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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631658/a-case-of-aspergillus-tracheobronchitis-in-a-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Ming-Li Yuan, Gang Yang, Hong-Ling Hu, Wen Yin, Wei-Jun Tan, Su Zhao
Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (AT) is a unique form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which is commonly found in patients with impaired immunity. Early-stage AT presents in a nonspecific way, both clinically and radiographically, thereby delaying diagnosis and resulting in a high mortality. Owing to impaired mucociliary clearance, previous nonfungal infections, and administration of corticosteroids, among other aspects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are predisposed to AT, although they are mostly immunocompetent...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630222/acute-pneumatosis-cystoides-intestinalis-with-atrophic-desmosis-of-the-colon-in-a-child
#2
Blanca Schuster, Johannes Mayr
Acute pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) has been described after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Several case series have demonstrated successful conservative treatment of PCI in children. We present a child with Fanconi anaemia, who developed severe graft versus host disease of the gastrointestinal tract, skin and liver after BMT and an acute, severe form of PCI. Our case report illustrates the complexity of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in PCI in immunocompromised children.
June 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628650/the-human-cytomegalovirus-glycoprotein-pul11-acts-via-cd45-to-induce-t-cell-il-10-secretion
#3
Jasmin Zischke, Panagiota Mamareli, Claudia Pokoyski, Ildar Gabaev, Sabine Buyny, Roland Jacobs, Christine S Falk, Matthias Lochner, Tim Sparwasser, Thomas F Schulz, Penelope C Kay-Fedorov
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen, infection with which can cause severe disease for immunocompromised individuals. The complex changes wrought on the host's immune system during both productive and latent HCMV infection are well known. Infected cells are masked and manipulated and uninfected immune cells are also affected; peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation is reduced and cytokine profiles altered. Levels increase of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, which may be important for the establishment of HCMV infections and is required for the development of high viral titres by murine cytomegalovirus...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626345/fungal-dimorphism-and-virulence-molecular-mechanisms-for-temperature-adaptation-immune-evasion-and-in-vivo-survival
#4
REVIEW
Gregory M Gauthier
The thermally dimorphic fungi are a unique group of fungi within the Ascomycota phylum that respond to shifts in temperature by converting between hyphae (22-25°C) and yeast (37°C). This morphologic switch, known as the phase transition, defines the biology and lifestyle of these fungi. The conversion to yeast within healthy and immunocompromised mammalian hosts is essential for virulence. In the yeast phase, the thermally dimorphic fungi upregulate genes involved with subverting host immune defenses. This review highlights the molecular mechanisms governing the phase transition and recent advances in how the phase transition promotes infection...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623531/elevated-serum-beta-d-glucan-with-pseudomonas-aspergillus-and-a-partially-acid-fast-organism-in-respiratory-cultures-a-case-of-hickam-s-dictum-over-occam-s-razor
#5
Salman Khan, Camille Hamula, Meenakshi Rana, Timothy Sullivan, Dallas Dunn, Pinki Patel, Aaron Mishkin, Shirish Huprikar
We describe a case of a man with ectopic Cushing's syndrome, elevated serum beta-D-glucan, and respiratory cultures with Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, and a partially acid-fast organism. Our case highlights challenges in diagnosis and management of coinfection in an immunocompromised host.
