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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813900/mechanical-design-of-efw-exo-ii-a-hybrid-exoskeleton-for-elbow-forearm-wrist-rehabilitation
#1
Hui Bian, Ziye Chen, Hao Wang, Tieshi Zhao
The use of rehabilitation exoskeleton has become an important means for the treatment of stroke patients. A hybrid exoskeleton named EFW Exo II is developed for the motor function rehabilitation of elbow, forearm and wrist. The EFW Exo II is based on a parallel 2-URR/RRS mechanism and a serial R mechanism. It could fit both left and right arms for the symmetrical and open structure, and the distance between the elbow and wrist could automatically adjust for different forearm length. Details of the mechanical design are introduced...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812739/frequency-dependent-female-genital-cutting-behaviour-confers-evolutionary-fitness-benefits
#2
Janet A Howard, Mhairi A Gibson
Female genital cutting (FGC) has immediate and long-term negative health consequences that are well-documented, and its elimination is a priority for policymakers. The persistence of this widespread practice also presents a puzzle for evolutionary anthropologists due to its potentially detrimental impact on survival and reproductive fitness. Using multilevel modelling on demographic health survey datasets from five West African countries, here we show that FGC behaviour is frequency-dependent; the probability that girls are cut varies in proportion to the FGC frequency found in their ethnic group...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812693/direct-benefits-and-evolutionary-transitions-to-complex-societies
#3
Cody J Dey, Constance M O'Connor, Holly Wilkinson, Susanne Shultz, Sigal Balshine, John L Fitzpatrick
The selective forces that drive the evolution of cooperation have been intensely debated. Evolutionary transitions to cooperative breeding, a complex form of cooperation, have been hypothesized to be linked to low degrees of promiscuity, which increases intragroup relatedness and the indirect (that is, kin selected) benefits of helping. However, ecological factors also promote cooperative breeding, and may be more important than relatedness in some contexts. Identifying the key evolutionary drivers of cooperative breeding therefore requires an integrated assessment of these hypotheses...
April 18, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812634/optimization-of-lag-phase-shapes-the-evolution-of-a-bacterial-enzyme
#4
Bharat V Adkar, Michael Manhart, Sanchari Bhattacharyya, Jian Tian, Michael Musharbash, Eugene I Shakhnovich
Mutations provide the variation that drives evolution, yet their effects on fitness remain poorly understood. Here we explore how mutations in the essential enzyme adenylate kinase (Adk) of Escherichia coli affect multiple phases of population growth. We introduce a biophysical fitness landscape for these phases, showing how they depend on molecular and cellular properties of Adk. We find that Adk catalytic capacity in the cell (the product of activity and abundance) is the major determinant of mutational fitness effects...
April 28, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812624/perceptive-costs-of-reproduction-drive-ageing-and-physiology-in-male-drosophila
#5
Zachary M Harvanek, Yang Lyu, Christi M Gendron, Jacob C Johnson, Shu Kondo, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Costs of reproduction are thought to result from natural selection optimizing organismal fitness within putative physiological constraints. Phenotypic and population genetic studies of reproductive costs are plentiful across taxa, but an understanding of their mechanistic basis would provide important insight into the diversity in life-history traits, including reproductive effort and ageing. Here, we dissect the causes and consequences of specific costs of reproduction in male Drosophila melanogaster. We find that key survival and physiological costs of reproduction arise from perception of the opposite sex, and they are reversed by the act of mating...
