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skin resident cell

Xinhua Yu, Anika Kasprick, Karin Hartmann, Frank Petersen
Skin mast cells (MCs), a resident immune cell type with broad regulatory capacity, play an important role in sensing danger signals as well as in the control of the local immune response. It is conceivable to expect that skin MCs regulate autoimmune response and are thus involved in autoimmune diseases in the skin, e.g., autoimmune bullous dermatoses (AIBD). Therefore, exploring the role of MCs in AIBD will improve our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and the search for novel therapeutic targets. Previously, in clinical studies with AIBD, particularly bullous pemphigoid, patients' samples have demonstrated that MCs are likely involved in the development of the diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Charlie Bridgewood, Gareth W Fearnley, Anna Berekmeri, Philip Laws, Tom Macleod, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam, Martin Stacey, Anne Graham, Miriam Wittmann
The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tingting Zheng, Weiheng Zhao, Hongjin Li, Shuxiu Xiao, Ran Hu, Miaomiao Han, Heng Liu, Yeqiang Liu, Kinya Otsu, Xinguang Liu, Gonghua Huang
Dendritic cells (DCs) contribute to psoriasis pathogenesis. In a mouse model of imiquimod-induced psoriasiform skin inflammation, we found that p38α activity in Langerhans cells (LCs), a skin-resident subset of DCs, promoted the generation of T cells that produce IL-17, a proinflammatory cytokine that is implicated in autoimmune disease. Deletion of p38α in LCs, but not in other skin or circulating DC subsets or T cells, decreased T cell-mediated psoriasiform skin inflammation in mice. The activity of p38α in LCs specifically promoted IL-17 production from γδ and CD4+ T cells by increasing the abundance of IL-23 and IL-6, two cytokines that stimulate IL-17 secretion...
March 13, 2018: Science Signaling
Yasutaka Mitamura, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nanri, Masahiro Ogawa, Tomohito Yoshihara, Miho Masuoka, Gaku Tsuji, Takeshi Nakahara, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Simon J Conway, Masutaka Furue, Kenji Izuhara
BACKGROUND: Barrier dysfunction is an important feature of atopic dermatitis (AD) in which IL-4 and IL-13, signature type 2 cytokines, are involved. Periostin, a matricellular protein induced by IL-4 or IL-13, plays a crucial role in the onset of allergic skin inflammation, including barrier dysfunction. However, it remains elusive how periostin causes barrier dysfunction downstream of the IL-13 signal. METHODS: We systematically identified periostin-dependent expression profile using DNA microarrays...
March 12, 2018: Allergy
Liv Eidsmo, Elisa Martini
Psoriasis is a common skin disease that presents with well-demarcated patches of inflammation. Recurrent disease in fixed areas of the skin indicates a localized disease memory that is preserved in resolved lesions. In line with such concept, the involvement of tissue-resident immune cells in psoriasis pathology is increasingly appreciated. Langerhans cells (LCs) are perfectly placed to steer resident T cells and local tissue responses in psoriasis. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge of LCs in human psoriasis, including findings that highlight pro-inflammatory features of LCs in psoriasis lesions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anna Baranska, Alaa Shawket, Mabel Jouve, Myriam Baratin, Camille Malosse, Odessa Voluzan, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Frédéric Fiore, Marc Bajénoff, Philippe Benaroch, Marc Dalod, Marie Malissen, Sandrine Henri, Bernard Malissen
Here we describe a new mouse model that exploits the pattern of expression of the high-affinity IgG receptor (CD64) and allows diphtheria toxin (DT)-mediated ablation of tissue-resident macrophages and monocyte-derived cells. We found that the myeloid cells of the ear skin dermis are dominated by DT-sensitive, melanin-laden cells that have been missed in previous studies and correspond to macrophages that have ingested melanosomes from neighboring melanocytes. Those cells have been referred to as melanophages in humans...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Chi Ching Goh, Maximilien Evrard, Shu Zhen Chong, Yingrou Tan, Leonard De Li Tan, Karen Wei Weng Teng, Wolfgang Weninger, David Laurence Becker, Hong Liang Tey, Evan William Newell, Bin Liu, Lai Guan Ng
Pressure ulcers are a chronic problem for patients or the elderly who require extended periods of bed rest. The formation of ulcers is due to repeated cycles of ischemia-reperfusion (IR), which initiates an inflammatory response. Advanced ulcers disrupt the skin barrier, resulting in further complications. To date, the immunological aspect of skin IR has been understudied, partly due to the complexity of the skin immune cells. Through a combination of mass cytometry, confocal imaging and intravital multiphoton imaging, this study establishes a workflow for multidimensionality single cell analysis of skin myeloid responses in the context of IR injury with high spatiotemporal resolution...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Tetsuro Kobayashi, Keisuke Nagao
RORα+ skin-resident regulatory T cells restrain innate lymphoid cell driven allergic skin inflammation.
