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skin resident cell

Hyemin Kim, Won Ho Kong, Keum-Yong Seong, Dong Kyung Sung, Hyeonseon Jeong, Jin Kon Kim, Seung Yun Yang, Sei Kwang Hahn
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been recognized as an excellent wound healing agent due to its therapeutic function stimulating skin cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. However, the transdermal delivery of EGF poses a significant challenge due to its short half-life and lack of efficient formulation. Here, to improve the transdermal delivery efficiency, EGF was conjugated to hyaluronate (HA), which was formulated into a patch-type film for skin wound healing. HA-EGF conjugate was synthesized by coupling reaction between aldehyde-modified HA and N-terminal amine group of EGF to minimize the loss of biological activities...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Joern Pezoldt, Jochen Huehn
Upon differentiation, T cells acquire tissue-specific homing properties allowing efficient targeting of effector T cells into distinct inflamed organs. Priming of T cells within skin-draining, peripheral lymph nodes (pLNs) leads to the expression of E- and P-selectin ligands, which facilitate migration into inflamed skin, whereas activation within gut-draining, mesenteric LNs (mLNs) results in induction of chemokine receptor CCR9 and integrin α4β7, both required for migration of effector T cells into mucosal tissues...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Joaquim Suñer-Carbó, Antonio Boix-Montañés, Lyda Halbaut-Bellowa, Nelvis Velázquez-Carralero, Joanna Zamarbide-Ledesma, Nuria Bozal-de-Febrer, Ana Cristina Calpena-Campmany
Local delivery of imidazolic antifungals is limited by its extreme lipophilicity. Multiple emulsions (ME) are a potential vehicle to enhance the delivery of econazole nitrate (ECN), an antifungal targeted to deep-seated epidermal yeast infections. An 1% ECN hydrophilic ME was compared with a commercial formulation in terms of rheology, droplet size and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida species. Comparative in vitro drug release, human skin permeation and drug retention were investigated using vertical diffusion cells...
October 20, 2016: Mycoses
Mª Del Mar Blanquer-Rosselló, Reyniel Hernández-López, Pilar Roca, Jordi Oliver, Adamo Valle
BACKGROUND: The polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) is found in the skin of red grapes and has been reported to exhibit anticancer properties. The antitumor effects of RSV in the gastrointestinal tract have gained considerable interest due to the high exposure of this tissue to this dietary compound. One of the hallmarks of cancer cells is their particular metabolism mainly relying on glycolysis for ATP production rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Although RSV has been described to act as a calorie-restriction mimetic, modulating energy metabolism in normal tissues, little efforts have been done to study the effects of this polyphenol in the metabolism of cancer cells...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
F M Elli, V Boldrin, A Pirelli, A Spada, G Mantovani
All tissues and organs derive from stem cells, which are undifferentiated cells able to differentiate into specialized cells and self-renewal. In mammals, there are embryonic stem cells that generate germ layers, and adult stem cells, which act as a repair system for the body and maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic adult multipotent cells, which reside in virtually all postnatal organs and tissues, and, under appropriate in vitro conditions, are capable to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic lineages...
October 18, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Jennifer Jurkin, Corinna Krump, René Köffel, Christina Fieber, Christopher Schuster, Patrick M Brunner, Izabela Borek, Gregor Eisenwort, Clarice Lim, Jörg Mages, Roland Lang, Wolfgang Bauer, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Georg Stingl, Herbert Strobl
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell (LC) networks play key roles in immunity and tolerance at body surfaces. LCs are established prenatally and can be replenished from blood monocytes. Unlike skin-resident dermal/interstitial-type DCs (d/intDCs) and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDECs) appearing in dermatitis/eczema lesions, LCs lack key monocyte-affiliated markers. Inversely, LCs express various epithelial genes critical for their long-term peripheral tissue residency. OBJECTIVE: DCs are functionally involved in inflammatory diseases; however, mechanisms remained poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Reinhild Feuerstein, Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The dermis, a major reservoir of immune cells in immediate vicinity to the colonizing skin microflora, serves as an important site of host-pathogen interactions. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the most frequent resident immune cell type in the dermis. They protect the host from invasive infections by highly adapted bacteria, such as staphylococci via pattern recognition of bacterial effectors, phagocytosis, and recruitment of other myeloid cells from the blood. Already under homeostatic conditions, the dermal Mϕ population receives a dynamic input of monocytes invading from the bloodstream...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Margaret L Barlow, Ryan J Cummings, Alice P Pentland, Tanzy M T Love, Constantine G Haidaris, Julie L Ryan, Edith M Lord, Scott A Gerber
Exposure to radiation, particularly a large or total-body dose, weakens the immune system through loss of bone marrow precursor cells, as well as diminished populations of circulating and tissue-resident immune cells. One such population is the skin-resident immune cells. Changes in the skin environment can be of particular importance as the skin is also host to a number of commensal organisms, including Candida albicans , a species of fungus that causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients...
