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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785520/times-from-infection-to-disease-induced-death-and-their-influence-on-final-population-sizes-after-epidemic-outbreaks
#1
Alex P Farrell, James P Collins, Amy L Greer, Horst R Thieme
For epidemic models, it is shown that fatal infectious diseases cannot drive the host population into extinction if the incidence function is upper density-dependent. This finding holds even if a latency period is included and the time from infection to disease-induced death has an arbitrary length distribution. However, if the incidence function is also lower density-dependent, very infectious diseases can lead to a drastic decline of the host population. Further, the final population size after an epidemic outbreak can possibly be substantially affected by the infection-age distribution of the initial infectives if the life expectations of infected individuals are an unbounded function of infection age (time since infection)...
May 21, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781412/imported-cases-and-minimum-temperature-drive-dengue-transmission-in-guangzhou-china-evidence-from-arimax-model
#2
Q L Jing, Q Cheng, J M Marshall, W B Hu, Z C Yang, J H Lu
Dengue is the fastest spreading mosquito-transmitted disease in the world. In China, Guangzhou City is believed to be the most important epicenter of dengue outbreaks although the transmission patterns are still poorly understood. We developed an autoregressive integrated moving average model incorporating external regressors to examine the association between the monthly number of locally acquired dengue infections and imported cases, mosquito densities, temperature and precipitation in Guangzhou. In multivariate analysis, imported cases and minimum temperature (both at lag 0) were both associated with the number of locally acquired infections (P < 0...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777286/-fitness-to-drive-with-cardiovascular-diseases-current-guidelines-of-the-german-federal-highway-research-institute
#3
W Jung, B Hajredini, V Zvereva
The general rules for participation in road traffic are specified in the German Driving License Regulations (FeV). The assessment of fitness to drive motor vehicles is, in addition to Annex 4 of the FeV, governed by the guidelines of the German Federal Highway Research Institute, which implements the requirements of the European Union in Germany. By anchoring the assessment guidelines on fitness to drive in the FeV (Annex 4) and the publication in the Traffic Journal, the guidelines have a normative character...
May 17, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770991/probing-the-interaction-of-l-captopril-with-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-ccra-by-fluorescence-spectra-and-molecular-dynamic-simulation
#4
Penghui Shi, Yan Zhang, Yuhua Li, Liujiao Bian
Both the molecular recognition and interaction of metallo-β-lactamase CcrA with l-captopril were studied by the combined use of fluorescence spectra and molecular dynamic simulation. The results showed that the binding constant was 8.89 × 104  L mol-1 at 296 K. Both Zn1 and Zn2 displayed tetrahedral coordination geometries in the CcrA-Lcap complex, the S atom in l-captopril displaced the nucleophilic hydroxide in apo CcrA and occupied the fourth coordination site for each ion, resulting in a competitively inhibited CcrA enzyme...
May 17, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766266/-syncope-and-fitness-to-drive
#5
REVIEW
Hermann H Klein
Although medical students are rarely instructed in traffic medicine in Germany, they are obliged to inform their patients about their fitness to drive after having become a medical doctor. This article gives an overview on the fitness to drive for patients with syncope by referring to the driving license regulation and the current guidelines released by the department of traffic. The driving license regulation distinguishes between group 1 and group 2 drivers. Group 1 drivers drive vehicles with a total weight less than 3...
May 15, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761749/effects-of-light-and-temperature-on-daily-activity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-two-mosquito-disease-vectors
#6
Gustavo B S Rivas, Rayane Teles-de-Freitas, Márcio G Pavan, José B P Lima, Alexandre A Peixoto, Rafaela Vieira Bruno
Most organisms feature an endogenous circadian clock capable of synchronization with their environment. The most well-known synchronizing agents are light and temperature. The circadian clock of mosquitoes, vectors of many pathogens, drives important behaviors related to vectoral capacity, including oviposition, host seeking, and hematophagy. Main clock gene expression, as well as locomotor activity patterns, has been identified in Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus under artificial light-dark cycles...