March 2, 2018: Science Immunology
Nidhi Malhotra, Juan Manuel Leyva-Castillo, Unmesh Jadhav, Olga Barreiro, Christy Kam, Nicholas K O'Neill, Francoise Meylan, Pierre Chambon, Ulrich H von Andrian, Richard M Siegel, Eddie C Wang, Ramesh Shivdasani, Raif S Geha
Atopic dermatitis is an allergic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the production of the type 2 cytokines in the skin by type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and T helper 2 (TH 2) cells, and tissue eosinophilia. Using two distinct mouse models of atopic dermatitis, we show that expression of retinoid-related orphan receptor α (RORα) in skin-resident T regulatory cells (Tregs ) is important for restraining allergic skin inflammation. In both models, targeted deletion of RORα in mouse Tregs led to exaggerated eosinophilia driven by interleukin-5 (IL-5) production by ILC2s and TH 2 cells...
March 2, 2018: Science Immunology
Yejing Ge, Elaine Fuchs
Stem cells (SCs) govern tissue homeostasis and wound repair. They reside within niches, the special microenvironments within tissues that control SC lineage outputs. Upon injury or stress, new signals emanating from damaged tissue can divert nearby cells into adopting behaviours that are not part of their homeostatic repertoire. This behaviour, known as SC plasticity, typically resolves as wounds heal. However, in cancer, it can endure. Recent studies have yielded insights into the orchestrators of maintenance and lineage commitment for SCs belonging to three mammalian tissues: the haematopoietic system, the skin epithelium and the intestinal epithelium...
February 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Reza Nadafi, Jasper J Koning, Henrike Veninga, Xanthi N Stachtea, Tanja Konijn, Antonie Zwiers, Anders Malmström, Joke M M den Haan, Reina E Mebius, Marco Maccarana, Rogier M Reijmers
For full activation of naïve adaptive lymphocytes in skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs), presentation of peptide:MHC complexes by LN-resident and skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that encountered antigens (Ags) is an absolute prerequisite. To get to the nearest draining LN upon intradermal immunization, DCs need to migrate from the infection site to the afferent lymphatics, which can only be reached by traversing a collagen-dense network located in the dermis of the skin through the activity of proteolytic enzymes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lalit K Beura, Sathi Wijeyesinghe, Emily A Thompson, Marissa G Macchietto, Pamela C Rosato, Mark J Pierson, Jason M Schenkel, Jason S Mitchell, Vaiva Vezys, Brian T Fife, Steven Shen, David Masopust
Immunosurveillance of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) is performed by central memory T cells that recirculate through blood. Resident memory T (Trm) cells remain parked in nonlymphoid tissues and often stably express CD69. We recently identified Trm cells within SLO, but the origin and phenotype of these cells remains unclear. Using parabiosis of "dirty" mice, we found that CD69 expression is insufficient to infer stable residence of SLO Trm cells. Restimulation of nonlymphoid memory CD8+ T cells within the skin or mucosa resulted in a substantial increase in bona fide Trm cells specifically within draining lymph nodes...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
Alexander Eckersley, Kieran T Mellody, Suzanne M Pilkington, Christopher Em Griffiths, Rachel E B Watson, Ronan O'Cualain, Clair Baldock, David Knight, Michael J Sherratt
Elastic fibres comprising fibrillin microfibrils and elastin are present in many tissues, including the skin, lung, and arteries where they confer elasticity and resilience. Although fibrillin microfibrils play distinct and tissue-specific functional roles, it is unclear whether their ultrastructure and composition differ between elastin-rich (skin) and elastin-poor (ciliary body and zonule) organs or after in vitro synthesis by cultured cells. Here, we used atomic force microscopy, which revealed that the bead morphology of fibrillin microfibrils isolated from the human eye differs from those isolated from the skin...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A M Cesinaro, S Nosseir, E Mataca, M C Mengoli, C Cavatorta, W Gennari
Canine Leishmaniasis is a disease endemic in many parts of Europe, carried by insects of phlebotomous species. Humans are occasional hosts of the parasites. Cases of human leishmaniasis have been registered in Italy, particularly in the southern and coastal regions. In the period 1997-2016, we collected a series of 35 patients affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis, uncovered by skin biopsy and histological examination, 21 of them found in last 3 years. The patients, 28 males and 7 female, aged between 19 and 91, resided in a restricted area of Northern Italy, and none, but two, had travelled abroad...
