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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910972/a-liver-microphysiological-system-of-tumor-cell-dormancy-and-inflammatory-responsiveness-is-affected-by-scaffold-properties
#1
A M Clark, S E Wheeler, C L Young, L Stockdale, J Shepard Neiman, W Zhao, D B Stolz, R Venkataramanan, D Lauffenburger, L Griffith, A Wells
Distant metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer-related mortality, commonly emerging clinically after 5 or more years of seeming 'cure' of the primary tumor, indicating a quiescent dormancy. The lack of relevant accessible model systems for metastasis that recreate this latent stage has hindered our understanding of the molecular basis and the development of therapies against these lethal outgrowths. We previously reported on the development of an all-human 3D ex vivo hepatic microphysiological system that reproduces several features of liver physiology and enables spontaneous dormancy in a subpopulation of breast cancer cells...
December 2, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901591/driving-restrictions-post-stroke-physicians-compliance-with-regulations
#2
Selina Mårdh, Pamela Mårdh, Anna Anund
Objective Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on the individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are regulations on driving cessation post-stroke. The information on driving cessation should be given to all patients and noted in the journal. The present study sought to find out physician's compliance to driving regulations post-stroke as well as follow-up and gender aspects...
November 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901546/poroelasticity-driven-lubrication-in-hydrogel-interfaces
#3
Erik R Reale, Alison C Dunn
It is widely accepted that hydrogel surfaces are slippery, and have low friction, but dynamic applied stresses alter the hydrogel composition at the interface as water is displaced. The induced osmotic imbalance of compressed hydrogel which cannot swell to equilibrium should drive the resistance to slip against it. This paper demonstrates the driving role of poroelasticity in the friction of hydrogel-glass interfaces, specifically how poroelastic relaxation of hydrogels increases adhesion. We translate the work of adhesion into an effective surface energy density that increases with the duration of applied pressure from 10 to 50 mJ m(-2), as measured by micro-indentation...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890031/a-national-assessment-of-the-health-and-safety-of-emergency-medical-services-professionals
#4
Melissa A Bentley, Roger Levine
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess changes in (1) health and physical fitness, (2) the prevalence of selected health problems, (3) risk behaviors, (4) ambulance safety issues, and (5) the preparedness of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals. In addition, the incidence of patient-initiated violence directed toward EMS personnel and associated factors were assessed. METHODS: Data were obtained from a sample of nationally certified EMS professionals via annual questionnaires between 1999 and 2008...
November 28, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882551/fitness-gains-in-guppies-support-evolution-s-role-in-coexistence
#5
Kelsey Lyberger
Understanding processes that drive the assembly of communities is not a new goal in ecology; researchers have long studied what leads to the coexistence of species. However, the study of rapid evolution as a driving process of community assembly is an emerging frontier in evolutionary-ecology research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 24, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881753/how-can-we-estimate-natural-selection-on-endocrine-traits-lessons-from-evolutionary-biology
#6
REVIEW
Frances Bonier, Paul R Martin
An evolutionary perspective can enrich almost any endeavour in biology, providing a deeper understanding of the variation we see in nature. To this end, evolutionary endocrinologists seek to describe the fitness consequences of variation in endocrine traits. Much of the recent work in our field, however, follows a flawed approach to the study of how selection shapes endocrine traits. Briefly, this approach relies on among-individual correlations between endocrine phenotypes (often circulating hormone levels) and fitness metrics to estimate selection on those endocrine traits...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881736/reactive-oxygen-species-drive-evolution-of-pro-biofilm-variants-in-pathogens-by-modulating-cyclic-di-gmp-levels
#7
Song Lin Chua, Yichen Ding, Yang Liu, Zhao Cai, Jianuan Zhou, Sanjay Swarup, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan Christoph Schuster, Staffan Kjelleberg, Michael Givskov, Liang Yang
The host immune system offers a hostile environment with antimicrobials and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are detrimental to bacterial pathogens, forcing them to adapt and evolve for survival. However, the contribution of oxidative stress to pathogen evolution remains elusive. Using an experimental evolution strategy, we show that exposure of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to sub-lethal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels over 120 generations led to the emergence of pro-biofilm rough small colony variants (RSCVs), which could be abrogated by l-glutathione antioxidants...
