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Chao Dong, Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chun Yang, Shigeyuki Chaki, Kenji Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Similar to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine, the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonist, MGS0039 shows antidepressant effects. However, there are no reports comparing these two compounds in the social defeat stress model of depression. METHODS: We examined the effects of MGS0039 (1 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) on depression-like behavior in susceptible mice, after repeated social defeat stress. Protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, phospho-TrkB (p-TrkB), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (GluA1) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and dendritic spine density in selected brain regions were measured...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
V A Doss, Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. METHODS: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Ayse Tosun, Seda Erisen Karaca, Tolga Unuvar, Yakup Yurekli, Cigdem Yenisey, Imran Kurt Omurlu
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) disorders and possible risk factors in patients with epilepsy only (EO), cerebral palsy only (CPO), and cerebral palsy-epilepsy (CP + E). METHODS: A total of 122 patients [EO (n = 54), CPO (n = 30), CP + E (n = 38)] and 30 healthy children were evaluated. BMD was only measured in patient groups, not in control subjects. BMD of lumbar vertebrae was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Hsin-An Chang, Ying-Hsiu Wang, Che-Se Tung, Chin-Bin Yeh, Yia-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its specific receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase (TrkB), play important roles in treating depression. In this experiment, we examined whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a novel potent TrkB agonist, could reverse the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm in rats. METHODS: SD rats were exposed to a battery of stressors for 56 days. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (5 and 20 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally during the last 28 days of the CMS paradigm...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Xiaolie He, Yanjing Zhu, Mei Wang, Guoxin Jing, Rongrong Zhu, Shilong Wang
Major depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with few treatment approaches. The use of nontargeted antidepressants induced many side effects with their low efficacy. A more precise targeting strategy is to develop nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems; hence, we employed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to encapsulate HU-211 and curcumin (Cur). The antidepressant effects of the dual-drug nanoparticles (Cur/SLNs-HU-211) for major depression treatment were investigated in corticosterone-induced cellular and animal models of major depression...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen, Gitta Wörtwein, Jonas Folke, Bente Pakkenberg
Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is one of the strongest stimulators of hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents that represents a plausible mechanism for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder. Using design-based stereological cell counting, we recently documented an initial 2.6-fold increase in neurogenesis following a clinical relevant schedule of ECS, a treatment also rescuing depression-like behavior in rats. However, these results gave no demonstration of the longevity of newly-generated neurons...
October 18, 2016: Hippocampus
M Ayyub, A K Najmi, M Akhtar
Objective: Oxidative stress and alternation of renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various cardio vascular, endocrine including mood and anxiety disorders. The present study evaluated the role of irbesartan in stress induced different models of depression. Materials and method: Mice were treated with irbesartan (40 mg/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg) alone in combination orally. Drugs treatment started after 2 weeks from the beginning of the unpredictable mild stress (UCMS) protocol...
October 18, 2016: Drug Research
J M Parrott, L Redus, D Santana-Coelho, J Morales, X Gao, J C O'Connor
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has an important role in mediating the behavioral effects of inflammation, which has implications in understanding neuropsychiatric comorbidity and for the development of novel therapies. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prevents the development of many of these inflammation-induced preclinical behaviors. However, dysregulation in the balance of downstream metabolism, where neuroactive kynurenines are generated, is hypothesized to be a functionally important pathogenic feature of inflammation-induced depression...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Yu-Cheng Li, Ya-Min Liu, Ji-Duo Shen, Jun-Jie Chen, Yang-Yi Pei, Xiao-Yan Fang
Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration...
October 13, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Madeleine M Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Jukka Sallinen, Brian H Harvey
Depression involves deficits in monoaminergic neurotransmission. Differential roles for α2A, B and C subtypes of the α2-adrenoceptor (AR) are evident, with selective α2C-AR antagonists purported to have antidepressant and procognitive properties. However, this has not been demonstrated in a genetic animal model of depression. The role of the α2C-AR in modulating two key depression-related behaviours in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat was studied using a dose-response analysis following subcutaneous administration with the selective α2C-AR antagonist ORM-10921 (0...
