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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221835/social-information-on-fear-and-food-drives-animal-grouping-and-fitness
#1
Michael A Gil, Zachary Emberts, Harrison Jones, Colette M St Mary
Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness...
March 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219797/spectroscopy-analysis-and-molecular-dynamics-studies-on-the-binding-of-penicillin-v-and-sulbactam-to-beta-lactamase-ii-from-bacillus-cereus
#2
Penghui Shi, Pan Qiao, Yeli Zhang, Shuaihua Li, Xuan Feng, Liujiao Bian
The molecular recognition and interaction of beta-lactamase II from Bacillus cereus (Bc II) with penicillin V (PV) and sulbactam (Sul) especially conformational changes of Bc II in the binding process were studied through spectroscopy analysis in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results show that in the binding process, a new coordination bond is observed between the Zn2 of Bc II and the carboxyl-O of PV or Sul by replacing His204. Electrostatic interaction between Zn2 and the ligand provide main driving force for the binding affinity...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218592/using-serial-trichotomization-with-common-cognitive-tests-to-screen-for-fitness-to-drive
#3
Carrie Gibbons, Nathan Smith, Randy Middleton, John Clack, Bruce Weaver, Sacha Dubois, Michel Bédard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to illustrate the use of serial trichotomization with five common tests of cognition to achieve greater precision in screening for fitness to drive. METHOD: We collected data (using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Clock-Drawing Test, Trail Making Test Part A and B [Trails B], and an on-road driving test) from 83 people referred for a driving evaluation. We identified cutpoints for 100% sensitivity and specificity for each test; the driving test was the gold standard...
March 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218336/vision-related-fitness-to-drive-mobility-scooters-a-practical-driving-test
#4
Christina Cordes, Joost Heutink, Oliver M Tucha, Karel A Brookhuis, Wiebo H Brouwer, Bart J M Melis-Dankers
OBJECTIVE: To investigate practical fitness to drive mobility scooters, comparing visually impaired participants with healthy controls. DESIGN: Between-subjects design. SUBJECTS: Forty-six visually impaired (13 with very low visual acuity, 10 with low visual acuity, 11 with peripheral field defects, 12 with multiple visual impairment) and 35 normal-sighted controls. METHODS: Participants completed a practical mobility scooter test-drive, which was recorded on video...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215843/a-pdgfr%C3%AE-mediated-switch-toward-cd9-high-adipocyte-progenitors-controls-obesity-induced-adipose-tissue-fibrosis
#5
Geneviève Marcelin, Adaliene Ferreira, Yuejun Liu, Michael Atlan, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Véronique Pelloux, Yair Botbol, Marc Ambrosini, Magali Fradet, Christine Rouault, Corneliu Hénégar, Jean-Sébastien Hulot, Christine Poitou, Adriana Torcivia, Raphael Nail-Barthelemy, Jean-Christophe Bichet, Emmanuel L Gautier, Karine Clément
Obesity-induced white adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis is believed to accelerate WAT dysfunction. However, the cellular origin of WAT fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we show that adipocyte platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFRα(+)) progenitors adopt a fibrogenic phenotype in obese mice prone to visceral WAT fibrosis. More specifically, a subset of PDGFRα(+) cells with high CD9 expression (CD9(high)) originates pro-fibrotic cells whereas their CD9(low) counterparts, committed to adipogenesis, are almost completely lost in the fibrotic WAT...
February 9, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212080/improving-registration-robustness-for-image-guided-liver-surgery-in-a-novel-human-to-phantom-data-framework
#6
Jarrod Collins, Jared Weis, Jon Heiselman, Logan Clements, Amber Simpson, Willam Jarnagin, Michael Miga
In open image-guided liver surgery (IGLS), a sparse representation of the intraoperative organ surface can be acquired to drive image-to-physical registration. We hypothesize that uncharacterized error induced by variation in the collection patterns of organ surface data limits the accuracy and robustness of IGLS registration. Clinical validation of such registration methods is challenged due to the difficulty in obtaining data representative of the true state of organ deformation. We propose a novel human-to-phantom validation framework that transforms surface collection patterns from in vivo IGLS procedures (n=13) onto a well-characterized hepatic deformation phantom for the purpose of validating surface-driven, volumetric nonrigid registration methods...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210995/checkpoint-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
REVIEW
Pooja Ghatalia, Matthew Zibelman, Daniel M Geynisman, Elizabeth R Plimack
The advent of checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized systemic therapy for many malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC) where multiple PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 inhibitors have demonstrated responses and improved survival for patients in clinical trials. Durable benefit with manageable toxicity can be achieved with these agents-but unfortunately for only a minority of individuals. Efforts are ongoing to understand mechanisms driving the response and resistance to checkpoint inhibitors in order to personalize therapy and extend benefit to more patients...