May 15, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812307/the-development-of-perceptual-averaging-learning-what-to-do-not-just-how-to-do-it
#6
Pete R Jones, Tessa M Dekker
The mature visual system condenses complex scenes into simple summary statistics (e.g., average size, location, orientation, etc.). However, children, often perform poorly on perceptual averaging tasks. Children's difficulties are typically thought to represent the suboptimal implementation of an adult-like strategy. This paper examines another possibility: that children actually make decisions in a qualitatively different way to adults (optimal implementation of a non-ideal strategy). Ninety children (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years) and 30 adults were asked to locate the middle of randomly generated dot-clouds...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811464/the-origin-of-a-primordial-genome-through-spontaneous-symmetry-breaking
#7
Nobuto Takeuchi, Paulien Hogeweg, Kunihiko Kaneko
The heredity of a cell is provided by a small number of non-catalytic templates-the genome. How did genomes originate? Here, we demonstrate the possibility that genome-like molecules arise from symmetry breaking between complementary strands of self-replicating molecules. Our model assumes a population of protocells, each containing a population of self-replicating catalytic molecules. The protocells evolve towards maximising the catalytic activities of the molecules to increase their growth rates. Conversely, the molecules evolve towards minimising their catalytic activities to increase their intracellular relative fitness...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810286/-driving-ability-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Carsten Buhmann, Jan Vesper, Henriette Oelsner
About 60 % of all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and about 50 % of PD patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in possession of a driving license are active car-drivers. Parkinson patients, however, often display physical and/or psychological weaknesses that can lead to loss of or reduced driving ability. Driving capability can also be affected by Parkinson medication. The attending physician is therefore obliged to advise his patients regarding their ability to be in command of a vehicle. This however can prove difficult in practice...
August 15, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809614/confidentiality-and-fitness-to-drive-professional-ethical-and-legal-duties-in-the-case-of-the-diabetic-bus-driver
#9
Christopher Wareham
Patients who pose a risk of serious accidents present a difficult ethical problem for medical practitioners. The duty to maintain confidentiality is an ancient and weighty obligation and has many beneficial consequences for patients and society generally. Similarly, the duty of care towards a patient militates against disclosing details that could remove his or her source of income and imperil physical and mental wellbeing. However, in cases where maintaining confidentiality can result in severe harm to the patient and the public, the benefits of confidential practice may be outweighed...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806933/the-evolutionary-and-coevolutionary-consequences-of-defensive-microbes-for-host-parasite-interactions
#10
Kayla C King, Michael B Bonsall
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806915/evaluating-the-maintenance-of-disease-associated-variation-at-the-blood-group-related-gene-b4galnt2-in-house-mice
#11
Marie Vallier, Maria Abou Chakra, Laura Hindersin, Miriam Linnenbrink, Arne Traulsen, John F Baines
BACKGROUND: B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase that displays cis-regulatory variation for its tissue-specific expression patterns in house mice. The wild type allele, found e.g. in the C57BL/6 J strain, directs intestinal expression of B4galnt2, which is the pattern observed among vertebrates, including humans. An alternative allele class found in the RIIIS/J strain and other mice instead drives expression in blood vessels, which leads to a phenotype similar to type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD), a common human bleeding disorder...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802454/a-novel-low-cost-solution-for-driving-assessment-in-individuals-with-and-without-disabilities
#12
Jakob Rodseth, Edward P Washabaugh, Ali Al Haddad, Paula Kartje, Denise G Tate, Chandramouli Krishnan
Brake reaction time is a key component to studying driving performance and evaluating fitness to drive. Although commercial simulators can measure brake reaction time, their cost remains a major barrier to clinical access. Therefore, we developed open-source software written in C-sharp (C#) for measuring driving related reaction times, which includes a subject-controlled vehicle with straight-line dynamics and several testing scenarios. The software measures both simple and cognitive load based reaction times and can use any human interface device compliant steering wheel and pedals...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799352/free-energy-landscape-and-molecular-pathways-of-gas-hydrate-nucleation
#13
Yuanfei Bi, Anna Porras, Tianshu Li
Despite the significance of gas hydrates in diverse areas, a quantitative knowledge of hydrate formation at a molecular level is missing. The impediment to acquiring this understanding is primarily attributed to the stochastic nature and ultra-fine scales of nucleation events, posing a great challenge for both experiment and simulation to explore hydrate nucleation. Here we employ advanced molecular simulation methods, including forward flux sampling (FFS), pB histogram analysis, and backward flux sampling, to overcome the limit of direct molecular simulation for exploring both the free energy landscape and molecular pathways of hydrate nucleation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782411/on-road-assessment-of-fitness-to-drive-in-persons-with-ms-with-cognitive-impairment-a-prospective-study