September 30, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kuo Zhang, Jingyu Yang, Fang Wang, Xing Pan, Jian Liu, Lijuan Wang, Guanyue Su, Jie Ma, Yinxu Dong, Zhili Xiong, Chufu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often observed in the pathophysiology of depression. Antidepressant therapy can restore hippocampal neurogenesis to rescue the HPA axis regulation defects. Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically in depressive disorders in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated XCHT improved depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat, but the underlying mechanisms of XCHT on hippocampal neurogenesis and the HPA axis were still unclear...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
V A Macht, M Vazquez, C E Petyak, C A Grillo, K Kaigler, R T Enos, J L McClellan, T L Cranford, E A Murphy, J F Nyland, G Solomon, A Gertler, M A Wilson, L P Reagan
There is a growing appreciation that the complications of obesity extend to the central nervous system (CNS) and include increased risk for development of neuropsychiatric co-morbidities such as depressive illness. The neurological consequences of obesity may develop as a continuum and involve a progression of pathological features which is initiated by leptin resistance. Leptin resistance is a hallmark feature of obesity, but it is unknown whether leptin resistance or blockage of leptin action is casually linked to the neurological changes which underlie depressive-like phenotypes...
October 12, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Vivian B Neis, Luis E B Bettio, Morgana Moretti, Priscila B Rosa, Camille M Ribeiro, Andiara E Freitas, Filipe M Gonçalves, Rodrigo B Leal, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. We have previously demonstrated that it can induce a rapid increase in BDNF levels after acute administration, suggesting that agmatine may be a fast-acting antidepressant. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the effects of a single administration of agmatine in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a model of depression responsive only to chronic treatment with conventional antidepressants...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Takayuki Ishiwata, Arisa Oshimoto, Takehito Saito, Yasunori Kotani, Shigeki Nomoto, Yasutsugu Aihara, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Benjamin N Greenwood
We previously reported that tetrodotoxin (TTX) perfusion into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), which contains the cell bodies of serotonin (5-HT) neurons, induced a considerable body temperature reduction under normal and low ambient temperatures (23 and 5°C, respectively) in freely moving rats but showed no such effect under high ambient temperature (35°C). In the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) of body temperature reduction after TTX perfusion into the MRN by measuring tail skin temperature (an index of heat loss), heart rate (an index of heat production), and locomotor activity (Act) under normal ambient temperature (23°C)...
October 12, 2016: Neuroreport
Simonnet A, Zamberletti E, Cador M, Rubino T, Caillé S
The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. Acute inhibition of anandamide (AEA) degradation efficiently reduces nicotine withdrawal-induced affective symptoms in rats and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the degradation enzyme of AEA, has been proposed as a possible treatment against nicotine addiction. However, it is unclear whether chronic inhibition of AEA during nicotine abstinence will have beneficial or deleterious affective side-effects. Using a rat model of nicotine addiction, we found that, during abstinence, rats injected daily with a FAAH inhibitor (URB597) developed a depressive-like phenotype...
October 10, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Laura Arroyo, Ricard Carreras, Daniel Valent, Raquel Peña, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Josefa Sabrià, Anna Bassols
Chemical neurotransmitters (NT) are principal actors in all neuronal networks of animals. The central nervous system plays an important role in stress susceptibility and organizes the response to a stressful situation through the interaction of the dopaminergic and the serotonergic pathways, leading to the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). This study was designed to investigate: a) the effects of stressful handling of pigs at the slaughterhouse on the neurotransmitter profile in four brain areas: amygdala, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and hypothalamus, and b) whether the alterations in the brain NT profile after stressful handling were associated with fear, determined by the tonic immobility (TI) test...
October 11, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Sara Nørgaard Sørensen, Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft, Rose Rasmussen, Anders Baun
Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs. This study explores the applicability of short-term (1, 2 and 3h) pulse exposures as means to keep the exposure stable and at the same time disclose acute and chronic effects of AgNPs and CuONPs in D. magna. Dissolution, agglomeration and sedimentation were found to have less influence on exposure concentrations during 1-3h pulses than for 24-48h continuous exposures...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
V D'Orazi, A Panunzi, E Di Lorenzo, Al Ortensi, M Cialini, S Anichini, A Ortensi
AIM: The use of microsurgical technique and loupes magnification as a support to traditional surgery can help surgical performance and prevent complications in thyroid surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2014, 782 patients with thyroid diseases were operated by our team with microsurgical technique and loupes magnification 4.5x. All patients had pre and postoperative vocal cords assessment and calcemia and the collected data were analysed...
May 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Jeesu Kim, Sara Park, Yuhan Jung, Sunyeob Chang, Jinyong Park, Yumiao Zhang, Jonathan F Lovell, Chulhong Kim
Photoacoustic imaging has attracted interest for its capacity to capture functional spectral information with high spatial and temporal resolution in biological tissues. Several photoacoustic imaging systems have been commercialized recently, but they are variously limited by non-clinically relevant designs, immobility, single anatomical utility (e.g., breast only), or non-programmable interfaces. Here, we present a real-time clinical photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system which consists of an FDA-approved clinical ultrasound system integrated with a portable laser...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
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