November 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881558/the-american-heart-association-s-new-institute-for%C3%A2-precision-cardiovascular-medicine
#8
Steven R Houser
"One size does not fit all." These 6 simple words represent the fundamental concept driving an unprecedented initiative of the American Heart Association, the Institute for Precision Cardiovascular Medicine. In the field of heart disease and stroke research, we have seen enormous knowledge advances in recent decades, all of which have led to breakthroughs in our ability to treat and prevent these illnesses. We celebrate these advances because they are allowing us to save and improve more lives than ever before...
November 22, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878094/host-mediated-shift-in-the-cold-tolerance-of-an-invasive-insect
#9
Amy C Morey, Robert C Venette, Erica C Nystrom Santacruz, Laurel A Mosca, W D Hutchison
While many insects cannot survive the formation of ice within their bodies, a few species can. On the evolutionary continuum from freeze-intolerant (i.e., freeze-avoidant) to freeze-tolerant insects, intermediates likely exist that can withstand some ice formation, but not enough to be considered fully freeze tolerant. Theory suggests that freeze tolerance should be favored over freeze avoidance among individuals that have low relative fitness before exposure to cold. For phytophagous insects, numerous studies have shown that host (or nutrition) can affect fitness and cold-tolerance strategy, respectively, but no research has investigated whether changes in fitness caused by different hosts of polyphagous species could lead to systematic changes in cold-tolerance strategy...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878084/effect-of-different-root-endophytic-fungi-on-plant-community-structure-in-experimental-microcosms
#10
Carlos A Aguilar-Trigueros, Matthias C Rillig
Understanding the effects of root-associated microbes in explaining plant community patterns represents a challenge in community ecology. Although typically overlooked, several lines of evidence point out that nonmycorrhizal, root endophytic fungi in the Ascomycota may have the potential to drive changes in plant community ecology given their ubiquitous presence, wide host ranges, and plant species-specific fitness effects. Thus, we experimentally manipulated the presence of root endophytic fungal species in microcosms and measured its effects on plant communities...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865584/cooperation-and-deception-in-primates
#11
Katie Hall, Sarah F Brosnan
Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates...
November 16, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855084/what-shape-do-uk-trainees-want-their-training-to-be-results-of-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Rhiannon L Harries, Mustafa Rashid, Peter Smitham, Alex Vesey, Richard McGregor, Karl Scheeres, Jon Bailey, Syed Mohammed Afzal Sohaib, Matthew Prior, Jonathan Frost, Walid Al-Deeb, Gana Kugathasan, Vimal J Gokani
OBJECTIVES: The British Government is acting on recommendations to overhaul postgraduate training to meet the needs of the changing population, to produce generalist doctors undergoing shorter broad-based training (Greenaway Review). Only 45 doctors in training were involved in the consultation process. This study aims to obtain a focused perspective on the proposed reforms by doctors in training from across specialities. DESIGN: Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852226/genomic-differentiation-among-wild-cyanophages-despite-widespread-horizontal-gene-transfer
#13
Ann C Gregory, Sergei A Solonenko, J Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza, Kurt LaButti, Alex Copeland, Sebastian Sudek, Ashley Maitland, Lauren Chittick, Filipa Dos Santos, Joshua S Weitz, Alexandra Z Worden, Tanja Woyke, Matthew B Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Genetic recombination is a driving force in genome evolution. Among viruses it has a dual role. For genomes with higher fitness, it maintains genome integrity in the face of high mutation rates. Conversely, for genomes with lower fitness, it provides immediate access to sequence space that cannot be reached by mutation alone. Understanding how recombination impacts the cohesion and dissolution of individual whole genomes within viral sequence space is poorly understood across double-stranded DNA bacteriophages (a...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846396/humic-dissolved-organic-carbon-drives-oxidative-stress-and-severe-fitness-impairments-in-daphnia
#14
Manja Saebelfeld, Laëtitia Minguez, Johanna Griebel, Mark O Gessner, Justyna Wolinska
Increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the form of humic substances, causing browning of surface water, have been reported worldwide. Field surveys indicate that higher DOC levels can influence primary production and thus plankton composition. Experimental studies on the direct effects of humic DOC on aquatic organisms have shown varying results depending on concentration and additional environmental factors. Moreover, changes in life-histories and stress responses have usually been tested separately, rather than in combination...
