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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769669/diverse-mechanisms-for-endogenous-regeneration-and-repair-in-mammalian-organs
#1
REVIEW
James M Wells, Fiona M Watt
Mammalian organs comprise an extraordinary diversity of cell and tissue types. Regenerative organs, such as the skin and gastrointestinal tract, use resident stem cells to maintain tissue function. Organs with a lower cellular turnover, such as the liver and lungs, mostly rely on proliferation of committed progenitor cells. In many organs, injury reveals the plasticity of both resident stem cells and differentiated cells. The ability of resident cells to maintain and repair organs diminishes with age, whereas, paradoxically, the risk of cancer increases...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764836/subcellular-localization-of-antigen-dictates-delivery-of-cd4-t-cell-help-for-the-ctl-response-upon-therapeutic-dna-vaccination-into-the-skin
#2
Nikolina Bąbała, Astrid Bovens, Evert de Vries, Victoria Iglesias-Guimarais, Tomasz Ahrends, Matthew F Krummel, Jannie Borst, Adriaan D Bins
In a mouse model of therapeutic DNA vaccination, we studied how the subcellular localization of vaccine protein impacts antigen delivery to professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) and efficiency of CTL priming. Cytosolic, membrane-bound, nuclear, and secretory versions of ZsGreen fluorescent protein, conjugated to MHC class I and -II ovalbumin (OVA) epitopes were expressed in keratinocytes by DNA vaccination into the skin. ZsGreen-OVA versions reached B cells in the skin-draining lymph node (dLN) that proved irrelevant for CTL priming...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760193/expression-of-the-atypical-chemokine-receptor-ackr4-identifies-a-novel-population-of-intestinal-submucosal-fibroblasts-that-preferentially-expresses-endothelial-cell-regulators
#3
Carolyn A Thomson, Serge A van de Pavert, Michelle Stakenborg, Evelien Labeeuw, Gianluca Matteoli, Allan McI Mowat, Robert J B Nibbs
Atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) are expressed by discrete populations of stromal cells at specific anatomical locations where they control leukocyte migration by scavenging or transporting chemokines. ACKR4 is an atypical receptor for CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25. In skin, ACKR4 plays indispensable roles in regulating CCR7-dependent APC migration, and there is a paucity of migratory APCs in the skin-draining lymph nodes of Ackr4 -deficient mice under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. This is caused by loss of ACKR4-mediated CCL19/21 scavenging by keratinocytes and lymphatic endothelial cells...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758937/the-controversial-origin-of-pericytes-during-angiogenesis-implications-for-cell-based-therapeutic-angiogenesis-and-cell-based-therapies
#4
Anna Blocki, Sebastian Beyer, Friedrich Jung, Michael Raghunath
Pericytes reside within the basement membrane of small vessels and are often in direct cellular contact with endothelial cells, fulfilling important functions during blood vessel formation and homeostasis. Recently, these pericytes have been also identified as mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells, and especially their specialized subpopulation of pericytes, represent promising candidates for therapeutic angiogenesis applications, and have already been widely applied in pre-clinical and clinical trials...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751006/mirnas-are-required-for-langerhans-cell-skin-and-lung-resident-macrophage-ontogeny
#5
Yi Yao, Carly Martin, Congcong Yin, Chunyuan Guo, Zheng Dong, Li Zhou, Qing-Sheng Mi
Our study demonstrates that miRNAs serve as critical epigenetic regulators in the ontogeny of LCs and TRMs in the skin and lungs, suggesting that miRNAs may be promising targets for LC and TRM-related allergic diseases.
May 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742295/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-myofibroblasts-and-innervation-during-skin-healing-and-innovative-therapies-to-improve-scar-innervation
#6
REVIEW
Nicolas Lebonvallet, Betty Laverdet, Laurent Misery, Alexis Desmoulière, Dorothée Girard
During the resolution phase of normal skin wound healing, there is a considerable loss of various cell types, including myofibroblasts by apoptosis. Inappropriate delay of apoptosis, and thus increased survival of myofibroblasts, may be a factor leading to pathologies and excessive scarring. Considerable data now clearly suggests that innervation plays a major role in wound healing, including the modulation of fibroblast cellular activity. An abnormal level of neuromediators is implicated not only in the development of chronic wounds but also in excessive scar formation...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728944/isolation-of-human-skin-epidermal-stem-cells-based-on-the-expression-of-endothelial-protein-c-receptor
#7
Meilang Xue, Suat Dervish, Christopher J Jackson
Skin epidermis is a continuous self-renewal tissue maintained by interfollicular epidermal stem cells (IESCs) that reside in the basal layer of epidermis. IESCs also contribute to the repair and regeneration of the epidermis during wound healing. The great plasticity and easy accessibility afforded by IESCs make them a promising source of stem cells for scientific research and clinical applications. Thus, simple methods to isolate and define pure and viable IESCs are a valuable resource. Here, we provide a method for isolating IESCs from human skin epidermis...
