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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144149/modeling-numerosity-representation-with-an-integrated-diffusion-model
#1
Roger Ratcliff, Gail McKoon
Models of the representation of numerosity information used in discrimination tasks are integrated with a diffusion decision model. The representation models assume distributions of numerosity either with means and SD that increase linearly with numerosity or with means that increase logarithmically with constant SD. The models produce coefficients that are applied to differences between two numerosities to produce drift rates and these drive the decision process. The linear and log models make differential predictions about how response time (RT) distributions and accuracy change with numerosity and which model is successful depends on the task...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142334/approaches-to-macroevolution-2-sorting-of-variation-some-overarching-issues-and-general-conclusions
#2
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, within a hierarchical framework. Following a companion paper on the origin of variation, I here discuss sorting within an evolutionary hierarchy. Species sorting-sometimes termed species selection in the broad sense, meaning differential origination and extinction owing to intrinsic biological properties-can be split into strict-sense species selection, in which rate differentials are governed by emergent, species-level traits such as geographic range size, and effect macroevolution, in which rates are governed by organism-level traits such as body size; both processes can create hitchhiking effects, indirectly causing the proliferation or decline of other traits...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133515/-rather-one-more-chemo-than-one-less%C3%A2-oncologists-and-oncology-nurses-reasons-for-aggressive-treatment-of-young-adults-with-advanced-cancer
#3
Katsiaryna Laryionava, Pia Heußner, Wolfgang Hiddemann, Eva C Winkler
BACKGROUND: Empirical research demonstrates that there is a tendency to administer tumor-directed therapy to patients with advanced cancer close to death, especially if they are young. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand oncologists' treatment decisions and oncology nurses' perception of these decisions in young adult patients and to investigate the extent to which young age was a factor in cancer treatment decisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted 29 face-to-face interviews with oncologists and oncology nurses at the Department of Hematology and Oncology at the University Hospital in Munich, Germany...
November 13, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129210/driving-dilemmas-a-guide-to-driving-assessment-in-primary-care
#4
REVIEW
Emily Morgan
Clinical assessment of fitness to drive can be a challenging part of primary care of older adults. There are no guidelines on screening for driver safety, so it falls to provider judgment on when to assess older drivers. This review offers recommendations on when to assess for driver safety based on red flag conditions, medications, acute events, and patient or family concerns. It reviews how to assess for visual, cognitive, and neuromuscular impairments and what to do as next steps for at-risk drivers once they are identified...
February 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127581/lessons-learned-in-induced-fit-docking-and-metadynamics-in-the-drug-design-data-resource-grand-challenge-2
#5
Matthew P Baumgartner, David A Evans
Two of the major ongoing challenges in computational drug discovery are predicting the binding pose and affinity of a compound to a protein. The Drug Design Data Resource Grand Challenge 2 was developed to address these problems and to drive development of new methods. The challenge provided the 2D structures of compounds for which the organizers help blinded data in the form of 35 X-ray crystal structures and 102 binding affinity measurements and challenged participants to predict the binding pose and affinity of the compounds...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126376/constructing-the-32-item-fitness-to-drive-screening-measure
#6
Shabnam Medhizadah, Sherrilene Classen, Andrew M Johnson
The Fitness-to-Drive Screening Measure(©) (FTDS) enables proxies to identify at-risk older drivers via 54 driving-related items, but may be too lengthy for widespread uptake. We reduced the number of items in the FTDS and validated the shorter measure, using 200 caregiver responses. Exploratory factor analysis and classical test theory techniques were used to determine the most interpretable factor model and the minimum number of items to be used for predicting fitness to drive. The extent to which the shorter FTDS predicted the results of the 54-item FTDS was evaluated through correlational analysis...
November 1, 2017: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125975/prospective-prediction-of-arrests-for-driving-under-the-influence-from-relationship-patterns-with-family-and-friends-in-adolescence
#7
William E Pelham, Thomas J Dishion
Driving under the influence (DUI) is dangerous and costly, yet there are few prospective studies on modifiable risk and protective processes that would inform prevention. Middle adolescence, when most individuals are first learning to drive and first using alcohol, may be a particularly salient period for family and friendship influences on DUI risk. In the present study, youth's family and friendship environments were observed and measured at age 16 in a diverse community sample (n=999), and then court records were used to document arrest for DUI through the age of 32years...
