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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109242/local-spin-dynamics-of-iron-oxide-magnetic-nanoparticles-dispersed-in-different-solvents-with-variable-size-and-shape-a-1-h-nmr-study
#1
M Basini, T Orlando, P Arosio, M F Casula, D Espa, S Murgia, C Sangregorio, C Innocenti, A Lascialfari
Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based on a nearly monodisperse iron oxide core and capped by oleic acid have been used as model systems for investigating the superparamagnetic spin dynamics by means of magnetometry measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) relaxometry. The key magnetic properties (saturation magnetization, coercive field, and frequency dependent "blocking" temperature) of MNPs with different core size (3.5 nm, 8.5 nm, and 17.5 nm), shape (spherical and cubic), and dispersant (hexane and water-based formulation) have been determined...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107056/selfing-local-mate-competition-and-reinforcement
#2
Mark D Rausher
Reinforcement can contribute to speciation by increasing the strength of prezygotic isolating mechanisms. Theoretical analyses over the past two decades have demonstrated that conditions for reinforcement are not unduly restrictive, and empirical investigations have documented over a dozen likely cases, indicating that it may be a reasonably common phenomenon in nature. Largely uncharacterized, however, is the diversity of biological scenarios that can create the reduced hybrid fitness that drives reinforcement...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104245/assessing-kinematics-and-kinetics-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing
#3
Adina E Draghici, Glen Picard, J Andrew Taylor, Sandra J Shefelbine
Hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) rowing has positive effects on cardiovascular fitness, producing significantly greater aerobic power than either upper body or FES exercise alone. However, there is minimal information on the kinematics, kinetics, and mechanical efficiency of FES-rowing in the spinal cord injured (SCI) population. This study examined the biomechanics of FES-rowing to determine how motions, forces, and aerobic demand change with increasing intensity. Six individuals with SCI and six able-bodied subjects performed a progressive aerobic capacity rowing test...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100591/dynamics-and-fate-of-beneficial-mutations-under-lineage-contamination-by-linked-deleterious-mutations
#4
Sophie Pénisson, Tanya Singh, Paul Sniegowski, Philip Gerrish
Beneficial mutations drive adaptive evolution, yet their selective advantage does not ensure their fixation. Haldane's application of single-type branching process theory showed that genetic drift alone could cause the extinction of newly-arising beneficial mutations with high probability. With linkage, deleterious mutations will affect the dynamics of beneficial mutations and might further increase their extinction probability. Here, we model the lineage dynamics of a newly-arising beneficial mutation as a multitype branching process...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097765/a-false-positive-screening-hit-in-fragment-based-lead-discovery-watch-out-for-the-red-herring
#5
Jonathan Cramer, Johannes Schiebel, Tobias Wulsdorf, Kristof Grohe, Eszter Eva Najbauer, Frederik R Ehrmann, Nedyalka Radeva, Nina Zitzer, Uwe Linne, Rasmus Linser, Andreas Heine, Gerhard Klebe
With the rising popularity of fragment-based approaches in drug development, more and more attention has to be devoted to the detection of false-positive screening results. In particular, the small size and low affinity of fragments drives screening techniques to their limit. The pursuit of a false-positive hit can cause significant loss of time and resources. Here, we present an instructive and intriguing investigation into the origin of misleading assay results for a fragment that emerged as the most potent binder for the aspartic protease endothiapepsin (EP) across multiple screening assays...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#6
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093472/social-status-dependent-shift-in-neural-circuit-activation-affects-decision-making
#7
Thomas Miller, Katie Clements, Sungwoo Ahn, Choongseok Park, Eoon Hye Ji, Fadi A Issa
: In a social group, animals make behavioral decisions that fit their social ranks. These behavioral choices are dependent on the various social cues experienced during social interactions. In vertebrates, little is known of how social status affects the underlying neural mechanisms regulating decision-making circuits that drive competing behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio) influences behavioral decisions by shifting the balance in neural circuit activation between two competing networks (escape and swim)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092686/epigenomic-reprogramming-during-pancreatic-cancer-progression-links-anabolic-glucose-metabolism-to-distant-metastasis
