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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910184/clinical-significance-of-pre-transplant-circulating-cd3-cd4-cd161-cell-frequency-on-the-occurrence-of-neutropenic-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Tae Woo Kim, Sung-Eun Lee, Ji-Young Lim, Da-Bin Ryu, Young-Woo Jeon, Jae-Ho Yoon, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Yoo-Jin Kim, Hee-Je Kim, Seok Lee, Seok-Goo Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Jong Wook Lee, Woo-Sung Min, Chang-Ki Min
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been performed to identify factors that are associated with an increased risk of infections during the neutropenic period in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The aim of this study was to identify the host immune cells responsible for infections before engraftment. METHODS: A total of 282 patients who underwent allo-SCT were enrolled. Peripheral blood samples were collected before conditioning therapy...
December 2, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908271/host-directed-therapeutics-against-mycobacterial-infections
#2
Haruaki Tomioka, Chiaki Sano, Yutaka Tatano
The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the world, especially in developing countries, the resurgence of TB in industrialized countries, and the global increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infections in immunocompromised hosts have prompted the quest for novel antimycobacterial drugs. However, the development of such antimicrobial chemotherapeutics is currently making very slow progress even with using the bioinformatics-based methodology for drug design. It thus appears that devising improved administration protocols for clinical treatment against intractable mycobacterial infections using existing chemotherapeutics is more practical than awaiting the development of new antimycobacterial drugs...
December 2, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904052/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#3
Yinggai Song, Yi Ren, Xiaowen Wang, Ruoyu Li
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a prototypical opportunistic pathogen, causing an asymptomatic or mild infection in normal hosts and fulminating pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in immunocompromised hosts. PCP is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS patients. Microscopic detection of cysts and trophic forms of P. jirovecii in respiratory secretions is simple and useful but may underestimate the P. jirovecii infection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR increase the sensitivity and specificity to identify PCP and provide an approach to discriminate PCP from pulmonary P...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895446/a-case-of-fatal-sepsis-due-to-multidrug-resistant-corynebacterium-striatum
#4
M Chatzopoulou, T Koufakis, I Voulgaridi, I Gabranis, M Tsiakalou
BACKGROUND: Although non-diphtheria corynebacteria have traditionally been regarded as avirulent members of human bacterial flora, their pathogenic potential is increasingly recognized in our time. Reasons for this include the prolonged survival of severely ill and immunocompromised patients, the development of more invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the sub-optimal use of antibiotics that disrupts normal microbial balance and favors superinfections. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum in a 76-year-old host...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887808/norovirus-regulation-by-host-and-microbe
#5
REVIEW
Megan T Baldridge, Holly Turula, Christiane E Wobus
Norovirus (NoV) infection is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis globally, and can lead to detrimental chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Despite its prevalence as a cause of diarrheal illness, the study of human NoVs (HNoVs) has historically been limited by a paucity of models. The use of murine NoV (MNoV) to interrogate mechanisms of host control of viral infection has facilitated the exploration of different genetic mouse models, revealing roles for both innate and adaptive immunity in viral regulation...
December 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885762/esophageal-tuberculosis-with-coexisting-opportunistic-infections-in-a-renal-allograft-transplant-recipient
#6
Sunil Kumar, Mukut Minz, Saroj K Sinha, Kim Vaiphei, Ashish Sharma, Sarbpreet Singh, Deepesh B Kenwar
We report a renal allograft transplant recipient with esophageal tuberculosis (TB) coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Candida. The patient presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and was started on fluconazole. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed whitish patches with mucosal ulcers in the esophagus. Histopathological examination confirmed TB and HSV infection. The patient recovered after antiviral, antifungal, and anti-tubercular therapy with reduction in immunosuppression. In a TB-endemic zone, TB can coexist with opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host...
November 25, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882478/unexpected-hosts-imaging-parasitic-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Pablo Rodríguez Carnero, Paula Hernández Mateo, Susana Martín-Garre, Ángela García Pérez, Lourdes Del Campo
Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment...