October 13, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125897/image-analysis-of-neural-stem-cell-division-patterns-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#8
Valerio Lupperger, Felix Buggenthin, Prisca Chapouton, Carsten Marr
Proliferating stem cells in the adult body are the source of constant regeneration. In the brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide to maintain the stem cell population and generate neural progenitor cells that eventually replenish mature neurons and glial cells. How much spatial coordination of NSC division and differentiation is present in a functional brain is an open question. To quantify the patterns of stem cell divisions, one has to (i) identify the pool of NSCs that have the ability to divide, (ii) determine NSCs that divide within a given time window, and (iii) analyze the degree of spatial coordination...
November 10, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122849/modeling-the-evolution-of-female-meiotic-drive-in-maize
#9
David W Hall, R Kelly Dawe
Autosomal drivers violate Mendel's law of segregation in that they are overrepresented in gametes of heterozygous parents. For drivers to be polymorphic within populations rather than fixing, their transmission advantage must be offset by deleterious effects on other fitness components. In this paper we develop an analytical model for the evolution of autosomal drivers that is motivated by the neocentromere drive system found in maize. In particular we model both the transmission advantage and deleterious fitness effects on seed viability, pollen viability, seed to adult survival mediated by maternal genotype, and seed to adult survival mediated by offspring genotype...
November 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122827/fitness-costs-and-variation-in-transmission-distortion-associated-with-the-abnormal-chromosome-10-meiotic-drive-system-in-maize
#10
David M Higgins, Elizabeth G Lowry, Lisa B Kanizay, Philip W Becraft, David W Hall, R Kelly Dawe
Meiotic drive describes a process whereby selfish genetic elements are transmitted at levels greater than Mendelian expectations. Maize abnormal chromosome 10 (Ab10) encodes a meiotic drive system that exhibits strong preferential segregation through female gametes. We performed transmission assays of nine Ab10 chromosomes from landraces and teosinte lines and found a transmission advantage of 62% to 79% in heterozygotes. Despite this transmission advantage, Ab10 is present at low frequencies in natural populations, suggesting that it carries large negative fitness consequences...
November 9, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122195/how-we-can-measure-the-non-driving-task-engagement-in-automated-driving-comparing-flow-experience-and-workload
#11
Sang Min Ko, Yong Gu Ji
In automated driving, a driver can completely concentrate on non-driving-related tasks (NDRTs). This study investigated the flow experience of a driver who concentrated on NDRTs and tasks that induce mental workload under conditional automation. Participants performed NDRTs under different demand levels: a balanced demand-skill level (fit condition) to induce flow, low-demand level to induce boredom, and high-demand level to induce anxiety. In addition, they performed the additional N-Back task, which artificially induces mental workload...
February 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120632/is-spa-an-implicit-treatment-of-the-non-polar-component-to-solvation-for-simulating-molecular-aggregation
#12
Peter T Lake, Martin McCullagh
Non-polar solute-solvent interactions are the driving force for aggregation in important chemical and biological phenomena including protein-folding, peptide self-assembly and oil-water emulsion formation. Currently, the most accurate and computationally efficient description of these processes requires an explicit treatment of all solvent and solute atoms. Previous computationally feasible implicit solvent models, such as solute surface area approaches, are unsuccessful at capturing aggregation features including both structural and energetic trends while more theoretically rigorous approaches, such as Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM), are accurate but extremely computationally demanding...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117555/mitochondrial-stress-restores-the-heat-shock-response-and-prevents-proteostasis-collapse-during-aging
#13
Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M Brielmann, Mario F Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M Haynes, Richard I Morimoto
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the programmed repression of the heat shock response (HSR) accompanies the transition to reproductive maturity, leaving cells vulnerable to environmental stress and protein aggregation with age. To identify the factors driving this event, we performed an unbiased genetic screen for suppressors of stress resistance and identified the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) as a central regulator of the age-related decline of the HSR and cytosolic proteostasis. Mild downregulation of ETC activity, either by genetic modulation or exposure to mitochondria-targeted xenobiotics, maintained the HSR in adulthood by increasing HSF-1 binding and RNA polymerase II recruitment at HSF-1 target genes...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111301/evolution-of-highly-fecund-haploid-populations
#14
Bjarki Eldon, Wolfgang Stephan
We consider a model of viability selection in a highly fecund haploid population with sweepstakes reproduction. We use simulations to estimate the time until the allelic type with highest fitness has reached high frequency in a finite population. We compare the time between two reproduction modes of high and low fecundity. We also consider the probability that the allelic type with highest fitness is lost from the population before reaching high frequency. Our simulation results indicate that highly fecund populations can evolve faster (in some cases much faster) than populations of low fecundity...
