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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437583/natural-selection-on-mhc-ii%C3%AE-in-parapatric-lake-and-stream-stickleback-balancing-divergent-both-or-neither
#1
William E Stutz, Daniel I Bolnick
Major histocompatibility (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a central role in vertebrates' adaptive immunity to parasites. MHC loci are among the most polymorphic in vertebrates' genomes, inspiring many studies to identify evolutionary processes driving MHC polymorphism within populations, and divergence between populations. Leading hypotheses include balancing selection favoring rare alleles within populations, and spatially divergent selection. These hypotheses do not always produce diagnosably distinct predictions, causing many studies of MHC to yield inconsistent or ambiguous results...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436850/pulmonary-lobe-segmentation-with-probabilistic-segmentation-of-the-fissures-and-a-groupwise-fissure-prior
#2
Felix Bragman, Jamie McClelland, Joseph Jacob, John Hurst, David Hawkes
A fully automated, unsupervised lobe segmentation algorithm is presented based on a probabilistic segmentation of the fissures and the simultaneous construction of a population model of the fissures. A two-class probabilistic segmentation segments the lung into candidate fissure voxels and the surrounding parenchyma. This was combined with anatomical information and a groupwise fissure prior to drive non-parametric surface fitting to obtain the final segmentation. The performance of our fissure segmentation was validated on 30 patients from the COPDGene cohort, achieving a high median F1-score of 0:90 and showed general insensitivity to filter parameters...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432419/-driving-and-dementia-an-issue-for-general-practice
#3
REVIEW
Verena Leve, Katharina Ilse, Marie Ufert, Stefan Wilm, Michael Pentzek
BACKGROUND: With most forms of dementia, the risk of road traffic accidents increases with disease progression. Addressing the issue of fitness to drive at an early stage can help to reduce driving-related risks and simultaneously preserve mobility. General practitioners (GPs) are central contact persons for dementia patients and their relatives in medical and psychosocial matters, and also play a key role in addressing the issue of driving safety. OBJECTIVE: Identification of relevant aspects of managing fitness to drive in dementia, as well as of support requirements for German general practice...
April 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430105/switching-of-metabolic-programs-in-response-to-light-availability-is-an-essential-function-of-the-cyanobacterial-circadian-output-pathway
#4
Anna M Puszynska, Erin K O'Shea
The transcription factor RpaA is the master regulator of circadian transcription in cyanobacteria, driving genome-wide oscillations in mRNA abundance. Deletion of rpaA has no effect on viability in constant light conditions, but renders cells inviable in cycling conditions when light and dark periods alternate. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this viability defect, and demonstrate that the rpaA(-) strain cannot maintain appropriate energy status at night, does not accumulate carbon reserves during the day, and is defective in transcription of genes crucial for utilization of carbohydrate stores at night...
April 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428555/application-of-high-resolution-melting-assay-hrm-to-study-temperature-dependent-intraspecific-competition-in-a-pathogenic-bacterium
#5
Roghaieh Ashrafi, Matthieu Bruneaux, Lotta-Riina Sundberg, Katja Pulkkinen, Tarmo Ketola
Studies on species' responses to climate change have focused largely on the direct effect of abiotic factors and in particular temperature, neglecting the effects of biotic interactions in determining the outcome of climate change projections. Many microbes rely on strong interference competition; hence the fitness of many pathogenic bacteria could be a function of both their growth properties and intraspecific competition. However, due to technical challenges in distinguishing and tracking individual strains, experimental evidence on intraspecific competition has been limited so far...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424712/a-functional-approach-towards-understanding-the-role-of-the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-in-an-endomycorrhizal-symbiosis
#6
Louis Mercy, Eva Lucic-Mercy, Amaia Nogales, Areg Poghosyan, Carolin Schneider, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called "second green revolution" by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418836/perspectives-accountability-for-mental-health-the-australian-experience
#7
Sebastian Rosenberg, Luis Salvador-Carulla
BACKGROUND: Australia was one of the first countries to develop a national policy for mental health. A persistent characteristic of all these policies has been their reference to the importance of accountability. What does this mean exactly and have we achieved it? Can Australia tell if anybody is getting better? AIMS OF THE STUDY: To review accountability for mental health in Australia and question whether two decades of Australian rhetoric around accountability for mental health has been fulfilled...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416017/patient-complexity-and-genotype-phenotype-correlations-in-biliary-atresia-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#8
Guo Cheng, Patrick Ho-Yu Chung, Edwin Kin-Wai Chan, Man-Ting So, Pak-Chung Sham, Stacey S Cherny, Paul Kwong-Hang Tam, Maria-Mercè Garcia-Barceló
BACKGROUND: Biliary Atresia (BA) is rare and genetically complex, and the pathogenesis is elusive. The disease course is variable and can represent heterogeneity, which hinders effective disease management. Deciphering the BA phenotypic variance is a priority in clinics and can be achieved by the integrative analysis of genotype and phenotype. We aim to explore the BA phenotypic features and to delineate the source of its variance. METHODS: The study is a cross-sectional observational study collating with case/control association analysis...