#8
Oliver G McDonald, Xin Li, Tyler Saunders, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Samantha J Mentch, Marc O Warmoes, Anna E Word, Alessandro Carrer, Tal H Salz, Sonoko Natsume, Kimberly M Stauffer, Alvin Makohon-Moore, Yi Zhong, Hao Wu, Kathryn E Wellen, Jason W Locasale, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Andrew P Feinberg
During the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), heterogeneous subclonal populations emerge that drive primary tumor growth, regional spread, distant metastasis, and patient death. However, the genetics of metastases largely reflects that of the primary tumor in untreated patients, and PDAC driver mutations are shared by all subclones. This raises the possibility that an epigenetic process might operate during metastasis. Here we report large-scale reprogramming of chromatin modifications during the natural evolution of distant metastasis...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092063/appropriate-use-of-progesterone-to-prevent-preterm-birth-approaches-to-measurement-for-driving-improvement
#9
Priya Batra, Ashley Hirai, Sabrina Selk, Vanessa Lee, Michael Lu
Introduction Despite strong evidence supporting the benefit of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) in preventing recurrent preterm birth, this treatment still does not reach most eligible patients. This study sought to identify approaches to measuring the appropriate use of 17P, with the goal of helping health systems better monitor and improve the implementation of this intervention. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to gather data on measures for 17P use being developed and implemented by state team members participating in the Infant Mortality Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (IM CoIIN)-a national quality improvement initiative...
January 16, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091580/population-expansions-dominate-demographic-histories-of-endemic-and-widespread-pacific-reef-fishes
#10
Erwan Delrieu-Trottin, Stefano Mona, Jeffrey Maynard, Valentina Neglia, Michel Veuille, Serge Planes
Despite the unique nature of endemic species, their origin and population history remain poorly studied. We investigated the population history of 28 coral reef fish species, close related, from the Gambier and Marquesas Islands, from five families, with range size varying from widespread to small-range endemic. We analyzed both mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data using neutrality test and Bayesian analysis (EBSP and ABC). We found evidence for demographic expansions for most species (24 of 28), irrespective of range size, reproduction strategy or archipelago...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090339/a-mixed-methods-approach-to-improving-recruitment-and-engagement-of-emerging-adults-in-behavioural-weight-loss-programs
#11
J G LaRose, K M Guthrie, A Lanoye, D F Tate, E Robichaud, L J Caccavale, R R Wing
OBJECTIVE: Emerging adults ages 18-25 are at high risk for obesity, but are markedly underrepresented in behavioural weight loss (BWL) programs and experience lower engagement and retention relative to older adults. PURPOSE: To utilize a mixed methods approach to inform future efforts to effectively recruit and engage this high-risk population in BWL programs. METHODS: We used a convergent parallel design in which quantitative and qualitative data were given equal priority...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087769/enzyme-efficiency-but-not-thermostability-drives-cefotaxime-resistance-evolution-in-tem-1-%C3%AE-lactamase
#12
Jennifer Knies, Fei Cai, Daniel M Weinreich
A leading intellectual challenge in evolutionary genetics is to identify the specific phenotypes that drive adaptation. Enzymes offer a particularly promising opportunity to pursue this question, because many enzymes' contributions to organismal fitness depend on a comparatively small number of experimentally accessible properties. Moreover, on first principles the demands of enzyme thermostability stand in opposition to the demands of catalytic activity. This observation, coupled with the fact that enzymes are only marginally thermostable, motivates the widely held hypothesis that mutations conferring functional improvement require compensatory mutations to restore thermostability...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079938/an-enigmatic-hawaiian-moth-is-a-missing-link-in-the-adaptive-radiation-of-schiedea
#13
Stephen G Weller, Ann K Sakai, Diane R Campbell, John M Powers, Sean R Peña, Matthew J Keir, Alexander K Loomis, Scott M Heintzman, Lauren Weisenberger