November 23, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880667/the-current-treatment-landscape-other-fungal-diseases-cryptococcosis-fusariosis-and-mucormycosis
#8
Olivier Lortholary, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, John R Perfect
Compared with major invasive mycoses such as aspergillosis and candidiasis, the antifungal stewardship management strategies of other fungal diseases have different opportunities and considerations. Cryptococcosis, fusariosis and mucormycosis are globally prevalent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), but are not currently included in antifungal prophylaxis guidelines for immunocompromised hosts. Since the implementation of biomarkers as part of diagnostic screening strategies, the concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has emerged for these IFDs...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879557/chryseobacterium-indologenes-associated-pneumonia-in-two-neonates
#9
Shruti Radera, Shalini Tripathi, Jyotsna Agarwal, Mala Kumar
Chryseobacterium species are widely distributed in nature and can rarely cause human infection. Few cases reported in hospitalized patients are in immunocompromised hosts with indwelling devices and associated co-morbidities. Chryseobacterium species are usually multi-drug resistant. We describe two cases of C. indologenes associated-pneumonia in neonates and review the published infant cases.
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876945/a-case-of-fatal-gastrointestinal-haemorrhage-due-to-hyperinfection-with-strongyloides-stercoralis
#10
Dina Abdallah Zaghlool, Amal Ali Hassan, Asmaa Moustafa Moustafa, Wael Ahmed Shahin
Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode with a complex life cycle. It is usually asymptomatic in healthy host however it may be a life threatening condition in immunocompromised patients when hyperinfection is associated with disseminated disease. However, reports of gastric involvement are rare. This is a case report of fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to hyperinfection with S. stercoralis in a Burmawi male patient after brief corticosteroid therapy.
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872619/ebola-vp40-in-exosomes-can-cause-immune-cell-dysfunction
#11
Michelle L Pleet, Allison Mathiesen, Catherine DeMarino, Yao A Akpamagbo, Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Sergey Iordanskiy, Gavin C Sampey, Benjamin Lepene, Sergei Nekhai, M J Aman, Fatah Kashanchi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an enveloped, ssRNA virus from the family Filoviridae capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fever with up to 80-90% mortality rates. The most recent outbreak of EBOV in West Africa starting in 2014 resulted in over 11,300 deaths; however, long-lasting persistence and recurrence in survivors has been documented, potentially leading to further transmission of the virus. We have previously shown that exosomes from cells infected with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Rift Valley Fever virus are able to transfer viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to naïve recipient cells, resulting in an altered cellular activity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872616/novel-approach-for-evaluation-of-bacteroides-fragilis-protective-role-against-bartonella-henselae-liver-damage-in-immunocompromised-murine-model
#12
Chiara Pagliuca, Annunziata G Cicatiello, Roberta Colicchio, Adelaide Greco, Raimondo Cerciello, Luigi Auletta, Sandra Albanese, Elena Scaglione, Caterina Pagliarulo, Gabiria Pastore, Gelsomina Mansueto, Arturo Brunetti, Bice Avallone, Paola Salvatore
Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease. Our previous data have established that Bacteroides fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through the polysaccharide A (PSA) in an experimental murine model. In order to determine whether the PSA is essential for the protection against pathogenic effects of B. henselae in immunocompromised hosts, SCID mice were co-infected with B. fragilis wild type or its mutant B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867557/clinical-analysis-of-non-aids-patients-pathologically-diagnosed-with-pulmonary-cryptococcosis
#13
Kaixiong Liu, Haibo Ding, Bing Xu, Ruixiong You, Zhen Xing, Jianfeng Chen, Qichang Lin, Jieming Qu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) was not a rare infectious disease in non-AIDS patients. However, data on the immune status were lacking in southern China for comparative analysis of differences between immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. This study was to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and treatment profiles for patients with PC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 88 patients diagnosed with tissue-confirmed PC who were not HIV-infected from 2003 to 2013...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866935/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli
#14
REVIEW
Tânia A T Gomes, Waldir P Elias, Isabel C A Scaletsky, Beatriz E C Guth, Juliana F Rodrigues, Roxane M F Piazza, Luís C S Ferreira, Marina B Martinez
Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host...