April 17, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411063/deploying-dengue-suppressing-wolbachia-robust-models-predict-slow-but-effective-spatial-spread-in-aedes-aegypti
#9
Michael Turelli, Nicholas H Barton
A novel strategy for controlling the spread of arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya is to transform mosquito populations with virus-suppressing Wolbachia. In general, Wolbachia transinfected into mosquitoes induce fitness costs through lower viability or fecundity. These maternally inherited bacteria also produce a frequency-dependent advantage for infected females by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which kills the embryos produced by uninfected females mated to infected males...
April 11, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410031/the-ecological-dynamics-of-natural-selection-traits-and-the-coevolution-of-community-structure
#10
Mark A McPeek
Natural selection has both genetic and ecological dynamics. The fitnesses of individuals change with their ecological context, and so the form and strength of selective agents change with abiotic factors and the phenotypes and abundances of interacting species. I use standard models of consumer-resource interactions to explore the ecological dynamics of natural selection and how various trait types influence these dynamics and the resulting structure of a community of coevolving species. Evolutionary optima favored by natural selection depend critically on the abundances of interacting species, and the traits of species can undergo dynamic cycling in limited areas of parameter space...
May 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409970/observation-of-betatron-x-ray-radiation-in-a-self-modulated-laser-wakefield-accelerator-driven-with-picosecond-laser-pulses
#11
F Albert, N Lemos, J L Shaw, B B Pollock, C Goyon, W Schumaker, A M Saunders, K A Marsh, A Pak, J E Ralph, J L Martins, L D Amorim, R W Falcone, S H Glenzer, J D Moody, C Joshi
We investigate a new regime for betatron x-ray emission that utilizes kilojoule-class picosecond lasers to drive wakes in plasmas. When such laser pulses with intensities of ∼5×10^{18}  W/cm^{2} are focused into plasmas with electron densities of ∼1×10^{19}  cm^{-3}, they undergo self-modulation and channeling, which accelerates electrons up to 200 MeV energies and causes those electrons to emit x rays. The measured x-ray spectra are fit with a synchrotron spectrum with a critical energy of 10-20 keV, and 2D particle-in-cell simulations were used to model the acceleration and radiation of the electrons in our experimental conditions...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408285/from-epigenetic-landscape-to-phenotypic-fitness-landscape-evolutionary-effect-of-pathogens-on-host-traits
#12
Mark Jayson V Cortez, Jomar F Rabajante, Jerrold M Tubay, Ariel L Babierra
The epigenetic landscape illustrates how cells differentiate through the control of gene regulatory networks. Numerous studies have investigated epigenetic gene regulation but there are limited studies on how the epigenetic landscape and the presence of pathogens influence the evolution of host traits. Here, we formulate a multistable decision-switch model involving several phenotypes with the antagonistic influence of parasitism. As expected, pathogens can drive dominant (common) phenotypes to become inferior through negative frequency-dependent selection...
April 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406982/novel-decay-dynamics-revealed-for-virus-mediated-drug-activation-in-cytomegalovirus-infection
#13
Jessica Rose, Vincent C Emery, Deepali Kumar, Anders Asberg, Anders Hartmann, Alan G Jardine, Angelo A Bignamini, Atul Humar, Avidan U Neumann
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts and globally is one of the most important congenital infections. The nucleoside analogue ganciclovir (GCV), which requires initial phosphorylation by the viral UL97 kinase, is the mainstay for treatment. To date, CMV decay kinetics during GCV therapy have not been extensively investigated and its clinical implications not fully appreciated. We measured CMV DNA levels in the blood of 92 solid organ transplant recipients with CMV disease over the initial 21 days of ganciclovir therapy and identified four distinct decay patterns, including a new pattern exhibiting a transient viral rebound (Hump) following initial decline...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406751/repetitive-dna-loci-and-their-modulation-by-the-non-canonical-nucleic-acid-structures-r-loops-and-g-quadruplexes
#14
Amanda C Hall, Lauren A Ostrowski, Violena Pietrobon, Karim Mekhail
Cells have evolved intricate mechanisms to maintain genome stability despite allowing mutational changes to drive evolutionary adaptation. Repetitive DNA sequences, which represent the bulk of most genomes, are a major threat to genome stability often driving chromosome rearrangements and disease. The major source of repetitive DNA sequences and thus the most vulnerable constituents of the genome are the rDNA (rDNA) repeats, telomeres, and transposable elements. Maintaining the stability of these loci is critical to overall cellular fitness and lifespan...