June 16, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622640/clinical-course-and-core-variability-in-hbv-infected-patients-without-detectable-anti-hbc-antibodies
#6
Olympia E Anastasiou, Marek Widera, Jens Verheyen, Johannes Korth, Guido Gerken, Fabian A Helfritz, Ali Canbay, Heiner Wedemeyer, Sandra Ciesek
BACKGROUND: The presence of anti-HBc antibodies indicates direct encounter of the immune system with hepatitis B virus (HBV). OBJECTIVES: Aim of our study was to seek for anti-HBc negative but HBV replicating patients and analyze their clinical course and preconditions. STUDY DESIGN: From 1568 HBV-DNA positive patients, 29 patients (1.85%) tested negative for anti-HBc. The absence of anti-HBc could be confirmed in 19 patients using an alternative assay...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609444/identification-of-compounds-that-suppress-toxoplasma-gondii-tachyzoites-and-bradyzoites
#7
Yuho Murata, Tatsuki Sugi, Louis M Weiss, Kentaro Kato
Drug treatment for toxoplasmosis is problematic, because current drugs cannot eradicate latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii and can cause bone marrow toxicity. Because latent infection remains after treatment, relapse of infection is a problem in both infections in immunocompromised patients and in congenitally infected patients. To identify lead compounds for novel drugs against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a chemical compound library for anti-Toxoplasma activity, host cell cytotoxicity, and effect on bradyzoites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608842/talaromyces-marneffei-genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-reveal-mechanisms-for-environmental-adaptations-and-virulence
#8
REVIEW
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607587/impact-of-cd44-expression-on-radiation-response-for-bladder-cancer
#9
Chun-Te Wu, Wei-Yu Lin, Ying-Hsu Chang, Wen-Cheng Chen, Miao-Fen Chen
Background Identification of potential factors that can stratify tumors' response to specific therapies will aid in the selection of cancer therapy. Radioresistance is the major obstacles to positive outcomes in bladder cancer patients after definite chemotherapy. CD44, a cancer stem cell surface marker, is relevant in treatment resistance. In the present study, we examined the role of CD44 in bladder cancer. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of 85 bladder cancer patients treated with definite chemoradiotherapy, and correlated the expressions of CD44 with IL-6 and treatment response...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606696/targeted-gene-knockdown-validates-the-essential-role-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-in-cryptosporidium-parvum
#10
William H Witola, Xuejin Zhang, Chi Yong Kim
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan that can cause a life-threatening gastrointestinal syndrome in children and in immunocompromised adults. Currently, the only approved drug for treatment of Cryptosporidium infections in humans is nitazoxanide, but it is not effective in immunocompromised individuals or in children with malnutrition. This is compounded by the lack of genetic methods for studying and validating potential drug targets in the parasite. Therefore, in this study, we endeavoured to adapt the use of a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (morpholino) antisense approach to develop a targeted gene knockdown assay for use in C...
June 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606355/analysis-of-multiple-components-involved-in-the-interaction-between-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-acanthamoeba-castellanii
#11
Juliana Rizzo, Priscila C Albuquerque, Julie M Wolf, Renata Nascimento, Marcos D Pereira, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Marcio L Rodrigues
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that can cause lethal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanisms by which environmental microbes become pathogenic to mammals are still obscure, but different studies suggest that fungal virulence evolved from selection imposed by environmental predators. The soil-living Acanthamoeba castellanii is a well-known predator of C. neoformans. In this work, we evaluated the participation of C. neoformans virulence-associated structures in the interaction of fungal cells with A...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605431/matrix-exopolysaccharides-the-sticky-side-of-biofilm-formation
#12
Eve Maunders, Martin Welch
The Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found ubiquitously within the environment and is recognised as an opportunistic human pathogen that commonly infects burn wounds and immunocompromised individuals, or patients suffering from the autosomal recessive disorder cystic fibrosis (CF). During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa is thought to form structured aggregates known as biofilms characterised by a self-produced matrix which encases the bacteria, protecting them from anti-microbial attack and the host immune response...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602707/distribution-and-characterization-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-isolates-from-environmental-and-clinical-samples-in-thailand
#13
Panida Paopradit, Kanchana Srinitiwarawong, Natnicha Ingviya, Kamonnut Singkhamanan, Varaporn Vuddhakul
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen especially in immunocompromised hosts suffering from malignancy and prolonged hospitalization. Information of this bacterium in Thailand has not been elucidated. AIMS: To investigate phenotype and genotype of environmental and clinical isolates of S. maltophilia in Songklanagarind hospital, southern Thailand. METHODS: Isolates of S. maltophilia from various environmental sources on 3 hospital wards and clinical samples from 7 wards were collected...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599794/a-novel-combination-adjuvant-platform-for-human-and-animal-vaccines
#14
Ravendra Garg, Lorne Babiuk, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Volker Gerdts
Adjuvants are crucial components of many vaccines. They are used to improve the immunogenicity of vaccines with the aim of conferring long-term protection, to enhance the efficacy of vaccines in newborns, elderly or immunocompromised persons, and to reduce the amount of antigen or the number of doses required to elicit effective immunity. Novel combination adjuvants have been tested in both candidate animals and humans vaccines and have generated encouraging results. Recently, we developed a combination adjuvant platform (TriAdj) comprising of three components, namely a TLR agonist, either polyI:C or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), host defense peptide and polyphosphazene...