October 27, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109223/what-drives-the-evolution-of-condition-dependent-recombination-in-diploids-some-insights-from-simulation-modelling
#15
Sviatoslav R Rybnikov, Zeev M Frenkel, Abraham B Korol
While the evolutionary advantages of non-zero recombination rates have prompted diverse theoretical explanations, the evolution of essential recombination features remains underexplored. We focused on one such feature, the condition dependence of recombination, viewed as the variation in within-generation sensitivity of recombination to external (environment) and/or internal (genotype) conditions. Limited empirical evidence for its existence comes mainly from diploids, whereas theoretical models show that it only easily evolves in haploids...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108429/sources-of-spontaneous-mutagenesis-in-bacteria
#16
Jeremy W Schroeder, Ponlkrit Yeesin, Lyle A Simmons, Jue D Wang
Mutations in an organism's genome can arise spontaneously, that is, in the absence of exogenous stress and prior to selection. Mutations are often neutral or deleterious to individual fitness but can also provide genetic diversity driving evolution. Mutagenesis in bacteria contributes to the already serious and growing problem of antibiotic resistance. However, the negative impacts of spontaneous mutagenesis on human health are not limited to bacterial antibiotic resistance. Spontaneous mutations also underlie tumorigenesis and evolution of drug resistance...
November 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108423/linking-nurses-clinical-leadership-to-patient-care-quality-the-role-of-transformational-leadership-and-workplace-empowerment
#17
Sheila Boamah
Background While improving patient safety requires strong nursing leadership, there has been little empirical research that has examined the mechanisms by which leadership influences patient safety outcomes. Aim To test a model examining relationships among transformational leadership, structural empowerment, staff nurse clinical leadership, and nurse-assessed adverse patient outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a randomly selected sample of 378 registered nurses working in direct patient care in acute care hospitals across Ontario, Canada...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108233/mitoketoscins-novel-mitochondrial-inhibitors-for-targeting-ketone-metabolism-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#18
Bela Ozsvari, Federica Sotgia, Katie Simmons, Rachel Trowbridge, Richard Foster, Michael P Lisanti
Previous studies have now well-established that epithelial cancer cells can utilize ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and aceto-acetate) as mitochondrial fuels, to actively promote tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. The two critical metabolic enzymes implicated in this process are OXCT1 and ACAT1, which are both mitochondrial proteins. Importantly, over-expression of OXCT1 or ACAT1 in human breast cancer cells is sufficient to genetically drive tumorigenesis and/or lung metastasis, validating that they indeed behave as metabolic "tumor promoters"...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104702/review-of-public-transport-needs-of-older-people-in-european-context
#19
REVIEW
B P Shrestha, A Millonig, N B Hounsell, M McDonald
People's life expectancy is increasing throughout the world as a result of improved living standards and medical advances. The natural ageing process is accompanied by physiological changes which can have significant consequences for mobility. As a consequence, older people tend to make fewer journeys than other adults and may change their transport mode. Access to public transport can help older people to avail themselves of goods, services, employment and other activities. With the current generation of older people being more active than previous generations of equivalent age, public transport will play a crucial role in maintaining their active life style even when they are unable to drive...
2017: Journal of Population Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098989/an-application-of-the-krylov-fsp-ssa-method-to-parameter-fitting-with-maximum-likelihood
#20
Khanh N Dinh, Roger B Sidje
Monte Carlo methods such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) have traditionally been employed in gene regulation problems. However, there has been increasing interest to directly obtain the probability distribution of the molecules involved by solving the chemical master equation (CME). This requires addressing the curse of dimensionality that is inherent in most gene regulation problems. The finite state projection (FSP) seeks to address the challenge and there have been variants that further reduce the size of the projection or that accelerate the resulting matrix exponential...
November 3, 2017: Physical Biology
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