March 4, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405278/seasonal-patterns-in-reproductive-success-of-temperate-breeding-birds-experimental-tests-of-the-date-and-quality-hypotheses
#15
Vanessa B Harriman, Russell D Dawson, Lauren E Bortolotti, Robert G Clark
For organisms in seasonal environments, individuals that breed earlier in the season regularly attain higher fitness than their late-breeding counterparts. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these patterns: The quality hypothesis contends that early breeders are of better phenotypic quality or breed on higher quality territories, whereas the date hypothesis predicts that seasonally declining reproductive success is a response to a seasonal deterioration in environmental quality. In birds, food availability is thought to drive deteriorating environmental conditions, but few experimental studies have demonstrated its importance while also controlling for parental quality...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405277/a-hidden-markov-movement-model-for-rapidly-identifying-behavioral-states-from-animal-tracks
#16
Kim Whoriskey, Marie Auger-Méthé, Christoffer M Albertsen, Frederick G Whoriskey, Thomas R Binder, Charles C Krueger, Joanna Mills Flemming
Electronic telemetry is frequently used to document animal movement through time. Methods that can identify underlying behaviors driving specific movement patterns can help us understand how and why animals use available space, thereby aiding conservation and management efforts. For aquatic animal tracking data with significant measurement error, a Bayesian state-space model called the first-Difference Correlated Random Walk with Switching (DCRWS) has often been used for this purpose. However, for aquatic animals, highly accurate tracking data are now becoming more common...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404695/using-the-upshur-principles-to-discuss-medical-fitness-to-drive
#17
Erica Weir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402876/mechanistic-models-fit-to-variable-temperature-calorimetric-data-provide-insights-into-cooperativity
#18
Elihu C Ihms, Ian R Kleckner, Paul Gollnick, Mark P Foster
Allostery pervades macromolecular function and drives cooperative binding of ligands to macromolecules. To decipher the mechanisms of cooperative ligand binding it is necessary to define at a microscopic level the structural and thermodynamic consequences of binding of each ligand to its allosterically coupled site(s). However, dynamic sampling of alternative conformations (microstates) in allosteric molecules complicates interpretation of both structural and thermodynamic data. Isothermal titration calorimetry has the potential to directly quantify the thermodynamics of allosteric interactions, but usually falls short of enabling mechanistic insight...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402873/saxs-oriented-ensemble-refinement-of-flexible-biomolecules
#19
Peng Cheng, Junhui Peng, Zhiyong Zhang
The conformational flexibility of a biomolecule may play a crucial role in its biological function. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) is a very popular technique for characterizing biomolecule flexibility. It can be used to determine a possible structural ensemble of the biomolecule in solution with the aid of a computer simulation. In this article, we present a tool written in Python, which iteratively runs multiple independent enhanced sampling simulations such as amplified collective motions and accelerated molecular dynamics, and an ensemble optimization method to drive the biomolecule toward an ensemble that fits the SAXS data well...
April 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402000/x-chromosome-drive-in-a-widespread-palearctic-woodland-fly-drosophila-testacea
#20
Graeme L Keais, Mark A Hanson, Brent E Gowen, Steve J Perlman
Selfish genes that bias their own transmission during meiosis can spread rapidly in populations, even if they contribute negatively to the fitness of their host. Driving X chromosomes provide a clear example of this type of selfish propagation. These chromosomes have important evolutionary and ecological consequences, and can be found in a broad range of taxa including plants, mammals, and insects. Here we report a new case of X chromosome drive (X drive) in a widespread woodland fly, Drosophila testacea. We show that males carrying the driving X (SR males) sire 80-100% female offspring, and possess a diagnostic X chromosome haplotype that is perfectly associated with the sex ratio distortion phenotype...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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