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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903738/tgf-%C3%AE-controls-the-formation-of-kidney-resident-t-cells-via-promoting-effector-t-cell-extravasation
#1
Chaoyu Ma, Shruti Mishra, Erika L Demel, Yong Liu, Nu Zhang
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells, a population of noncirculating memory T cells, are one of the essential components of immunological memory in both mouse and human. Although CD69(+)CD103(+) TRM cells represent a major TRM cell population in barrier tissues including the mucosal surface and the skin, CD69(+)CD103(-) TRM cells dominate most nonbarrier tissues, such as the kidney. TGF-β is required for the differentiation of CD69(+)CD103(+) TRM cells in barrier tissues. However, the developmental control of CD69(+)CD103(-) TRM cells in nonbarrier tissues remains largely unknown and the involvement of TGF-β signaling is less clear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899444/antigen-dependent-competition-shapes-the-local-repertoire-of-tissue-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#2
Andreas Muschaweckh, Veit R Buchholz, Anne Fellenzer, Christian Hessel, Paul-Albert König, Sha Tao, Ronny Tao, Mathias Heikenwälder, Dirk H Busch, Thomas Korn, Wolfgang Kastenmüller, Ingo Drexler, Georg Gasteiger
Tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells (TRM) constitute a major component of the immune-surveillance system in nonlymphoid organs. Local, noncognate factors are both necessary and sufficient to support the programming of TRM cell fate in tissue-infiltrating T cells. Recent evidence suggests that TCR signals received in infected nonlymphoid tissues additionally contribute to TRM cell formation. Here, we asked how antigen-dependent pathways influence the generation of skin-resident memory T cells that arise from a polyclonal repertoire of cells induced by infection with an antigenically complex virus and recombinant vaccine vector...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897162/batf3-selectively-determines-acquisition-of-cd8-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-function
#3
Janin Chandra, Paula T Y Kuo, Anne M Hahn, Gabrielle T Belz, Ian H Frazer
Batf3 is a transcription factor that impacts the development of CD103(+) tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs). However, whether Batf3 is absolutely required for the development of CD8(+) DCs remains controversial. Id2 is required for CD8(+) DC development. Here we show that bone marrow chimeric mice with a deletion of Id2 in the CD11c compartment lose the ability to reject a skin graft expressing a non-self protein antigen or mount a delayed hypersensitivity response. In contrast, Batf3((-/-)) mice remained competent for skin graft rejection and delayed hypersensitivity, and retained a CD8(+) DC population with markers characteristic of the CD11b(+) DC lineage, including CD11b, CD4 and CD172α, as well as the key regulator transcription factor IRF4, but lacked IRF8 expression...
November 29, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896634/th9-cells-in-skin-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Rachael A Clark, Christoph Schlapbach
Interleukin 9 secreting TH9 cells have been proposed as the latest addition to the family of T helper cell subsets. While a growing body of evidence from animal models points to important roles for these cells in allergic inflammation of the lung, autoinflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and tumor immunity, their role in skin immunity and skin immunopathology remains poorly defined. Interestingly, studies of T helper cells from healthy humans suggest that TH9 cells are predominantly skin-homing and skin-resident and that they are involved in protection against extracellular pathogens...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890297/digesting-the-role-of-bone-marrow-macrophages-on-hematopoiesis
#5
REVIEW
Esther Heideveld, Emile van den Akker
Tissue resident macrophages are found in various tissues like Langerhans cells in the skin or alveolar macrophages in the lung, and their main function is to regulate organ homeostasis. They have also been observed in the bone marrow and these cells in particular have been gaining importance in recent years as they are key players in hematopoiesis. However, as the characterization and classification of these putatively different bone marrow resident macrophages is far from established there is a need to generate an overview of tissue resident macrophages of the bone marrow...
November 17, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887954/the-short-chain-fatty-acid-sodium-butyrate-functions-as-a-regulator-of-the-skin-immune-system
#6
Agatha Schwarz, Anika Bruhs, Thomas Schwarz
There is evidence that gut commensal microbes affect the mucosal immune system via expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the colon. This is mediated via short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), bacterial metabolites generated during fiber fermentation, which include butyrate, propionate and acetate. We postulated that SCFA produced by commensal skin bacteria may also activate resident skin Treg, the activity of which is diminished in certain inflammatory dermatoses. Sodium butyrate (SB) either injected s.c. or applied topically onto the ears of hapten-sensitized mice significantly reduced the contact hypersensitivity reaction...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#7
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873334/rapid-allergen-induced-interleukin-17-and-interferon-%C3%AE-secretion-by-skin-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#8
Jonas D Schmidt, Malin G Ahlström, Jeanne D Johansen, Beatrice Dyring-Andersen, Christina Agerbeck, Morten M Nielsen, Steen S Poulsen, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Allan R Thomsen, Carsten Geisler, Charlotte M Bonefeld
BACKGROUND: Skin-resident memory T (TRM ) cells are associated with immunological memory in the skin. Whether immunological memory responses to allergens in the skin are solely localized to previously allergen-exposed sites or are present globally in the skin is not clear. Furthermore, the mechanisms whereby TRM cells induce rapid recall responses need further investigation. OBJECTIVES: To study whether contact allergens induce local and/or global memory, and to determine the mechanisms involved in memory responses in the skin...