November 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862271/it-s-not-all-about-us-evolution-and-maintenance-of-cryptococcus-virulence-requires-selection-outside-the-human-host
#15
Aleeza C Gerstein, Kirsten Nielsen
Cryptococcus is predominantly an AIDS-related pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Research studies have historically focused on understanding how the organism causes human disease through the use of in vivo and in vitro model systems to identify virulence factors. Cryptococcus is not an obligate pathogen, however, as human-human transmission is either absent or rare. Selection in the environment must thus be invoked to shape the evolution of this taxa, and directly influences genotypic and trait diversity...
November 11, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860061/strongyloides-hyperinfection-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-a-patient-with-htlv-1-associated-t-cell-leukemia
#16
Jonathan D Alpern, Sophie S Arbefeville, Gregory Vercellotti, Patricia Ferrieri, Jaime S Green
Strongyloides stercoralis has the potential to cause accelerated autoinfection in immunocompromised hosts. Screening tests for strongyloidiasis may be falsely negative in the setting of immunosuppression. We report a case of Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in a patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-associated T-cell leukemia early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The diagnosis was made by stool ova and parasite examination, despite a negative screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 17, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858519/role-of-microglia-in-fungal-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system
#17
George W Koutsouras, Raddy L Ramos, Luis R Martinez
Most fungi are capable of disseminating into the central nervous system (CNS) commonly being observed in immunocompromised hosts. Microglia plays a critical role in responding to these infections regulating inflammatory processes proficient at controlling CNS colonization by these eukaryotic microorganisms. Nonetheless, it is this inflammatory state that paradoxically yields cerebral mycotic meningoencephalitis and abscess formation. As peripheral macrophages and fungi have been investigated aiding our understanding of peripheral disease, ascertaining the key interactions between fungi and microglia may uncover greater abilities to treat invasive fungal infections of the brain...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856731/airway-delivery-of-interferon-%C3%AE-overexpressing-macrophages-confers-resistance-to-mycobacterium-avium-infection-in-scid-mice
#18
Rajamouli Pasula, Bradley E Britigan, Banurekha Kesavalu, Maher Y Abdalla, William J Martin
Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) causes significant pulmonary infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent the first line of host defense against infection in the lung. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) activation of AMs enhances in vitro killing of pathogens such as M. avium We hypothesized that airway delivery of AMs into the lungs of immunodeficient mice infected with M. avium will inhibit M. avium growth in the lung and that this macrophage function is in part IFN-γ dependent...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852678/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#19
Noora Saeed, Hena A Ansari, Nazoora Khan, Mohsin Aijaz
Cryptococcus is a ubiquitous fungus and is known for causing meningitis and cutaneous infections in immunocompromised individuals. Disseminated cryptococcal infection is very rare and almost always found to occur in immunocompromised individuals especially in persons infected with HIV. This is particularly attributed to its capsulated spores. But there are few reported cases in which it has been found to cause disseminated infections even in immunocompetent individuals. We report a similar case of disseminated cryptococcal infection in an immunocompetent host...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852362/-retrospective-analysis-of-117-cases-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis
#20
C Q Lan, H Weng, H Y Li, L Chen, Q H Lin, J F Liu, J B Huang
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis(PC). Methods: A total of 117 cases of PC, confirmed by pathological examinations at Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from January 2009 to December 2013, were studied. Results: The patients consisted of 75 males and 42 females, with a mean age of (44.1±13.7) years (range, 16 to 76 years). Thirty-eight cases were immunocompromised hosts (ICH) and 79 cases were non-immunocompromised hosts (NICH). The clinical symptoms of most patients were mild and the main clinical manifestations were cough and sputum production...
November 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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