December 2017: Pathologica
George Tolis, Philip J Spencer, Jordan P Bloom, Serguei Melnitchouk, David A D'Alessandro, Mauricio A Villavicencio, Thoralf M Sundt
OBJECTIVE: Teaching the next generation operative cardiac surgery while maintaining the highest level of patient care is an ever-increasing challenge given the growing proportion of patients with multiple comorbidities, the loss of more straightforward cases to percutaneous interventions, and the pressure of public reporting. No study to date has compared the outcomes of similar cases performed entirely ("skin-to-skin") by the resident with those performed entirely by the staff to confirm the safety of this practice...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Frank A Redegeld, Yingxin Yu, Sangeeta Kumari, Nicolas Charles, Ulrich Blank
Mast cells (MCs) are innate immune cells that are scattered in tissues throughout the organism being particularly abundant at sites exposed to the environment such as the skin and mucosal surfaces. Generally known for their role in IgE-mediated allergies, they have also important functions in the maintenance of tissue integrity by constantly sensing their microenvironment for signals by inflammatory triggers that can comprise infectious agents, toxins, hormones, alarmins, metabolic states, etc. When triggered their main function is to release a whole set of inflammatory mediators, cytokines, chemokines, and lipid products...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
Michelle L McCully, Kristin Ladell, Robert Andrews, Rhiannon E Jones, Kelly L Miners, Laureline Roger, Duncan M Baird, Mark J Cameron, Zita M Jessop, Iain S Whitaker, Eleri L Davies, David A Price, Bernhard Moser
Human skin harbors two major T cell compartments of equal size that are distinguished by expression of the chemokine receptor CCR8. In vitro studies have demonstrated that CCR8 expression is regulated by TCR engagement and the skin tissue microenvironment. To extend these observations, we examined the relationship between CCR8+ and CCR8- skin T cells in vivo. Phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic analyses revealed that CCR8+ skin T cells bear all the hallmarks of resident memory T cells, including homeostatic proliferation in response to IL-7 and IL-15, surface expression of tissue localization (CD103) and retention (CD69) markers, low levels of inhibitory receptors (programmed cell death protein 1, Tim-3, LAG-3), and a lack of senescence markers (CD57, killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Cody McHale, Zahraa Mohammed, Juline Deppen, Gregorio Gomez
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 is a gp130 utilizing cytokine that is consistently associated with allergic diseases like asthma and urticaria in humans where mast cells are known to play a critical role. However, the role of IL-6 in allergic disease in not known. IL-6 was reported to enhance degranulation of in vitro-derived mast cells, but the effect of IL-6 on mediator release from human in situ-matured tissue-isolated mast cells had not been reported. METHODS: Human mature mast cells were isolated and purified from normal skin tissue from different donors...
February 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Gong-Yau Chu, Yu-Fu Chen, Hsiao-Yun Chen, Ming-Hsiao Chan, Churn-Shiouh Gau, Shih-Ming Weng
Stem cell products and its clinical applications have been widely discussed in recent years, particularly when the Japanese "induced pluripotent stem cells" founder Dr. Yamanaka was awarded as Nobel Prize laureate in 2013. For decades, major progresses have been achieved in the stem cell biology field, and more and more evidence showed that skin stem cells are involved in the process of skin repair. Stem/progenitor cells of the epidermis are recognized to play the most essential role in the tissue regeneration of skin...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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