October 6, 2016: Radiation Research
Salvador Iborra, María Martínez-López, Sofía C Khouili, Michel Enamorado, Francisco J Cueto, Ruth Conde-Garrosa, Carlos Del Fresno, David Sancho
Despite the crucial role of tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells in protective immunity, their priming remains poorly understood. Here, we have shown differential priming requirements for Trm versus circulating memory CD8(+) T cells. In vaccinia cutaneous-infected mice, DNGR-1-mediated crosspresentation was required for optimal Trm cell priming but not for their skin differentiation or for circulating memory T cell generation. DNGR-1(+) dendritic cells (DCs) promoted T-bet transcription-factor induction and retention of CD8(+) T cells in the lymph nodes (LNs)...
September 24, 2016: Immunity
Jillian M Richmond, Dinesh S Bangari, Kingsley I Essien, Sharif D Currimbhoy, Joanna R Groom, Amit G Pandya, Michele E Youd, Andrew D Luster, John E Harris
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that results in the destruction of melanocytes and the clinical appearance of white spots. Disease pathogenesis depends on IFN-γ and IFN-γ-induced chemokines to promote T cell recruitment to the epidermis where melanocytes reside. The skin is a complex organ, with a variety of resident cell types. We sought to better define the microenvironment and distinct cellular contributions during autoimmunity in vitiligo, and found that the epidermis is a chemokine-high niche in both a mouse model and human vitiligo...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Sixia Huang, Panteleimon Rompolas
The adult skin is a typical example of a highly regenerative tissue. Terminally differentiated keratinocytes are shed from the external layers of the epidermis or extruded from the skin as part of the growing hair shaft on a daily basis. These are effectively replenished through the activity of skin-resident stem cells. Precise regulation of stem cell activity is critical for normal skin homeostasis or wound healing and irregular stem cell proliferation or differentiation can lead to skin disease. The scarcity and dynamic nature of stem cells presents a major challenge for elucidating their mechanism of action...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Luhua H Zhang, June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
A tissue-resident population of natural killer cells (NK cells) in the liver has recently been described to have the unique capacity to confer immunological memory in the form of hapten-specific contact hypersensitivity independent of T and B cells. Factors regulating the development and maintenance of these liver-resident NK cells are poorly understood. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor modulated by exogenous and endogenous ligands that is important in the homeostasis of immune cells at barrier sites, such as the skin and gut...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Meriem Riani, Sébastien Le Jan, Julie Plée, Anne Durlach, Richard Le Naour, Guy Haegeman, Philippe Bernard, Frank Antonicelli
BACKGROUND: The outcome of bullous pemphigoid (BP), the most frequent autoimmune skin-blistering disease, involves matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), IL-17, and IL-23 release from infiltrated inflammatory cells. The chemokine CXCL10 has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, but its participation in BP pathophysiology still needs to be clarified. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether BP outcome was associated with different CXCL10 levels and to evaluate the contribution of CXCL10 to the described cytokine/protease inflammatory loop associated with disease outcome...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Karsten Mahnke, Jurgina Useliene, Sabine Ring, Paula Kage, Verena Jendrossek, Simon C Robson, Matilda Bylaite-Bucinskiene, Kerstin Steinbrink, Alexander H Enk
Injection of regulatory T cells (Treg) followed by sensitization with TNCB induced a transient increase in size and cellularity of skin draining lymph nodes (LN) in mice. This led us to hypothesize that Treg may affect the trafficking of T cells from - and to peripheral LN. Two to three hours after sensitization we found fewer CD8(+) T cells expressing CD62L in LN as compared to untreated controls. Injection of wildtype Treg prevented this down-regulation of CD62L. In contrast, Treg devoid of the ATP-degrading ecto-enzyme CD39 were unable to do so...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Christopher G Mueller, Benjamin Voisin
