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fitness to drive

Doreen Huppert, Dominik Straumann, Mans Magnusson, Ilmari Pyykkö, Thomas Brandt
A common European Community driving licence was established in 1980. However, there are major differences among the countries as regards medical conditions that legally affect driving ability. This article discusses various assessment guidelines for dizzy patients. These range from a total absence of specified binding requirements in Finland or regulations open to clinical interpretation in Switzerland, to inappropriately strict regulations in Germany. We focus on requirements for patients with vestibular disorders in Germany which have been in force since 2014...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Diego Hojsgaard
Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced) and rare (unreduced) gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Renjie Wu, Ling-Xian Yi, Lin-Feng Yu, Jing Wang, Yiyun Liu, Xiaojie Chen, Luchao Lv, Jun Yang, Jian-Hua Liu
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of diverse plasmids bearing colistin resistance gene mcr-1 on host fitness. Forty-seven commensal E. coli isolates recovered from the pig farm where mcr-1 was first identified were screened for mcr-1. mcr-1 -bearing plasmids were characterized by sequencing. The fitness impact of mcr-1 -bearing plasmids was evaluated by in vitro competition assays. Twenty-seven (57.5%) E. coli isolates were positive for mcr-1 . The mcr-1 genes were mainly located on plasmids belonging to IncI2 ( n = 5), IncX4 ( n = 11), IncHI2/ST3 ( n = 8), IncFII ( n = 2), and IncY ( n = 2)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael L Slepian, James N Kirby
Although prior work has examined secret keeping, no prior work has examined who gets told secrets. Five studies find compassion and assertiveness predict having secrets confided in oneself (as determined by both self- and peer reports), whereas enthusiasm and politeness were associated with having fewer secrets confided. These results bolster suggestions that interpersonal aspects of personality (which can fit a circumplex structure) are driven by distinct causal forces. While both related to agreeableness, compassion (empathy and desire to help) predicts being confided in more, whereas politeness (concern with social norms and social rules) predicts being confided in less...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Aaron A Comeault
Despite examples of homoploid hybrid species, theoretical work describing when, where, and how we expect homoploid hybrid speciation to occur remains relatively rare. Here, I explore the probability of homoploid hybrid speciation due to "symmetrical incompatibilities" under different selective and genetic scenarios. Through simulation, I test how genetic architecture and selection acting on traits that do not themselves generate incompatibilities interact to affect the probability that hybrids evolve symmetrical incompatibilities with their parent species...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiangrong Li, Kaiwei Wang, Yanru Peng
The interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with proteins is a topic of high relevance for the medical application of nanomaterials. In the study, a comprehensive investigation was performed for the binding properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to pepsin. The results indicate that the binding of AgNPs to pepsin may be a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that AgNPs binds to pepsin is synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and the major driving forces are hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions...
March 9, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett Hemenway Falk, Javier O Garcia, Christopher N Cascio, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, C Raymond Bingham, Bruce Simons-Morton, Jean M Vettel, Emily B Falk
Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or risk-accepting driving norms...
February 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Michael J Moses, Jared C Tishelman, Saqib Hasan, Peter L Zhou, Ioanna Zevgaras, Justin S Smith, Aaron J Buckland, Yong Kim, Afshin Razi, Themistocles S Protopsaltis
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-Sectional Study. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to investigate how surgeons differ in collar and narcotic use, as well as return to driving recommendations following cervical spine surgeries and the associated medico-legal ramifications of these conditions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Restoration of quality of life is one of the main goals of cervical spine surgery. Patients frequently inquire when they may safely resume driving after cervical spine surgery...
March 9, 2018: Spine
Shaunak Kar, Andrew D Ellington
T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) is one of the preferred workhorses for recombinant gene expression, owing in part to its high transcriptional activity and the fact that it has a small (17 base-pair), easily manipulated promoter. Furthermore, the fact that T7 RNAP is largely orthogonal to most hosts enables its use in a wide variety of contexts. However, the high activity of the enzyme also often leads to an increased fitness burden on the host, limiting the predictability of its interactions with and impact on physiology, and potentially leading to mutations to constructs...
March 5, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Darren C Hunter, Josephine M Pemberton, Jill G Pilkington, Michael B Morrissey
In nature, selection varies across time in most environments, but we lack an understanding of how specific ecological changes drive this variation. Ecological factors can alter phenotypic selection coefficients through changes in trait distributions or individual mean fitness, even when the trait-absolute fitness relationship remains constant. We apply and extend a regression-based approach in a population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) and suggest metrics of environment-selection relationships that can be compared across studies...
March 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Binu M Tripathi, James C Stegen, Mincheol Kim, Ke Dong, Jonathan M Adams, Yoo Kyung Lee
Little is known about the factors affecting the relative influences of stochastic and deterministic processes that govern the assembly of microbial communities in successional soils. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of bacterial communities using six different successional soil datasets distributed across different regions. Different relationships between pH and successional age across these datasets allowed us to separate the influences of successional age (i.e., time) from soil pH. We found that extreme acidic or alkaline pH conditions lead to assembly of phylogenetically more clustered bacterial communities through deterministic processes, whereas pH conditions close to neutral lead to phylogenetically less clustered bacterial communities with more stochasticity...