May 5, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723367/innate-immunity-and-effector-and-regulatory-mechanisms-involved-in-allergic-contact-dermatitis
#8
Marilene Chaves Silvestre, Maria Notomi Sato, Vitor Manoel Silva Dos Reis
Skin's innate immunity is the initial activator of immune response mechanisms, influencing the development of adaptive immunity. Some contact allergens are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasome NLR3. Keratinocytes participate in innate immunity and, in addition to functioning as an anatomical barrier, secrete cytokines, such as TNF, IL-1β, and IL-18, contributing to the development of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. Dendritic cells recognize and process antigenic peptides into T cells. Neutrophils cause pro-inflammatory reactions, mast cells induce migration/maturation of skin DCs, the natural killer cells have natural cytotoxic capacity, the γδ T cells favor contact with hapten during the sensitization phase, and the innate lymphoid cells act in the early stages by secreting cytokines, as well as act in inflammation and tissue homeostasis...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713744/skin-neurogenic-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Jae Eun Choi, Anna Di Nardo
The epidermis closely interacts with nerve endings, and both epidermis and nerves produce substances for mutual sustenance. Neuropeptides, like substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), are produced by sensory nerves in the dermis; they induce mast cells to release vasoactive amines that facilitate infiltration of neutrophils and T cells. Some receptors are more important than others in the generation of itch. The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgpr) family as well as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and protease activated receptor 2(Par2) have important roles in itch and inflammation...
April 30, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670222/stem-cells-in-middle-ear-cholesteatoma-contribute-to-its-pathogenesis
#10
Julia Nagel, Saskia Wöllner, Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Janine Müller, Johannes Fw Greiner, Peter Goon, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Christian Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Cholesteatoma is a potentially life-threatening middle ear lesion due to the formation of an inflamed ectopic mass of keratinizing squamous epithelium. Surgical removal remains the only treatment option, emphasizing the need to gain a better understanding of this severe disease. We show for the first time that stem cells residing in cholesteatoma tissue contribute to disease progression. Cells expressing the "stemness" markers Nestin and S100B were detected in middle ear cholesteatoma and auditory canal skin...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664571/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis-persistent-infection-and-cancer-surveillance
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Gebhardt, Umaimainthan Palendira, David C Tscharke, Sammy Bedoui
A large proportion of memory T cells disseminated throughout the body are non-recirculating cells whose maintenance and function is regulated by tissue-specific environmental cues. These sessile cells are referred to as tissue-resident memory T (TRM ) cells and similar populations of non-recirculating cells also exist among unconventional T cells and innate lymphocyte cells. The pool of TRM cells is highly diverse with respect to anatomical positioning, phenotype, molecular regulation and effector function...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655588/resident-and-monocyte-derived-langerhans-cells-are-required-for-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-dermatitis-model
#12
Minseok Lee, Sung Hee Kim, Tae-Gyun Kim, Jeyun Park, Jae Won Lee, Min-Geol Lee
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic cells that reside in the epidermis and local inflammation results in an increased differentiation of monocyte-derived LCs. Only few studies have investigated on the role of LCs in psoriasis-like dermatitis model, but the results are variable and the exact role of LCs in psoriasis model remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the functional role of resident (rLCs) and monocyte-derived LCs (mLCs) in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like inflammation using human Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (huLang-DTA) mice...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649548/spontaneous-atopic-dermatitis-due-to-immune-dysregulation-in-mice-lacking-adamts2-and-14
#13
L Dupont, G Ehx, M Chantry, C Monseur, C Leduc, L Janssen, D Cataldo, M Thiry, C Jerome, J-M Thomassin, B Nusgens, J Dubail, F Baron, A Colige
Since its first description, ADAMTS14 has been considered as an aminoprocollagen peptidase based on its high similarity with ADAMTS3 and ADAMTS2. As its importance for procollagen processing was never experimentally demonstrated in vivo, we generated Adamts14-deficient mice. They are healthy, fertile and display normal aminoprocollagen processing. They were further crossed with Adamts2-deficient mice to evaluate potential functional redundancies between these two highly related enzymes. Initial characterizations made on young Adamts2-Adamts14-deficient animals showed the same phenotype as that of Adamts2-deficient mice, with no further reduction of procollagen processing and no significant aggravation of the structural alterations of collagen fibrils...
