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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528606/vitiligo-not-simply-a-skin-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jusleen Ahluwalia, Lilia M Correa-Selm, Babar K Rao
Melanocytes, the cells responsible for skin pigmentation, are present in other parts of the body, such as the ocular, auditory, nervous, and cardiac systems. Within these systems, their roles serve a different purpose than their classical counterparts in skin as pigment cells. Such roles include cell turnover in retinal pigment epithelium, maintenance of balance and prevention of environmental damage in the auditory neuroepithelium, role-playing as dendritic cells within the leptomeninges, and prevention of oxidative damage in adipose tissue...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511289/human-enthesis-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells
#2
Richard J Cuthbert, Evangelos M Fragkakis, Robert Dunsmuir, Zhi Li, Mark Coles, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Peter Giannoudis, Elena Jones, Yasser M El-Sherbiny, Dennis McGonagle
Objective Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) play a pivotal role in barrier tissues such as the gut and the skin, two important sites of disease in spondyloarthropathy (SpA). It was investigated whether normal and injured human enthesis, the key target tissue in early SpA, harboured ILC3s in entheseal soft tissue (EST) and adjacent peri-entheseal bone (PEB). Methods Interspinous ligament and spinous process bone was collected from donors with no systemic inflammatory disease, enzymatically digested and immunophenotyped...
May 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504838/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-in-filarial-infections
#3
Sandra Bonne-Année, Thomas B Nutman
Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in non-mucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged...
May 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502796/in-vivo-reprogramming-for-heart-regeneration-a-glance-at-efficiency-environmental-impacts-challenges-and-future-directions
#4
REVIEW
Behnam Ebrahimi
Replacing dying or diseased cells of a tissue with new ones that are converted from patient's own cells is an attractive strategy in regenerative medicine. In vivo reprogramming is a novel strategy that can circumvent the hurdles of autologous/allogeneic cell injection therapies. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that direct injection of cardiac transcription factors or specific miRNAs into the infarct border zone of murine hearts following myocardial infarction converts resident cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501577/probucol-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-leukocyte-recruitment-and-inflammatory-hyperalgesia-effect-on-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-activation-and-cytokine-production
#5
Amanda Z Zucoloto, Marília F Manchope, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Ana C Zarpelon, André L L Saraiva, Tatiana N Cecílio, José C Alves-Filho, Thiago M Cunha, Gustavo B Menezes, Fernando Q Cunha, Rubia Casagrande, Waldiceu A Verri
Probucol (4,4'- (Isopropylidenedithio)bis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) is a synthetic molecule clinically used for prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial effects of probucol mainly derive from its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Gram-negative bacteria are common infectious agents and their wall components, e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are important elicitors of inflammation. LPS is sensed by tissue resident cells and it triggers a Toll-like receptor 4/MyD88-dependent signaling cascade resulting in endothelial activation, leukocyte recruitment and nociception...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494100/paracrine-regulation-of-melanogenesis
#6
REVIEW
X H Yuan, Z H Jin
Melanocytes are generally characterized by the basic ability of melanin synthesis and transfer to adjacent keratinocytes to constitute individual skin phenotype and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, through a complex process called melanogenesis, which can be regulated by autocrine or paracrine factors. Recent evidences have revealed the paracrine effects of keratinocytes on melanogenesis by secreting cytokines, including alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and endothelin-1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477344/artocarpin-enriched-artocarpus-altilis-heartwood-extract-protects-against-uvb-induced-mechanical-damage-in-dermal-fibroblasts
#7
Narisara Tiraravesit, Philippe Humbert, Sophie Robin, Marion Tissot, Céline Viennet, Jarupa Viyoch
Ultraviolet B radiation has a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the dermis and on the activities of resident fibroblasts, including the disorganization and fragmentation of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM). It induces alterations in cytoskeleton structure, motility and the contractile forces of the fibroblasts. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Artocarpus altilis heartwood extract on the mechanical properties of ultraviolet B-irradiated fibroblasts. Human skin fibroblasts were pretreated with 50 μg/mL artocarpin-enriched extract for 48 h and later irradiated with ultraviolet B at 200 mJ/cm(2) ...