November 9, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846261/neuromodulation-of-nestmate-recognition-decisions-by-pavement-ants
#15
Andrew N Bubak, Jazmine D W Yaeger, Kenneth J Renner, John G Swallow, Michael J Greene
Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845328/microbe-mediated-host-defence-drives-the-evolution-of-reduced-pathogen-virulence
#16
Suzanne A Ford, Damian Kao, David Williams, Kayla C King
Microbes that protect their hosts from pathogens are widespread in nature and are attractive disease control agents. Given that pathogen adaptation to barriers against infection can drive changes in pathogen virulence, 'defensive microbes' may shape disease severity. Here we show that co-evolving a microbe with host-protective properties (Enterococcus faecalis) and a pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) within Caenorhabditis elegans hosts drives the evolution of reduced pathogen virulence as a by-product of adaptation to the defensive microbe...
November 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835647/network-receptive-field-modeling-reveals-extensive-integration-and-multi-feature-selectivity-in-auditory-cortical-neurons
#17
Nicol S Harper, Oliver Schoppe, Ben D B Willmore, Zhanfeng Cui, Jan W H Schnupp, Andrew J King
Cortical sensory neurons are commonly characterized using the receptive field, the linear dependence of their response on the stimulus. In primary auditory cortex neurons can be characterized by their spectrotemporal receptive fields, the spectral and temporal features of a sound that linearly drive a neuron. However, receptive fields do not capture the fact that the response of a cortical neuron results from the complex nonlinear network in which it is embedded. By fitting a nonlinear feedforward network model (a network receptive field) to cortical responses to natural sounds, we reveal that primary auditory cortical neurons are sensitive over a substantially larger spectrotemporal domain than is seen in their standard spectrotemporal receptive fields...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832555/driving-impairment-due-to-propofol-at-effect-site-concentrations-relevant-after-short-propofol-only-sedation
#18
J L Telles, S Agarwal, J Monagle, C Stough, R King, L Downey
Australian guidelines state "Following brief surgery or procedures with short acting anaesthetic drugs, the patient may be fit to drive after a normal night's sleep. After long surgery or procedures requiring longer lasting anaesthesia, it may not be safe to drive for 24 hours or more". The increasing use of the short-acting anaesthetic drug propofol as a solitary sedative medication for simple endoscopy procedures suggests a need to review this blanket policy. Thirty patients presenting for elective day surgery were recruited as volunteers for a pre-procedure driving simulation study and randomised to propofol or placebo arms...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830284/sequence-diversification-in-recessive-alleles-of-two-host-factor-genes-suggests-adaptive-selection-for-bymovirus-resistance-in-cultivated-barley-from-east-asia
#19
Ping Yang, Antje Habekuß, Bernhard J Hofinger, Kostya Kanyuka, Benjamin Kilian, Andreas Graner, Frank Ordon, Nils Stein
Two distinct patterns of sequence diversity for the recessive alleles of two host factors HvPDIL5 - 1 and HvEIF4E indicated the adaptive selection for bymovirus resistance in cultivated barley from East Asia. Plant pathogens are constantly challenging plant fitness and driving resistance gene evolution in host species. Little is known about the evolution of sequence diversity in host recessive resistance genes that interact with plant viruses. Here, by combining previously published and newly generated targeted re-sequencing information, we systematically analyzed natural variation in a broad collection of wild (Hordeum spontaneum; Hs) and domesticated barleys (Hordeum vulgare; Hv) using the full-length coding sequence of the two host factor genes, HvPDIL5-1 and HvEIF4E, conferring recessive resistance to the agriculturally important Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV)...
November 9, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829352/short-tandem-repeats-segmental-duplications-gene-deletion-and-genomic-instability-in-a-rapidly-diversified-immune-gene-family
#20
Matan Oren, Megan A Barela Hudgell, Brian D'Allura, Jacob Agronin, Alexandra Gross, Daniele Podini, L Courtney Smith
BACKGROUND: Genomic regions with repetitive sequences are considered unstable and prone to swift DNA diversification processes. A highly diverse immune gene family of the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), called Sp185/333, is composed of clustered genes with similar sequence as well as several types of repeats ranging in size from short tandem repeats (STRs) to large segmental duplications. This repetitive structure may have been the basis for the incorrect assembly of this gene family in the sea urchin genome sequence...
November 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
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