#14
Sarah A Morrow, Sherrilene Classen, Miriam Monahan, Tim Danter, Robert Taylor, Sarah Krasniuk, Heather Rosehart, Wenqing He
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). In other populations, cognitive impairment is known to affect fitness-to-drive. Few studies have focused on fitness-to-drive in MS and no studies have solely focused on the influence of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To assess fitness-to-drive in persons with MS with cognitive impairment and low physical disability. METHODS: Persons with MS, aged 18-59 years with EDSS ⩽ 4...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777182/driving-safety-and-fitness-to-drive-in-sleep-disorders
#15
Jon Tippin, Mark Eric Dyken
Driving an automobile while sleepy increases the risk of crash-related injury and death. Neurologists see patients with sleepiness due to obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and a wide variety of neurologic disorders. When addressing fitness to drive, the physician must weigh patient and societal health risks and regional legal mandates. The Driver Fitness Medical Guidelines published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) provide assistance to clinicians...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777029/characterizing-smartphone-engagement-for-schizophrenia-results-of-a-naturalist-mobile-health-study
#16
John Torous, Patrick Staples, Linda Slaters, Jared Adams, Luis Sandoval, J P Onnela, Matcheri Keshavan
INTRODUCTION: Despite growing interest in smartphone apps for schizophrenia, little is known about how these apps are utilized in the real world. Understanding how app users are engaging with these tools outside of the confines of traditional clinical studies offers an important information on who is most likely to use apps and what type of data they are willing to share. METHODS: The Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Alliance of America, in partnership with Self Care Catalyst, has created a smartphone app for schizophrenia that is free and publically available on both Apple iTunes and Google Android Play stores...
August 4, 2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775271/mutations-driving-airborne-transmission-of-a-h5n1-virus-in-mammals-cause-substantial-attenuation-in-chickens-only-when-combined
#17
Mathilde Richard, Sander Herfst, Judith M A van den Brand, Dennis de Meulder, Pascal Lexmond, Theo M Bestebroer, Ron A M Fouchier
A/H5N1 influenza viruses pose a threat to human and animal health. A fully avian A/H5N1 influenza virus was previously shown to acquire airborne transmissibility between ferrets upon accumulation of five or six substitutions that affected three traits: polymerase activity, hemagglutinin stability and receptor binding. Here, the impact of these traits on A/H5N1 virus replication, tissue tropism, pathogenesis and transmission was investigated in chickens. The virus containing all substitutions associated with transmission in mammals was highly attenuated in chickens...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772240/dynamic-response-and-transfer-function-of-social-systems-a-neuro-inspired-model-of-collective-human-activity-patterns
#18
Ilias N Lymperopoulos
The interaction of social networks with the external environment gives rise to non-stationary activity patterns reflecting the temporal structure and strength of exogenous influences that drive social dynamical processes far from an equilibrium state. Following a neuro-inspired approach, based on the dynamics of a passive neuronal membrane, and the firing rate dynamics of single neurons and neuronal populations, we build a state-of-the-art model of the collective social response to exogenous interventions. In this regard, we analyze online activity patterns with a view to determining the transfer function of social systems, that is, the dynamic relationship between external influences and the resulting activity...
July 14, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766462/visual-correlates-of-fitness-to-drive-in-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Sherrilene Classen, Sarah Krasniuk, Sarah A Morrow, Liliana Alvarez, Miriam Monahan, Tim Danter, Heather Rosehart
The impact of visual and visual-cognitive impairments on fitness to drive in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are not well studied. We quantified visual correlates of fitness to drive in 30 PwMS. PwMS completed visual ability and visual attention assessments, and a standardized on-road assessment, and were compared with 145 older volunteer drivers. PwMS (vs. older volunteer drivers) made more total ( W = 12,139, p = .03) and critical driving errors (predictive of crashes) in adjustment to stimuli ( W = 11,352, p < ...
August 1, 2017: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762600/assessing-the-practice-of-palliative-care-doctors-what-driving-advice-do-they-give-patients-with-advanced-disease
#20
Nashringi Weir, Amanda Fischer, Phillip Good
BACKGROUND: There is little research and no clear guidelines for clinicians to follow when instructing patients with advanced disease about driving. AIMS: To investigate current practice in providing advice to patients with advanced disease and identify areas of consensus or variation with the Australian driving guidelines. METHODS: An online survey was distributed to Australian members of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Palliative Medicine (ANZSPM)...
August 1, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
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