January 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210910/astrocyte-induced-reelin-expression-drives-proliferation-of-her2-breast-cancer-metastases
#8
Rahul Jandial, Cecilia Choy, Danielle M Levy, Mike Y Chen, Khairul I Ansari
Breast cancer metastasis to the brain develops after a clinical latency of years to even decades, suggesting that colonization of the brain is the most challenging step of the metastatic cascade. However, the underlying mechanisms used by breast cancer cells to successfully colonize the brain's microenvironment remain elusive. Reelin is an archetypal extracellular glycoprotein that regulates migration, proliferation, and lamination of neurons. It is epigenetically silenced in various cancers, and its expression in multiple myelomas is linked to poor patient survival...
February 17, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207987/fitness-to-drive-how-well-do-we-know-the-rules-survey-of-19-ent-surgeons-in-wales
#9
Darren Yap, Adam Shakir, Rhodri Costello, Simon Browning
Emergency department doctors and General Practitioners have a role in advising patients of their obligations to inform the DVLA regarding medical conditions that affect their ability to drive. Current guidelines are clear that the initial communication to the DVLA should be from the patient(1) . However, doctors should contact the DVLA directly if there are good reasons to do so(2) . Studies have shown that doctors' knowledge of medical restrictions placed on driving is poor (3,4,5,6) . Even if the need for a medical restriction is known, doctors are often not aware of the notification process...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207932/detecting-signals-of-chronic-shedding-to-explain-pathogen-persistence-leptospira-interrogans-in-california-sea-lions
#10
M G Buhnerkempe, K C Prager, C C Strelioff, D J Greig, J L Laake, S R Melin, R L DeLong, F M D Gulland, J O Lloyd-Smith
Identifying mechanisms driving pathogen persistence is a vital component of wildlife disease ecology and control. Asymptomatic, chronically infected individuals are an oft-cited potential reservoir of infection but demonstrations of the importance of chronic shedding to pathogen persistence at the population level remain scarce. Studying chronic shedding using commonly collected disease data is hampered by numerous challenges, including short-term surveillance that focuses on single epidemics and acutely ill individuals, the subtle dynamical influence of chronic shedding relative to more obvious epidemic drivers, and poor ability to differentiate between the effects of population prevalence of chronic shedding versus intensity and duration of chronic shedding in individuals...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206693/plasmid-and-clonal-interference-during-post-horizontal-gene-transfer-evolution
#11
S Bedhomme, D Perez Pantoja, I G Bravo
Plasmids are nucleic acid molecules that can drive their own replication in a living cell. They can be transmitted horizontally and can thrive in the host cell to high copy numbers. Plasmid replication and gene expression consume cellular resources and cells carrying plasmids incur fitness costs. But many plasmids carry genes that can be beneficial under certain conditions, allowing the cell to endure in the presence of antibiotics, toxins, competitors or parasites. Horizontal transfer of plasmid-encoded genes can thus instantaneously confer differential adaptation to local or transient selection conditions...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202823/-participation-of-people-with-epilepsy-in-sports
#12
Sadatoshi Tsuji
People with epilepsy (PWE) have been discouraged from participating in exercise and sports because of the fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency, risks associated with such activities, stigma, and overprotection. Recently, there has been a shift in the medical recommendations toward encouraging, rather than restricting, participation. Cases of exercise-induced seizures are rare. Physical activity can exert beneficial actions, such as a reduction in seizure susceptibility and the number of seizures, improvement in quality of life (QOL), and better social integration...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202049/costs-and-benefits-of-natural-transformation-in-acinetobacter-baylyi
#13
Nils Hülter, Vidar Sørum, Kristina Borch-Pedersen, Mikkel M Liljegren, Ane L G Utnes, Raul Primicerio, Klaus Harms, Pål J Johnsen
BACKGROUND: Natural transformation enables acquisition of adaptive traits and drives genome evolution in prokaryotes. Yet, the selective forces responsible for the evolution and maintenance of natural transformation remain elusive since taken-up DNA has also been hypothesized to provide benefits such as nutrients or templates for DNA repair to individual cells. RESULTS: We investigated the immediate effects of DNA uptake and recombination on the naturally competent bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi in both benign and genotoxic conditions...