May 6, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457909/critical-role-for-skin-derived-migratory-dcs-and-langerhans-cells-in-tfh-and-gc-responses-after-intradermal-immunization
#8
Clément Levin, Olivia Bonduelle, Charles Nuttens, Charlotte Primard, Bernard Verrier, Alexandre Boissonnas, Béhazine Combadière
Intradermal (ID) delivery of antigen represents a potent route of immunization that involves multiple blood- and skin-derived dendritic cell (DC) sub-populations endowed with specialized functions and dynamics in their ability to prime naïve CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node (DLN). Yet, their individual contributions to the generation of CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH) cells and germinal centers (GCs) remain to be understood. We found that ID immunization of mice with a particle-based vaccine induced robust TFH and GC B cell responses in skin DLNs, which were completely abrogated when skin cell emigration was prevented...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455697/the-differentiation-of-skin-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-a-schwann-cell-phenotype-impact-of-sigma-1-receptor-activation
#9
L Saulite, E Vavers, L Zvejniece, M Dambrova, U Riekstina
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are the source of mature Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The NCSC population resides in the bulge of hair follicles and in the dermis. Recently, it was shown that 2-3% of the human dermis mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) population expresses the NCSC marker CD271, thus enabling the use of skin MSCs for studying Schwann cell differentiation in vitro. The aims of this study were to establish a protocol for human skin MSC differentiation towards Schwann cell-like cells (SC-lcs) and to analyse the expression of sigma-1 receptor (S1R) in SC-lcs...
April 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453771/interplay-between-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-6-impacts-the-inflammatory-response-and-expression-of-interferon-regulated-genes-in-environmental-induced-autoimmunity
#10
David M Cauvi, Gabrielle Cauvi, Christopher B Toomey, Eric Jacquinet, K Michael Pollard
IFN-γ has been found to be robustly important to disease pathogenesis in both idiopathic and induced models of murine lupus. In transgenic mice, over production of IFN-γ in the skin results in an inflammatory response and autoimmunity. This suggests that localized exposure to environmental factors that induce autoimmunity may be associated with expression of an IFN-γ dependent inflammatory response. Using murine mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgIA), the severity of inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine expression, including the cellular source of IFN-γ, were assessed at the site of subcutaneous exposure and in secondary lymphoid organs...
April 26, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425064/a-pathway-to-personalizing-therapy-for-metastases-using-liver-on-a-chip-platforms
#11
A S Khazali, A M Clark, A Wells
Metastasis accounts for most cancer-related deaths. The majority of solid cancers, including those of the breast, colorectum, prostate and skin, metastasize at significant levels to the liver due to its hemodynamic as well as tumor permissive microenvironmental properties. As this occurs prior to detection and treatment of the primary tumor, we need to target liver metastases to improve patients' outcomes. Animal models, while proven to be useful in mechanistic studies, do not represent the heterogeneity of human population especially in drug metabolism lack proper human cell-cell interactions, and this gap between animals and humans results in costly and inefficient drug discovery...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419818/local-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-promote-corneal-regeneration-after-epithelial-abrasion
#12
Jun Liu, Chengju Xiao, Hanqing Wang, Yunxia Xue, Dong Dong, Cuipei Lin, Fang Song, Ting Fu, Zhaorui Wang, Jiansu Chen, Hongwei Pan, Yangqiu Li, Dongqing Cai, Zhijie Li
Corneal injuries and infections are the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that control healing of the damaged cornea is critical for the development of new therapies to promptly restore vision. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified heterogeneous cell population that has been reported to orchestrate immunity and promote tissue repair in the lungs and skin after injury. However, whether ILCs can modulate the repair process in the cornea remains poorly understood...
June 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419151/skin-resident-cd4-t-cells-protect-against-leishmania-major-by-recruiting-and-activating-inflammatory-monocytes
#13
Nelson D Glennie, Susan W Volk, Phillip Scott
Tissue-resident memory T cells are required for establishing protective immunity against a variety of different pathogens, although the mechanisms mediating protection by CD4+ resident memory T cells are still being defined. In this study we addressed this issue with a population of protective skin-resident, IFNγ-producing CD4+ memory T cells generated following Leishmania major infection. We previously found that resident memory T cells recruit circulating effector T cells to enhance immunity. Here we show that resident memory CD4+ T cells mediate the delayed-hypersensitivity response observed in immune mice and provide protection without circulating T cells...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416697/small-molecule-mediated-inhibition-of-myofibroblast-transdifferentiation-for-the-treatment-of-fibrosis
#14
Michael J Bollong, Baiyuan Yang, Naja Vergani, Brittney A Beyer, Emily N Chin, Claudio Zambaldo, Danling Wang, Arnab K Chatterjee, Luke L Lairson, Peter G Schultz