March 7, 2018: ISME Journal
Lorenzo Ridola, Vincenzo Cardinale, Oliviero Riggio
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It affects the performance of psychometric tests focused on attention, working memory, psychomotor speed, and visuospatial ability, as well as electrophysiological and other functional brain measures. MHE is a frequent complication of liver disease, affecting up to 80% of tested patients. By being related to falls, an impairment in fitness to drive and the development of overt HE, MHE severely affects the lives of patients and caregivers by altering their quality of life and their socioeconomic status...
March 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Bijal Shah, Xiaohong Zhao, Ariosto S Silva, Kenneth H Shain, Jianguo Tao
Ibrutinib resistance, as a result of coordinated rewiring of signaling networks and enforced tumor microenvironment (TME)-lymphoma interactions, drives unrestrained proliferation and disease progression. To combat resistance mechanisms, we must identify the compensatory resistance pathways and the central modulators of reprogramming events. Targeting the transcriptome and kinome reprogramming of lymphoma cells represents a rational approach to mitigate ibrutinib resistance in B cell malignancies. However, with the apparent heterogeneity and plasticity of tumors shown in therapy response, a one size fits all approach may be unattainable...
March 2018: Trends in Cancer
Jia Li, Xuan Liu, Ling Ma, Weiqiang Zhang
INTRODUCTION: The key step in changing health behavior is understanding why users continue to use fitness apps. Therefore, we intend to investigate the users' intention to continue using social fitness-tracking apps. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identify two major forces driving continuous behavior. Expectation confirmation is the internal driving force and social comparison is the external driving force. A survey was conducted to test this proposed research model...
March 5, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
Arietta E Fleming-Davies, Paul D Williams, André A Dhondt, Andrew P Dobson, Wesley M Hochachka, Ariel E Leon, David H Ley, Erik E Osnas, Dana M Hawley
Immune memory evolved to protect hosts from reinfection, but incomplete responses that allow future reinfection may inadvertently select for more-harmful pathogens. We present empirical and modeling evidence that incomplete immunity promotes the evolution of higher virulence in a natural host-pathogen system. We performed sequential infections of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains of various levels of virulence. Virulent bacterial strains generated stronger host protection against reinfection than less virulent strains and thus excluded less virulent strains from infecting previously exposed hosts...
March 2, 2018: Science
Zhongjing Chen, Xing Zhang, Yudong Pu, Ji Yan, Tianxuan Huang, Wei Jiang, Bo Yu, Bolun Chen, Qi Tang, Zifeng Song, Jiabin Chen, Xiayu Zhan, Zhongjie Liu, Xufei Xie, Shaoen Jiang, Shenye Liu
The accuracy of the determination of the burn-averaged ion temperature of inertial confinement fusion implosions depends on the unfold process, including deconvolution and convolution methods, and the function, i.e., the detector response, used to fit the signals measured by neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detectors. The function given by Murphy et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(1), 610-613 (1997)] has been widely used in Nova, Omega, and NIF. There are two components, i.e., fast and slow, and the contribution of scattered neutrons has not been dedicatedly considered...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Dawei An, Ming Yang, Xiaotong Gu, Fan Meng, Tianyue Yang, Shujing Lin
Direct mechanical ventricular actuation is effective to reestablish the ventricular function with non-blood contact. Due to the energy loss within the driveline of the direct cardiac compression device, it is necessary to acquire the accurate value of assist pressure acting on the heart surface. To avoid myocardial trauma induced by invasive sensors, the noninvasive estimation method is developed and the experimental device is designed to measure the sample data for fitting the estimation models. By examining the goodness of fit numerically and graphically, the polynomial model presents the best behavior among the four alternative models...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Grigorios Fountas, Md Tawfiq Sarwar, Panagiotis Ch Anastasopoulos, Alan Blatt, Kevin Majka
Traditional accident analysis typically explores non-time-varying (stationary) factors that affect accident occurrence on roadway segments. However, the impact of time-varying (dynamic) factors is not thoroughly investigated. This paper seeks to simultaneously identify pre-crash stationary and dynamic factors of accident occurrence, while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Using highly disaggregate information for the potential dynamic factors, and aggregate data for the traditional stationary elements, a dynamic binary random parameters (mixed) logit framework is employed...
February 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yan Xu, Shijie Wang, Xiaoyong Bai, Dongcai Shu, Yichao Tian
This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed...
2018: PloS One
Kelsey L Schoenemann, Frances Bonier
We often expect that investigations of the patterns, causes, and consequences of among-individual variation in a trait of interest will reveal how selective pressures or ecological conditions influence that trait. However, many endocrine traits, such as concentrations of glucocorticoid (GC) hormones, exhibit adaptive plasticity and, therefore, do not necessarily respond to these pressures as predicted by among-individual phenotypic correlations. To improve our interpretations of among-individual variation in GC concentrations, we need more information about the repeatability of these traits within individuals...
2018: PeerJ
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