February 15, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196342/decreased-salivary-alpha-amylase-levels-are-associated-with-performance-deficits-during-sleep-loss
#14
Maja Pajcin, Siobhan Banks, Jason M White, Jill Dorrian, Gemma M Paech, Crystal Grant, Kayla Johnson, Katie Tooley, Justin Fidock, Gary H Kamimori, Chris B Della Vedova
During sleep deprivation, neurobehavioral functions requiring sustained levels of attention and alertness are significantly impaired. Discrepancies between subjective measures of sleepiness and objective performance during sustained operations have led to interest in physiological monitoring of operator performance. Alertness, vigilance, and arousal are modulated by the wake-promoting actions of the central noradrenergic system. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive peripheral measure of noradrenergic activity, but limited research has investigated the relationship between sAA and performance...
February 1, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196070/differential-paralog-divergence-modulates-genome-evolution-across-yeast-species
#15
Monica R Sanchez, Aaron W Miller, Ivan Liachko, Anna B Sunshine, Bryony Lynch, Mei Huang, Erica Alcantara, Christopher G DeSevo, Dave A Pai, Cheryl M Tucker, Margaret L Hoang, Maitreya J Dunham
Evolutionary outcomes depend not only on the selective forces acting upon a species, but also on the genetic background. However, large timescales and uncertain historical selection pressures can make it difficult to discern such important background differences between species. Experimental evolution is one tool to compare evolutionary potential of known genotypes in a controlled environment. Here we utilized a highly reproducible evolutionary adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate whether experimental evolution of other yeast species would select for similar adaptive mutations...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195309/ploidy-tug-of-war-evolutionary-and-genetic-environments-influence-the-rate-of-ploidy-drive-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#16
Aleeza C Gerstein, Heekyung Lim, Judith Berman, Meleah A Hickman
Variation in baseline ploidy is seen throughout the tree of life, yet the factors that determine why one ploidy level is maintained over another remain poorly understood. Experimental evolution studies using asexual fungal microbes with manipulated ploidy levels intriguingly reveals a propensity to return to the historical baseline ploidy, a phenomenon that we term 'ploidy drive'. We evolved haploid, diploid, and polyploid strains of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans under three different nutrient limitation environments to test whether these conditions, hypothesized to select for low ploidy levels, could counteract ploidy drive...
February 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187125/aerobic-exercise-for-alzheimer-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#17
Jill K Morris, Eric D Vidoni, David K Johnson, Angela Van Sciver, Jonathan D Mahnken, Robyn A Honea, Heather M Wilkins, William M Brooks, Sandra A Billinger, Russell H Swerdlow, Jeffrey M Burns
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183831/ecological-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-tri-trophic-interactions-spatial-variation-and-effects-of-plant-density
#18
Luis Abdala-Roberts, Víctor Parra-Tabla, Xoaquín Moreira, José Ramos-Zapata
PREMISE OF STUDY: The factors driving variation in species interactions are often unknown, and few studies have made a link between changes in interactions and the strength of selection. METHODS: We report on spatial variation in functional responses by a seed predator (SP) and its parasitic wasps associated with the herb Ruellia nudiflora. We assessed the influence of plant density on consumer responses and determined whether density effects and spatial variation in functional responses altered natural selection by these consumers on the plant...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167920/modeling-trait-anxiety-from-computational-processes-to-personality
#19
REVIEW
James G Raymond, J Douglas Steele, Peggy Seriès
Computational methods are increasingly being applied to the study of psychiatric disorders. Often, this involves fitting models to the behavior of individuals with subclinical character traits that are known vulnerability factors for the development of psychiatric conditions. Anxiety disorders can be examined with reference to the behavior of individuals high in "trait" anxiety, which is a known vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety and mood disorders. However, it is not clear how this self-report measure relates to neural and behavioral processes captured by computational models...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160833/-a-driving-simulator-for-the-benefit-of-patients
#20
REVIEW
Isabelle Hauret, Sylvie Bardoux, Emmanuel Coudeyre
Particularly innovative in the management of patients with non-progressive brain injuries, the unit for the assessment of fitness to drive at Clermont-Ferrand university hospital is equipped with a driving simulator. It allows assessments and specific driver rehabilitation to be carried out in optimal safety.
February 2017: Revue de L'infirmière
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