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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642279/role-of-myd88-signaling-in-the-imiquimod-induced-mouse-model-of-psoriasis-focus-on-innate-myeloid-cells
#1
Sara Costa, Olivia Marini, Dalila Bevilacqua, Anthony L DeFranco, Baidong Hou, Silvia Lonardi, William Vermi, Pamela Rodegher, Anna Panato, Franco Tagliaro, Clifford A Lowell, Marco A Cassatella, Giampiero Girolomoni, Patrizia Scapini
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease associated with deregulated activation of immune cells and keratinocytes. In this study, we used the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model of psoriasis to dissect better the contribution of hematopoietic and skin-resident stromal cells to psoriasis development. The comparison of disease development in mice carrying the hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of MyD88 (Myd88(fl/fl)Vav-cre(+) mice) with mice carrying the total MyD88 deficiency (Myd88(-/-) mice), we show that the progression of skin and systemic inflammation, as well as of epidermal thickening, was completely dependent on MyD88 expression in hematopoietic cells...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636968/t-regulating-hair-follicle-stem-cells
#2
Maria Maryanovich, Paul S Frenette
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are well known to modulate inflammatory responses. In a recent issue of Cell, Ali et al. (2017) reveal a function for Treg cells in stem cell maintenance by showing that skin-resident Foxp3(+) Treg cells preferentially localize to the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) niche to control HFSC-mediated hair regeneration.
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614800/robust-memory-responses-against-influenza-vaccination-in-pemphigus-patients-previously-treated-with-rituximab
#3
Alice Cho, Bridget Bradley, Robert Kauffman, Lalita Priyamvada, Yevgeniy Kovalenkov, Ron Feldman, Jens Wrammert
Rituximab is a therapeutic anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody widely used to treat B cell lymphoma and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune blistering skin diseases (AIBD). While rituximab fully depletes peripheral blood B cells, it remains unclear whether some preexisting B cell memory to pathogens or vaccines may survive depletion, especially in lymphoid tissues, and if these memory B cells can undergo homeostatic expansion during recovery from depletion...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602615/pten-mediates-activation-of-core-clock-protein-bmal1-and-accumulation-of-epidermal-stem-cells
#4
Chiara Zagni, Luciana O Almeida, Tarek Balan, Marco T Martins, Luciana K Rosselli-Murai, Petros Papagerakis, Rogerio M Castilho, Cristiane H Squarize
Tissue integrity requires constant maintenance of a quiescent, yet responsive, population of stem cells. In the skin, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that reside within the bulge maintain tissue homeostasis in response to activating cues that occur with each new hair cycle or upon injury. We found that PTEN, a major regulator of the PI3K-AKT pathway, controlled HFSC number and size in the bulge and maintained genomically stable pluripotent cells. This regulatory function is central for HFSC quiescence, where PTEN-deficiency phenotype is in part regulated by BMAL1...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599078/non-lesional-atopic-dermatitis-skin-shares-similar-t-cell-clones-with-lesional-tissues
#5
Patrick M Brunner, Ryan O Emerson, Christopher Tipton, Sandra Garcet, Saakshi Khattri, Israel Coats, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by robust immune activation. Various T-cell subsets, including Th2/Th22 cells, are increased in lesional and non-lesional skin. However, there is conflicting literature on the diversity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in lesional AD, and its relation to non-lesional skin remains unclear. METHODS: We performed high-throughput deep sequencing of the β-TCR repertoire in 29 lesional and 19 non-lesional AD biopsies, compared to 6 healthy control and 6 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) samples from previously published cohorts...
June 9, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590443/interaction-of-candida-species-with-the-skin
#6
REVIEW
Andreas Kühbacher, Anke Burger-Kentischer, Steffen Rupp
The human skin is commonly colonized by diverse fungal species. Some Candida species, especially C. albicans, do not only reside on the skin surface as commensals, but also cause infections by growing into the colonized tissue. However, defense mechanisms at the skin barrier level are very efficient, involving residential non-immune and immune cells as well as immune cells specifically recruited to the site of infection. Therefore, the skin is an effective barrier against fungal infection. While most studies about commensal and pathogenic interaction of Candida species with host epithelia focus on the interaction with mucosal surfaces such as the vaginal and gastrointestinal epithelia, less is known about the mechanisms underlying Candida interaction with the skin...