June 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758636/emergent-explosive-synchronization-in-adaptive-complex-networks
#7
Vanesa Avalos-Gaytán, Juan A Almendral, I Leyva, F Battiston, V Nicosia, V Latora, S Boccaletti
Adaptation plays a fundamental role in shaping the structure of a complex network and improving its functional fitting. Even when increasing the level of synchronization in a biological system is considered as the main driving force for adaptation, there is evidence of negative effects induced by excessive synchronization. This indicates that coherence alone cannot be enough to explain all the structural features observed in many real-world networks. In this work, we propose an adaptive network model where the dynamical evolution of the node states toward synchronization is coupled with an evolution of the link weights based on an anti-Hebbian adaptive rule, which accounts for the presence of inhibitory effects in the system...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755986/implications-of-cellular-aging-in-cardiac-reprogramming
#8
Fabiana Passaro, Gianluca Testa
Aging is characterized by a chronic functional decline of organ systems which leads to tissue dysfunction over time, representing a risk factor for diseases development, including cardiovascular. The aging process occurring in the cardiovascular system involves heart and vessels at molecular and cellular level, with subsequent structural modifications and functional impairment. Several modifications involved in the aging process can be ascribed to cellular senescence, a biological response that limits the proliferation of damaged cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754715/assembly-kinetics-of-vimentin-tetramers-to-unit-length-filaments-a-stopped-flow-study
#9
Norbert Mücke, Lara Kämmerer, Stefan Winheim, Robert Kirmse, Jan Krieger, Maria Mildenberger, Jochen Baßler, Ed Hurt, Wolfgang H Goldmann, Ueli Aebi, Katalin Toth, Jörg Langowski, Harald Herrmann
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are principal components of the cytoskeleton, a dynamic integrated system of structural proteins that provides the functional architecture of metazoan cells. They are major contributors to the elasticity of cells and tissues due to their high mechanical stability and intrinsic flexibility. The basic building block for the assembly of IFs is a rod-like, 60-nm-long tetrameric complex made from two antiparallel, half-staggered coiled coils. In low ionic strength, tetramers form stable complexes that rapidly assemble into filaments upon raising the ionic strength...
May 10, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752147/sex-in-plasmodium-falciparum-silence-play-between-gdv1-and-hp1
#10
Edward Rea, Karine G Le Roch, Rita Tewari
Understanding how malaria parasites commit to sexual development is key to the development of transmission-blocking strategies. Recent work by Filarsky and colleagues extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this process by characterizing an early factor in gametocytogenesis, and showing how this fits neatly into our current knowledge of sexual commitment.
May 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750837/subordinate-females-in-the-cooperatively-breeding-seychelles-warbler-obtain-direct-benefits-by-joining-unrelated-groups
#11
Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A Kingma, Martijn Hammers, Hannah L Dugdale, Terry Burke, David S Richardson, Jan Komdeur
1.In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group ("subordinate between-group" dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749350/adaptive-optimal-input-design-and-parametric-estimation-of-nonlinear-dynamical-systems-application-to-neuronal-modeling
#12
Mahmoud K Madi, Fadi N Karameh
Many physical models of biological processes including neural systems are characterized by parametric nonlinear dynamical relations between driving inputs, internal states, and measured outputs of the process. Fitting such models using experimental data (data assimilation) is a challenging task since the physical process often operates in a noisy, possibly non-stationary environment; moreover, conducting multiple experiments under controlled and repeatable conditions can be impractical, time consuming or costly...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748042/social-information-links-individual-behavior-to-population-and-community-dynamics
#13
REVIEW
Michael A Gil, Andrew M Hein, Orr Spiegel, Marissa L Baskett, Andrew Sih
When individual animals make decisions, they routinely use information produced intentionally or unintentionally by other individuals. Despite its prevalence and established fitness consequences, the effects of such social information on ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesize results from ecology, evolutionary biology, and animal behavior to show how the use of social information can profoundly influence the dynamics of populations and communities. We combine recent theoretical and empirical results and introduce simple population models to illustrate how social information use can drive positive density-dependent growth of populations and communities (Allee effects)...
May 7, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746892/taste-phenotype-associates-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-via-diet-quality-in-multivariate-modeling
#14
Mastaneh Sharafi, Shristi Rawal, Maria Luz Fernandez, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Valerie B Duffy
Sensations from foods and beverages drive dietary choices, which in turn, affect risk of diet-related diseases. Perception of these sensation varies with environmental and genetic influences. This observational study aimed to examine associations between chemosensory phenotype, diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reportedly healthy women (n = 110, average age 45 ± 9 years) participated in laboratory-based measures of chemosensory phenotype (taste and smell function, propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) and CVD risk factors (waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipids)...
