoral immune response and protection against an acute HSV-1 infection. Blocking the LTβR pathway caused poor maintenance of germinal center B (GC-B) cells and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743127/the-perils-of-multiplex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panels-pseudo-outbreaks-of-salmonellae-and-entamoeba-histolytica-in-immunocompromised-hosts
#13
Elizabeth Robilotti, Eleanor Powell, Shauna Usiak, Ying Taur, N Esther Babady, Mini Kamboj
Two distinct clusters of gastroenteritis due to Salmonellae and Entamoeba histolytica (EH) were identified using a multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) at a tertiary-care cancer center. Despite temporo-spatial overlap, our investigation did not corroborate transmission or true infection. In clinical practice, GPPs may render false-positive results.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-4.
May 10, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743075/clinical-grade-generation-of-peptide-stimulated-cmv-ebv-specific-t-cells-from-g-csf-mobilized-stem-cell-grafts
#14
Regina Gary, Michael Aigner, Stephanie Moi, Stefanie Schaffer, Anja Gottmann, Stefanie Maas, Robert Zimmermann, Jürgen Zingsem, Julian Strobel, Andreas Mackensen, Josef Mautner, Andreas Moosmann, Armin Gerbitz
BACKGROUND: A major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aSCT) is the reactivation of herpesviruses such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Both viruses cause significant mortality and compromise quality of life after aSCT. Preventive transfer of virus-specific T cells can suppress reactivation by re-establishing functional antiviral immune responses in immunocompromised hosts. METHODS: We have developed a good manufacturing practice protocol to generate CMV/EBV-peptide-stimulated T cells from leukapheresis products of G-CSF mobilized and non-mobilized donors...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740418/inhibition-of-tip60-reduces-lytic-and-latent-gene-expression-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-kshv-and-proliferation-of-kshv-infected-tumor-cells
#15
Sydney Simpson, Guillaume Fiches, Maxime J Jean, Michael Dieringer, James McGuinness, Sinu P John, Meir Shamay, Prashant Desai, Jian Zhu, Netty G Santoso
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus responsible for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the burden of these diseases there are few treatment options for afflicted individuals, due in part to our limited understanding of virus-host interactions. Tip60, a histone aceytltransferase (HAT) has been previously shown to interact with both the KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen protein (LANA), which is the main factor in maintaining the viral latent state, and ORF36, a viral kinase expressed in the lytic phase...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739910/comparative-population-genomics-analysis-of-the-mammalian-fungal-pathogen-pneumocystis
#16
Ousmane H Cissé, Liang Ma, Da Wei Huang, Pavel P Khil, John P Dekker, Geetha Kutty, Lisa Bishop, Yueqin Liu, Xilong Deng, Philippe M Hauser, Marco Pagni, Vanessa Hirsch, Richard A Lempicki, Jason E Stajich, Christina A Cuomo, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis species are opportunistic mammalian pathogens that cause severe pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. These fungi are highly host specific and uncultivable in vitro Human Pneumocystis infections present major challenges because of a limited therapeutic arsenal and the rise of drug resistance. To investigate the diversity and demographic history of natural populations of Pneumocystis infecting humans, rats, and mice, we performed whole-genome and large-scale multilocus sequencing of infected tissues collected in various geographic locations...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738521/machine-learning-identifies-signatures-of-host-adaptation-in-the-bacterial-pathogen-salmonella-enterica
#17
Nicole E Wheeler, Paul P Gardner, Lars Barquist
Emerging pathogens are a major threat to public health, however understanding how pathogens adapt to new niches remains a challenge. New methods are urgently required to provide functional insights into pathogens from the massive genomic data sets now being generated from routine pathogen surveillance for epidemiological purposes. Here, we measure the burden of atypical mutations in protein coding genes across independently evolved Salmonella enterica lineages, and use these as input to train a random forest classifier to identify strains associated with extraintestinal disease...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738314/treatment-of-cryptococcosis-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-patients
#18
Andrés F Henao-Martínez, Daniel B Chastain, Carlos Franco-Paredes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cryptococcosis has become a common opportunistic infection among non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. Recent reports have shown the incidence of Cryptococcosis among HIV-negative immunocompromised patients reaches close to half of the overall cases reported in the USA. Management of this infection in this population carries unique challenges. We aim to review relevant and recent research findings to develop treatment recommendations for this type of population. RECENT FINDINGS: Most of the recommendations for the management of non-HIV immunocompromised host are extrapolated from HIV studies...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735581/small-animal-models-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#19
Tian-Cheng Li, Takaji Wakita
Novel hepeviruses have been recovered from many different animal species in recent years, increasing the diversity known to exist among the Hepeviridae , which now include two genera, Piscihepevirus and Orthohepevirus Multiple viral genotypes in the Orthohepevirus A species are able to replicate and cause acute hepatitis E in humans, and thus represent an important public health problem in industrialized as well as developing countries. Although hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections typically result in acute and self-limited hepatitis, immunocompromised and transplant patients are vulnerable to prolonged infections and to chronic hepatitis...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733983/evolutionary-dynamics-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-a-chronic-hiv-co-infected-patient-and-its-correlation-with-the-immune-status
#20
Andrés Carlos Alberto Culasso, María Cecilia Monzani, Patricia Baré, Rodolfo Hector Campos
The HCV evolutionary dynamics play a key role in the infection onset, maintenance of chronicity, pathogenicity, and drug resistance variants fixation, and are thought to be one of the main caveats in the development of an effective vaccine. Previous studies in HCV/HIV co-infected patients suggest that a decline in the immune status is related with increases in the HCV intra-host genetic diversity. However, these findings are based on single point sequence diversity measures or coalescence analyses in several virus-host interactions...
May 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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