November 22, 2016: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870568/morbidity-and-mortality-differences-between-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-survivors-and-other-cancer-survivors
#9
Eric J Chow, Kara L Cushing-Haugen, Guang-Shing Cheng, Michael Boeckh, Nandita Khera, Stephanie J Lee, Wendy M Leisenring, Paul J Martin, Beth A Mueller, Stephen M Schwartz, K Scott Baker
Purpose To compare the risks of serious health outcomes among hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors versus a matched population of patients with cancer who did not undergo HCT, where the primary difference may be exposure to HCT. Methods Two-year HCT survivors treated at a comprehensive cancer center from 1992 through 2009 who were Washington State residents (n = 1,792; 52% allogeneic and 90% hematologic malignancies) were frequency matched by demographic characteristics and underlying cancer diagnosis (as applicable) to non-HCT 2-year cancer survivors, using the state cancer registry (n = 5,455) and the general population (n = 16,340) using driver's license files...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853507/developing-food-allergy-a-potential-immunologic-pathway-linking-skin-barrier-to-gut
#10
REVIEW
Yui-Hsi Wang
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy is an adverse reaction to foods and is driven by uncontrolled type-2 immune responses. Current knowledge cannot explain why only some individuals among those with food allergy are prone to develop life-threatening anaphylaxis. It is increasingly evident that the immunologic mechanisms involved in developing IgE-mediated food allergy are far more complex than allergic sensitization. Clinical observations suggest that patients who develop severe allergic reactions to food are often sensitized through the skin in early infancy...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807191/mast-cells-limit-the-exacerbation-of-chronic-allergic-contact-dermatitis-in-response-to-repeated-allergen-exposure
#11
Vladimir-Andrey Gimenez-Rivera, Frank Siebenhaar, Carolin Zimmermann, Hanna Siiskonen, Martin Metz, Marcus Maurer
Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic T cell-driven inflammatory skin disease that is caused by repeated exposure to contact allergens. Based on murine studies of acute contact hypersensitivity, mast cells (MCs) are believed to play a role in its pathogenesis. The role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis has not been investigated, in part because of the lack of murine models for chronic contact hypersensitivity. We developed and used a chronic contact hypersensitivity model in wild-type and MC-deficient mice and assessed skin inflammatory responses to identify and characterize the role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800498/skin-appendage-derived-stem-cells-cell-biology-and-potential-for-wound-repair
#12
REVIEW
Jiangfan Xie, Bin Yao, Yutong Han, Sha Huang, Xiaobing Fu
Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundamental characteristics, their preferentially expressed biomarkers, and their potential contribution involved in wound repair...
2016: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795501/the-role-of-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-in-the-skin-immunity
#13
Sachiko Ono, Kenji Kabashima
  The skin is one of the largest organs in the human body, which acts as the primary interface with the external world. In view of its protective role, mammalian skin consists of physical and immunological barriers. The water-impermeable stratum corneum and the tight junctions in the granular layer work at the epidermal level work as the most important first and second "physical" barriers. Upon antigen invasion to the skin, the integrated innate and acquired immune systems in both the epidermis and dermis are activated in a coordinated manner to neutralize the external intruder as the strong third "immunological" barriers...
2016: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784870/induction-of-langerin-langerhans-cell-like-cells-expressing-reduced-tlr3-from-cd34-cord-blood-cells-stimulated-with-gm-csf-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-tnf-%C3%AE
#14
Hideko Azuma, Eri Watanabe, Yohei Otsuka, Yasuyuki Negishi, Sadayuki Ohkura, Eiji Shinya, Hidemi Takahashi
Langerhans cells (LCs), a subset of dendritic cells (DCs), reside in body surface presenting antigens from various pathogens and activate immune system after migrating to vicinal lymph nodes. We recently demonstrated that the E-cadherin interaction allowed peripheral blood (PB) CD14(+) cells to differentiate into LC-like cells that closely resemble primary LCs. Here, with a combination of GM-CSF, TGF-β, and TNF-α, we induced LC-like cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB)derived CD34(+) cells and compared them with those induced from PB CD14(+) cells...