May 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740745/a-novel-method-for-retinal-optic-disc-detection-using-bat-meta-heuristic-algorithm
#15
Ahmad S Abdullah, Yasa Ekşioğlu Özok, Javad Rahebi
Normally, the optic disc detection of retinal images is useful during the treatment of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, the novel preprocessing of a retinal image with a bat algorithm (BA) optimization is proposed to detect the optic disc of the retinal image. As the optic disk is a bright area and the vessels that emerge from it are dark, these facts lead to the selected segments being regions with a great diversity of intensity, which does not usually happen in pathological regions. First, in the preprocessing stage, the image is fully converted into a gray image using a gray scale conversion, and then morphological operations are implemented in order to remove dark elements such as blood vessels, from the images...
May 9, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739619/analysing-truck-harsh-braking-incidents-to-study-roundabout-accident-risk
#16
Jwan Kamla, Tony Parry, Andrew Dawson
In order to reduce accident risk, highway authorities prioritise maintenance budgets partly based upon previous accident history. However, as accident rates have continued to fall, this approach has become problematic as accident 'black spots' have been treated and the number of accidents at any individual site has fallen, making previous accident history a less reliable indicator of future accident risk. Another way of identifying sites of higher accident risk might be to identify near-miss accidents (where an accident nearly happened but was avoided)...
May 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739447/preeclampsia-and-gestational-weight-gain-in-the-norwegian-fit-for-delivery-trial
#17
E R Hillesund, S Seland, E Bere, L R Sagedal, M K Torstveit, H Lohne-Seiler, I Vistad, N C Øverby
OBJECTIVE: Excessive gestational weight gain is linked to risk of preeclampsia, but it is not clear whether the association is causal. The purpose of this paper was to examine gestational weight gain in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study among women who developed preeclampsia compared to those who did not, and to further explore associations between weight gain and preeclampsia by including data on body composition (bioimpedance) assessed in the last trimester of pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 550 women were eligible for the study...
May 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736242/association-with-humans-and-seasonality-interact-to-reverse-predictions-for-animal-space-use
#18
Peter N Laver, Kathleen A Alexander
Background: Variation in animal space use reflects fitness trade-offs associated with ecological constraints. Associated theories such as the metabolic theory of ecology and the resource dispersion hypothesis generate predictions about what drives variation in animal space use. But, metabolic theory is usually tested in macro-ecological studies and is seldom invoked explicitly in within-species studies. Full evaluation of the resource dispersion hypothesis requires testing in more species...
2018: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735716/reducing-resistance-allele-formation-in-crispr-gene-drive
#19
Jackson Champer, Jingxian Liu, Suh Yeon Oh, Riona Reeves, Anisha Luthra, Nathan Oakes, Andrew G Clark, Philipp W Messer
CRISPR homing gene drives can convert heterozygous cells with one copy of the drive allele into homozygotes, thereby enabling super-Mendelian inheritance. Such a mechanism could be used, for example, to rapidly disseminate a genetic payload in a population, promising effective strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. However, all CRISPR homing gene drives studied in insects thus far have produced significant quantities of resistance alleles that would limit their spread. In this study, we provide an experimental demonstration that multiplexing of guide RNAs can both significantly increase the drive conversion efficiency and reduce germline resistance rates of a CRISPR homing gene drive in Drosophila melanogaster We further show that an autosomal drive can achieve drive conversion in the male germline, with no subsequent formation of resistance alleles in embryos through paternal carryover of Cas9...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735676/artificial-selection-reveals-sex-differences-in-the-genetic-basis-of-sexual-attractiveness
#20
Thomas P Gosden, Adam J Reddiex, Stephen F Chenoweth
Mutual mate choice occurs when males and females base mating decisions on shared traits. Despite increased awareness, the extent to which mutual choice drives phenotypic change remains poorly understood. When preferences in both sexes target the same traits, it is unclear how evolution will proceed and whether responses to sexual selection from male choice will match or oppose responses to female choice. Answering this question is challenging, as it requires understanding, genetic relationships between the traits targeted by choice, mating success, and, ultimately, fitness for both sexes...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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