Fibrosis, a disease in which excessive amounts of connective tissue accumulate in response to physical damage and/or inflammatory insult, affects nearly every tissue in the body and can progress to a state of organ malfunction and death. A hallmark of fibrotic disease is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix-secreting activated myofibroblasts (MFBs) in place of functional parenchymal cells. As such, the identification of agents that selectively inhibit the transdifferentiation process leading to the formation of MFBs represents an attractive approach for the treatment of diverse fibrosis-related diseases...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349520/a-retrospective-review-of-the-dermatologic-manifestations-of-chronic-arsenic-poisoning-in-the-philippines
#15
Sheena Maureen T Sy, Charissa M Salud-Gnilo, Claudine Yap-Silva, Erin Jane L Tababa
BACKGROUND: The Section of Dermatology of the University of the Philippines, Philippine General Hospital, reported a case of chronic arsenic poisoning from a community in Luzon island to the Department of Health resulting in the conduct of two health and environmental assessment missions in December 2014. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile and cutaneous manifestations of chronic arsenic poisoning among affected residents in Luzon, Philippines. METHODS: A review of the medical records of 116 residents screened during the health assessment missions in December 2014 was conducted...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346486/grem1-is-expressed-in-the-cancer-associated-myofibroblasts-of-basal-cell-carcinomas
#16
Hye Sung Kim, Myung Soo Shin, Min Seok Cheon, Jae Wang Kim, Cheol Lee, Woo Ho Kim, Young Sill Kim, Bo Gun Jang
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play important roles in cancer progression through their complex interactions with cancer cells. The secreted bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, gremlin1 (GREM1) is expressed by the CAFs of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), and promotes the growth of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of GREM1 mRNAs in various benign and malignant skin tumors, including various BCC subtypes. Analysis by RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) revealed that fibroblasts in the scar tissue expressed GREM1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas resident fibroblasts in the dermis of the normal skin did not express GREM1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345628/tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-the-human-conjunctiva-and-immune-signatures-in-human-dry-eye-disease
#17
Tanima Bose, Ryan Lee, Aihua Hou, Louis Tong, K George Chandy
Non-recirculating resident memory (TRM) and recirculating T cells mount vigorous immune responses to both self and foreign antigens in barrier tissues like the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract. Using impression cytology followed by flow cytometry we identified two TRM subsets and four recirculating T-subsets in the healthy human ocular surface. In dry eye disease, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed two clusters of patients with distinct T-cell signatures. Increased conjunctival central memory and naïve T cells characterized Cluster-1 patients, and increased CD8(+) TRMs and CD4(+) recirculating memory T cells characterized Cluster-2 patients...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344860/il-32-induces-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-cd1c-dendritic-cells-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-cd163-macrophages-relevance-to-mycosis-fungoides-progression
#18
Hanako Ohmatsu, Daniel Humme, Juana Gonzalez, Nicholas Gulati, Markus Möbs, Wolfram Sterry, James G Krueger
Mycosis fungoides (MF) progresses from patch to tumor stage by expansion of malignant T-cells that fail to be controlled by protective immune mechanisms. In this study, we focused on IL-32, a cytokine, highly expressed in MF lesions. Depending on the other cytokines (IL-4, GM-CSF) present during in vitro culture of healthy volunteers' monocytes, IL-32 increased the maturation of CD11c(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and/or CD163(+) macrophages, but IL-32 alone showed a clear ability to promote dendritic cell (DC) differentiation from monocytes...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330499/a-novel-multi-network-approach-reveals-tissue-specific-cellular-modulators-of-fibrosis-in-systemic-sclerosis
#19
Jaclyn N Taroni, Casey S Greene, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A Wood, Romy B Christmann, Harrison W Farber, Robert A Lafyatis, Christopher P Denton, Monique E Hinchcliff, Patricia A Pioli, J Matthew Mahoney, Michael L Whitfield
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by skin fibrosis. Internal organ involvement is heterogeneous. It is unknown whether disease mechanisms are common across all involved affected tissues or if each manifestation has a distinct underlying pathology. METHODS: We used consensus clustering to compare gene expression profiles of biopsies from four SSc-affected tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood) from patients with SSc, and the related conditions pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension, and derived a consensus disease-associate signature across all tissues...
March 23, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329631/the-burden-of-keratinocyte-cancer-occurrence-multiplicity-and-predicting-risk
#20
David C Whiteman, Nirmala Pandeya, Bridie Thompson, Padmini Subramaniam, Jean Claude Dusingize, Rachel E Neale, Adele C Green, Catherine M Olsen
The costs of diagnosing and treating basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are the highest of all cancers in Australia. However, information regarding incidence, multiplicity and risk are scarce as keratinocyte cancers (KCs) are not captured by most registries. To address these gaps, we initiated the QSKIN Study in 2010 recruiting 43,794 Queensland residents from a population register (participation 24%). Participants self-completed a baseline survey recording information on residential history, sun exposure, phenotype and medical and family history...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
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