June 7, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587635/improved-detection-of-gene-microbe-interactions-in-the-mouse-skin-microbiota-using-high-resolution-qtl-mapping-of-16s-rrna-transcripts
#7
Meriem Belheouane, Yask Gupta, Sven Künzel, Saleh Ibrahim, John F Baines
BACKGROUND: Recent studies highlight the utility of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for determining the contribution of host genetics to interindividual variation in the microbiota. We previously demonstrated that similar to the gut microbiota, abundances of bacterial taxa in the skin are significantly influenced by host genetic variation. In this study, we analyzed the skin microbiota of mice from the 15th generation of an advanced intercross line using a novel approach of extending bacterial trait mapping to both the 16S rRNA gene copy (DNA) and transcript (RNA) levels, which reflect relative bacterial cell number and activity, respectively...
June 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586641/tregs-expand-the-skin-stem-cell-niche
#8
Valerie Horsley, Shruti Naik
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are emerging as an essential stem cell niche component that promotes wound repair in adipose, muscle, and lung tissues. Recently in Cell, Ali et al. (2017) report that skin resident Tregs facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells through Notch signaling.
June 5, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571817/development-of-orbital-adipose-derived-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-studying-the-formation-of-baggy-lower-eyelids
#9
Xi Chen, Guangpeng Liu
In old population, there is often a protrusion of the orbital fat pad underlying the skin in the lower eyelids, giving an aspect of palpable pouches. It is generally thought that orbital fat hyperplasia is the main contributing factor to the formation of baggy lower eyelids, and resection of excessive orbital fat pad is routinely performed during the eyelid cosmetic surgery. In our clinical study, however, it was revealed that the adipocytes in orbital fat tissue from older people became smaller compared to those from the young individuals...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566372/occludin-expression-in-epidermal-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-response-to-epidermal-stress-causes-them-to-migrate-into-draining-lymph-nodes
#10
Takahito Saito, Michihiro Yano, Yutaro Ohki, Michio Tomura, Naoko Nakano
Epidermal γδ T cells that reside in the front line of the skin play a pivotal role in stress immune surveillance. However, it is not clear whether these cells are involved in further induction of immune responses after they are activated in dysregulated epidermis. In this study, we found that activated γδ T cells expressed occludin and migrated into draining lymph nodes in an occludin-dependent manner. Epidermal γδ T cells in occludin-deficient mice exhibited impairments in morphology changes and motility, although they expressed activation markers at levels comparable to those in wild-type cells...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555812/lung-resident-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-their-roles-in-lung-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Min Cheng, Shilian Hu
γδ T cells are greatly enriched in mucosal and epithelial sites, such as the skin, respiratory, digestive and reproductive tracts, and they are defined as tissue-resident immune cells. In these tissues, the characteristics and biological roles of γδ T cells are distinguished from each other. The lungs represent the most challenging immunological dilemma for the host, and they have their own effective immune system. The abundance of γδ T cells, an estimated 8-20% of resident pulmonary lymphocytes in the lung, maintains lung tissue homeostasis...
May 29, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552347/regulatory-t-cells-in-skin-facilitate-epithelial-stem-cell-differentiation
#12
Niwa Ali, Bahar Zirak, Robert Sanchez Rodriguez, Mariela L Pauli, Hong-An Truong, Kevin Lai, Richard Ahn, Kaitlin Corbin, Margaret M Lowe, Tiffany C Scharschmidt, Keyon Taravati, Madeleine R Tan, Roberto R Ricardo-Gonzalez, Audrey Nosbaum, Marta Bertolini, Wilson Liao, Frank O Nestle, Ralf Paus, George Cotsarelis, Abul K Abbas, Michael D Rosenblum
The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation...