Shifts in pollination may drive adaptive diversification of reproductive systems within plant lineages. The monophyletic genus Schiedea is a Hawaiian lineage of 32 extant species, with spectacular diversity in reproductive systems. Biotic pollination is the presumed ancestral condition, but this key element of the life history and its role in shaping reproductive systems has remained undocumented. We observed floral visitors to two species of Schiedea and conducted field experiments to test pollinator effectiveness...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076351/ultra-fine-scale-spatially-integrated-mapping-of-habitat-and-occupancy-using-structure-from-motion
#14
Philip McDowall, Heather J Lynch
Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM), a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional (3D) habitat models at low cost...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074474/optimal-defense-theory-explains-deviations-from-latitudinal-herbivory-defense-hypothesis
#15
Nicholas J Kooyers, Benjamin K Blackman, Liza M Holeski
The latitudinal herbivory defense hypothesis (LHDH) postulates that the prevalence of species interactions, including herbivory, is greater at lower latitudes, leading to selection for increased levels of plant defense. While latitudinal defense clines may be caused by spatial variation in herbivore pressure, optimal defense theory predicts that clines could also be caused by ecogeographic variation in the cost of defense. For instance, allocation of resources to defense may not increase plant fitness when growing seasons are short and plants must reproduce quickly...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070978/testing-for-local-adaptation-and-evolutionary-potential-along-altitudinal-gradients-in-rainforest-drosophila-beyond-laboratory-estimates
#16
Eleanor K O'Brien, Megan Higgie, Alan Reynolds, Ary A Hoffmann, Jon R Bridle
Predicting how species will respond to the rapid climatic changes predicted this century is an urgent task. Species distribution models (SDMs) use the current relationship between environmental variation and species' abundances to predict the effect of future environmental change on their distributions. However, two common assumptions of SDMs are likely to be violated in many cases: (i) that the relationship of environment with abundance or fitness is constant throughout a species' range and will remain so in future and (ii) that abiotic factors (e...
January 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066006/psychiatrists-responsibilities-with-regards-to-patients-fitness-to-drive
#17
Mehboob Yaqub, Shajahan Ismail, Sally Babiker, T S Sathyanarayana Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059784/an-international-comparative-study-on%C3%A2-driving-regulations-on-people-with%C3%A2-dementia
#18
You Joung Kim, Hoyoung An, Binna Kim, Young Shin Park, Ki Woong Kim
Over 40% of people with dementia drive, with a two to five times greater accident risk than controls. This has fueled public concerns about the risk of traffic accidents by drivers with dementia (DWD). We compared driving regulations on seniors and DWD between ten European and Asia-Pacific countries to identify key implications for national strategies. Moderate to severe dementia was a reason for driver's license revocation in all countries. However, regulations on mild dementia varied considerably, with most basing their decisions on severity, rather than simply the presence of dementia...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058504/linking-pre-laying-energy-allocation-and-timing-of-breeding-in-a-migratory-arctic-raptor
#19
Vincent Lamarre, Alastair Franke, Oliver P Love, Pierre Legagneux, Joël Bêty
For migratory species, acquisition and allocation of energy after arrival on the breeding grounds largely determine reproductive decisions. Few studies have investigated underlying physiological mechanisms driving variation in breeding phenology so far. We linked physiological state to individual timing of breeding in pre-laying arctic-nesting female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius). We captured females from two populations 2-20 days before egg-laying to assess plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BUTY) and triglyceride (TRIG), two metabolites known to reflect short-term changes in fasting and fattening rate, respectively...
January 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056091/respiration-of-microbiota-derived-1-2-propanediol-drives-salmonella-expansion-during-colitis
#20
Franziska Faber, Parameth Thiennimitr, Luisella Spiga, Mariana X Byndloss, Yael Litvak, Sara Lawhon, Helene L Andrews-Polymenis, Sebastian E Winter, Andreas J Bäumler
Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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