June 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597822/fungi-that-infect-humans
#15
Julia R Köhler, Bernhard Hube, Rosana Puccia, Arturo Casadevall, John R Perfect
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593058/yokenella-regensburgei-septicemia-in-a-chinese-farmer-immunosuppressed-by-hiv-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Xiangbo Chi, Min Liu, Yaokai Chen
Yokenella regensburgei is a member in the family Enterobacteriaceae and a few cases have been reported in immunocompromised hosts. Herein, we described a case of septicemia in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patient in South West China, which is the first reported case of Y. regensburgei infection in HIV-infected populations. We then reviewed the literature on all the reported cases of Y. regensburgei infection worldwide and presented some common features of them. Our case report and literature review will help increase the knowledge of the bacterium Y...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592362/toxoplasma-gondii-apoptosis-and-cellular-division-alterations-after-in-vitro-treatment-with-copper-ii-complexes
#17
J A Portes, C S Motta, N F Azeredo, C Fernandes, A Horn, W De Souza, R A DaMatta, S H Seabra
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, which is one of the most common parasitic diseases in the world. Toxoplasmosis causes severe damage to immunocompromised hosts, and the most frequently used therapy is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, which has side effects. Thus, there is a need for new therapies that target T. gondii. Herein, we present the anti-Toxoplasma effect of two new copper(II) complexes: [(H2L1) Cu (μ-Cl)2 Cu(H2L1)] Cl2·5H2O (1) and [(H2L2) Cu (μ-Cl)2 Cu(H2L2)] Cl2·6H2O (2)...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588869/mycobacterium-genavense-invading-the-bone-marrow-in-a-hiv-positive-patient
#18
Christianne Bourlon, Cesar Vargas-Serafín, Xavier López-Karpovitch
Nontuberculous mycobacteria infrequently cause disseminated infections in immunocompetent hosts. However, they are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. We present the case of a 40-year-old HIV-positive male presenting with lymphadenopathies and pancytopenia in whom disseminated infection, with bone marrow involvement by Mycobacterium genavense (M. genavense) was diagnosed.
June 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584995/precise-and-efficient-in-frame-integration-of-an-exogenous-gfp-tag-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-by-a-crispr-system
#19
Chi Zhang, Ling Lu
As one of the most common airborne fungal pathogenic species, Aspergillus fumigatus infection is the increasingly fatal threat to immunocompromised patients worldwide. Setting up an efficient live-cell pathogen-labeling system will give insight into the dynamic process of the pathogen invasion in host, which offers us opportunities to explore the pathogenesis of A. fumigatus. In this chapter, we have described an efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system, which enables a precise in situ tag-insertion of an exogenous GFP tag at the predicted site with or without marker insertion in A...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580237/combination-liposomal-amphotericin-b-posaconazole-and-oral-amphotericin-b-for-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-mucorales-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#20
Anthony Anderson, Dayna McManus, Sarah Perreault, Ying-Chun Lo, Stuart Seropian, Jeffrey E Topal
Mucormycosis is a life threatening infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. Mucormycosis can affect any organ system with rhino-orbital-cerebral and pulmonary infections being the most predominant infection types. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is rare and accounts for only 4-7% of all cases. Here, we present a case of invasive gastrointestinal mucormycosis in an immunocompromised host treated with systemic and topical anti-mold therapy.
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
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