Skin Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells of the interfollicular epidermis and the upper part of the hair follicle, whereas osteoclasts are specialized bone-resorbing macrophages. Although at first view these two cell types appear to have little in common, a closer analysis reveals shared features, and when taking into account their surrounding environment, a hypothesis can be developed that Langerhans cells and osteoclasts have evolved from a common ancestral cell type. In this mini-review, we have compared the ontogenetic features of Langerhans cells and osteoclasts from a genetic and a functional point of view, an issue that so far has been overlooked...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Natacha A Agabalyan, Breanna S Borys, Holly D Sparks, Kathryn Boon, Eko W Raharjo, Sepideh Abbasi, Michael S Kallos, Jeff Biernaskie
: : Endogenous dermal stem cells (DSCs) reside in the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and can be isolated and grown in vitro as self-renewing colonies called skin-derived precursors (SKPs). Following transplantation into skin, SKPs can generate new dermis and reconstitute the dermal papilla and connective tissue sheath, suggesting they could have important therapeutic value for the treatment of skin disease (alopecia) or injury. Controlled cell culture processes must be developed to efficiently and safely generate sufficient stem cell numbers for clinical use...
September 9, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Marco Diani, Gianfranco Altomare, Eva Reali
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which is associated with systemic inflammation and comorbidities, such as psoriatic arthritis and cardiovascular diseases. The autoimmune nature of psoriasis has been established only recently, conferring a central role to epidermal CD8 T cells recognizing self-epitopes in the initial phase of the disease. Different subsets of helper cells have also been reported as key players in the psoriasis pathogenesis. Here, we reviewed the knowledge on the role of each subset in the psoriatic cascade and in the different clinical manifestations of the disease...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Neia Naldaiz-Gastesi, María Goicoechea, Sonia Alonso-Martín, Ana Aiastui, Macarena López-Mayorga, Paula García-Belda, Jaione Lacalle, Carlos San José, Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo, Lidwine Trouilh, Véronique Anton-Leberre, Diego Herrero, Ander Matheu, Antonio Bernad, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jaime J Carvajal, Frédéric Relaix, Adolfo Lopez de Munain, Patricia García-Parra, Ander Izeta
The dermal Panniculus carnosus (PC) muscle is important for wound contraction in lower mammals and represents an interesting model of muscle regeneration due to its high cell turnover. The resident satellite cells (the bona fide muscle stem cells) remain poorly characterized. Here we analyzed PC satellite cells with regard to developmental origin and purported function. Lineage tracing shows that they originate in Myf5(+), Pax3/Pax7(+) cell populations. Skin and muscle wounding increased PC myofiber turnover, with the satellite cell progeny being involved in muscle regeneration but with no detectable contribution to the wound-bed myofibroblasts...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Sheng Yi, Fei Ding, Leilei Gong, Xiaosong Gu
The extracellular matrix is produced by the resident cells in tissues and organs, and secreted into the surrounding medium to provide biophysical and biochemical support to surrounding cells due to its containing of diverse bioactive molecules. Recently, the extracellular matrix has been used as a promising approach for tissue engineering. Emerging studies demonstrate that extracellular matrix scaffolds are able to create a favorable regenerative microenvironment, promote tissue-specific remodeling, and act as an inductive template for the repair and functional reconstruction of skin, bone, nerve, heart, lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, and other organs...
September 4, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Matthew M Ramsey, Marcelo O Freire, Rebecca A Gabrilska, Kendra P Rumbaugh, Katherine P Lemon
Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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