April 9, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#14
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604373/transdermal-immunomodulation-principles-advances-and-perspectives
#15
Zongmin Zhao, Anvay Ukidve, Anshuman Dasgupta, Samir Mitragotri
Immunomodulation, manipulation of the immune responses towards an antigen, is a promising strategy to treat cancer, infectious diseases, allergies, and autoimmune diseases, among others. Unique features of the skin including the presence of tissue-resident immune cells, ease of access and connectivity to other organs makes it a unique target organ for immunomodulation. In this review, we summarize advances in transdermal delivery of agents for modulating the immune responses for vaccination as well as tolerization...
March 28, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596891/connexin-43-regulates-the-expression-of-wound-healing-related-genes-in-human-gingival-and-skin-fibroblasts
#16
Rana Tarzemany, Guoqiao Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Corrie Gallant-Behm, Colin Wiebe, David A Hart, Hannu Larjava, Lari Häkkinen
Fibroblasts are the most abundant connective tissue cells and play an important role in wound healing. It is possible that faster and scarless wound healing in oral mucosal gingiva relative to skin may relate to the distinct phenotype of the fibroblasts residing in these tissues. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous Cx in skin (SFBLs) and gingival fibroblasts (GFBLs), and Cx43 assembles into hemichannels (HCs) and gap junctions (GJs) on the cell membrane. We hypothesized that SFBLs and GFBLs display distinct expression or function of Cx43, and that this may partly underlie the different wound healing outcomes in skin and gingiva...
March 26, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593032/extracellular-conformational-changes-in-the-capsid-of-human-papillomaviruses-contribute-to-asynchronous-uptake-into-host-cells
#17
Miriam Becker, Lilo Greune, M Alexander Schmidt, Mario Schelhaas
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the leading cause of cervical cancer. For initial infection, HPV16 utilizes a novel endocytic pathway for host cell entry. Unique amongst viruses, uptake occurs asynchronously over a protracted period of time with half-times between 9-12 h. To trigger endocytic uptake, the virus particles need to undergo a series of structural modifications after initial binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). These changes involve proteolytic cleavage of the major capsid protein L1 by kallikrein-8 (KLK8), exposure of the N-terminus of the minor capsid protein L2 by cyclophilins, and cleavage of this N-terminus by furin...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584689/extracellular-matrix-as-a-regulator-of-epidermal-stem-cell-fate
#18
REVIEW
Elina Chermnykh, Ekaterina Kalabusheva, Ekaterina Vorotelyak
Epidermal stem cells reside within the specific anatomic location, called niche, which is a microenvironment that interacts with stem cells to regulate their fate. Regulation of many important processes, including maintenance of stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, and homeostasis, as well as the regulation of division and differentiation, are common functions of the stem cell niche. As it was shown in multiple studies, extracellular matrix (ECM) contributes a lot to stem cell niches in various tissues, including that of skin...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575350/regulatory-t-cells-in-autoimmune-skin-diseases
#19
Hideyuki Ujiie
CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are suppressors of immune activation and play a crucial role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Mutations of Foxp3 result in fatal autoimmunity in multiple organs, including the skin, in both humans and mice. Many studies have demonstrated the altered frequency and functions of Tregs, changes in cytokine and chemokine levels related to Tregs, and the differences in genetic background regarding Tregs in autoimmune skin disorders. Recent studies have extended our knowledge of certain properties of Tregs, especially skin-resident Tregs...
March 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566384/parkinson-s-disease-melanoma-and-keratinocyte-carcinoma-a-population-based-study
#20
Sharon Lerman, Boaz Amichai, Gabriel Weinstein, Varda Shalev, Gabriel Chodick
BACKGROUND: The association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and melanoma is well recognized, but its relationship with non-melanoma skin cancers has not been studied in depth. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between PD, and risk of melanoma and keratinocyte carcinoma: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). METHODS: This historical cohort study used the data of 1.2 million adult members of a large health organization between 2000 and 2015...
March 22, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
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