2016: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775884/hyaluronate-epidermal-growth-factor-conjugate-for-skin-wound-healing-and-regeneration
#15
Hyemin Kim, Won Ho Kong, Keum-Yong Seong, Dong Kyung Sung, Hyeonseon Jeong, Jin Kon Kim, Seung Yun Yang, Sei Kwang Hahn
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been recognized as an excellent wound healing agent due to its therapeutic function stimulating skin cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. However, the transdermal delivery of EGF poses a significant challenge due to its short half-life and lack of efficient formulation. Here, to improve the transdermal delivery efficiency, EGF was conjugated to hyaluronate (HA), which was formulated into a patch-type film for skin wound healing. HA-EGF conjugate was synthesized by coupling reaction between aldehyde-modified HA and N-terminal amine group of EGF to minimize the loss of biological activities...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766171/tissue-specific-induction-of-ccr6-and-nrp1-during-early-cd4-t-cell-differentiation
#16
Joern Pezoldt, Jochen Huehn
Upon differentiation, T cells acquire tissue-specific homing properties allowing efficient targeting of effector T cells into distinct inflamed organs. Priming of T cells within skin-draining, peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) leads to the expression of E- and P-selectin ligands, which facilitate migration into inflamed skin, whereas activation within gut-draining, mesenteric LNs (mLNs) results in induction of chemokine receptor CCR9 and integrin α4β7, both required for migration of effector T cells into mucosal tissues...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761948/skin-permeation-of-econazole-nitrate-formulated-in-an-enhanced-hydrophilic-multiple-emulsion
#17
Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, Antonio Boix-Montañés, Lyda Halbaut-Bellowa, Nelvis Velázquez-Carralero, Joanna Zamarbide-Ledesma, Nuria Bozal-de-Febrer, Ana Cristina Calpena-Campmany
Local delivery of imidazolic antifungals is limited by its extreme lipophilicity. Multiple emulsions (ME) are a potential vehicle to enhance the delivery of econazole nitrate (ECN), an antifungal targeted to deep-seated epidermal yeast infections. An 1% ECN hydrophilic ME was compared with a commercial formulation in terms of rheology, droplet size and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida species. Comparative in vitro drug release, human skin permeation and drug retention were investigated using vertical diffusion cells...
October 20, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760368/resveratrol-induces-mitochondrial-respiration-and-apoptosis-in-sw620-colon-cancer-cells
#18
Mª Del Mar Blanquer-Rosselló, Reyniel Hernández-López, Pilar Roca, Jordi Oliver, Adamo Valle
BACKGROUND: The polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) is found in the skin of red grapes and has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. The antitumor effects of RSV in the gastrointestinal tract have gained considerable interest due to the high exposure of this tissue to this dietary compound. One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is their particular metabolism mainly relying on glycolysis for ATP production rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although RSV has been described to act as a calorie-restriction mimetic, modulating energy metabolism in normal tissues, little efforts have been done to study the effects of this polyphenol in the metabolism of cancer cells...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756094/the-complex-gnas-imprinted-locus-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-differentiation
#19
F M Elli, V Boldrin, A Pirelli, A Spada, G Mantovani
All tissues and organs derive from stem cells, which are undifferentiated cells able to differentiate into specialized cells and self-renewal. In mammals, there are embryonic stem cells that generate germ layers, and adult stem cells, which act as a repair system for the body and maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic adult multipotent cells, which reside in virtually all postnatal organs and tissues, and, under appropriate in vitro conditions, are capable to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic lineages...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742396/human-skin-dendritic-cell-fate-is-differentially-regulated-by-the-monocyte-identity-factor-klf4-during-steady-state-and-inflammation
#20
Jennifer Jurkin, Corinna Krump, René Köffel, Christina Fieber, Christopher Schuster, Patrick M Brunner, Izabela Borek, Gregor Eisenwort, Clarice Lim, Jörg Mages, Roland Lang, Wolfgang Bauer, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Georg Stingl, Herbert Strobl
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell (LC) networks play key roles in immunity and tolerance at body surfaces. LCs are established prenatally and can be replenished from blood monocytes. Unlike skin-resident dermal/interstitial-type DCs (d/intDCs) and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDECs) appearing in dermatitis/eczema lesions, LCs lack key monocyte-affiliated markers. Inversely, LCs express various epithelial genes critical for their long-term peripheral tissue residency. OBJECTIVE: DCs are functionally involved in inflammatory diseases; however, mechanisms remained poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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