June 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543620/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-the-afro-caribbean-community-an-11-year-retrospective-study
#13
Nadège Cordel, Lucie Bonnecarrère, Benoit Tressières
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered the most frequent skin cancer in black people. Its incidence is not known in the Afro-Caribbean population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of SCC in Guadeloupe, the largest island of the Lesser Antilles (405 000 inhabitants, mostly black people of African and European descent). The second objective was to characterize clinical and histological patterns of SCC occurring in the Afro-Caribbean community. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted over an 11-year period (2000-2010)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539548/skin-resident-stem-cells-and-wound-healing
#14
Yohei Iwata, Hirohiko Akamatsu, Yuichi Hasebe, Seiji Hasegawa, Kazumitsu Sugiura
  CD271 is common stem cell marker for the epidermis and dermis. We assessed a kinetic movement of epidermal and dermal CD271(+) cells in the wound healing process to elucidate the possible involvement with chronic skin ulcers. Epidermal CD271(+) cells were proliferated and migrated from 3 days after wounding. Purified epidermal CD271(+) cells expressed higher TGFβ2 and VEGFα transcripts than CD271(-) cells. Delayed wound healing was observed in the aged mice compared with young mice. During the wound healing process, the peak of dermal CD271(+) cell accumulation was delayed in aged mice compared with young mice...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528606/vitiligo-not-simply-a-skin-disease
#15
REVIEW
Jusleen Ahluwalia, Lilia M Correa-Selm, Babar K Rao
Melanocytes, the cells responsible for skin pigmentation, are present in other parts of the body, such as the ocular, auditory, nervous, and cardiac systems. Within these systems, their roles serve a different purpose than their classical counterparts in skin as pigment cells. Such roles include cell turnover in retinal pigment epithelium, maintenance of balance and prevention of environmental damage in the auditory neuroepithelium, role-playing as dendritic cells within the leptomeninges, and prevention of oxidative damage in adipose tissue...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511289/human-enthesis-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells
#16
Richard J Cuthbert, Evangelos M Fragkakis, Robert Dunsmuir, Zhi Li, Mark Coles, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Peter Giannoudis, Elena Jones, Yasser M El-Sherbiny, Dennis McGonagle
Objective Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) play a pivotal role in barrier tissues such as the gut and the skin, two important sites of disease in spondyloarthropathy (SpA). It was investigated whether normal and injured human enthesis, the key target tissue in early SpA, harboured ILC3s in entheseal soft tissue (EST) and adjacent peri-entheseal bone (PEB). Methods Interspinous ligament and spinous process bone was collected from donors with no systemic inflammatory disease, enzymatically digested and immunophenotyped...
May 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504838/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-in-filarial-infections
#17
Sandra Bonne-Année, Thomas B Nutman
Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in non-mucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged...
May 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502796/in-vivo-reprogramming-for-heart-regeneration-a-glance-at-efficiency-environmental-impacts-challenges-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Behnam Ebrahimi
Replacing dying or diseased cells of a tissue with new ones that are converted from patient's own cells is an attractive strategy in regenerative medicine. In vivo reprogramming is a novel strategy that can circumvent the hurdles of autologous/allogeneic cell injection therapies. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that direct injection of cardiac transcription factors or specific miRNAs into the infarct border zone of murine hearts following myocardial infarction converts resident cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501577/probucol-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-leukocyte-recruitment-and-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-effect-on-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-activation-and-cytokine-production
#19
Amanda Z Zucoloto, Marília F Manchope, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Ana C Zarpelon, André L L Saraiva, Nerry Tatiana Cecílio, José C Alves-Filho, Thiago M Cunha, Gustavo B Menezes, Fernando Q Cunha, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
Probucol 4,4'- (Isopropylidenedithio)bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) is a synthetic molecule clinically used for prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial effects of probucol mainly derive from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Gram-negative bacteria are common infectious agents and their wall components, e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are important elicitors of inflammation. LPS is sensed by tissue resident cells and it triggers a Toll-like receptor 4/MyD88-dependent signaling cascade resulting in endothelial activation, leukocyte recruitment and nociception...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494100/paracrine-regulation-of-melanogenesis
#20
REVIEW
X H Yuan, Z H Jin
Melanocytes are generally characterized by the basic ability of melanin synthesis and transfer to adjacent keratinocytes to constitute individual skin phenotype and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, through a complex process called melanogenesis, which can be regulated by autocrine or paracrine factors. Recent evidences have revealed the paracrine effects of keratinocytes on melanogenesis by secreting cytokines, including alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and endothelin-1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
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