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Facial asymmetry

Muhammad Sajid, Imtiaz Ahmad Taj, Usama Ijaz Bajwa, Naeem Iqbal Ratyal
Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Daniele Tessaris, Alison M Boyce, Margaret Zacharin, Patrizia Matarazzo, Roberto Lala, Luisa de Sanctis, Michael T Collins
CONTEXT: In fibrous dysplasia (BFD) normal bone and bone marrow are replaced by fibro-osseous tissue, leading to fracture, deformity and pain. BFD may be isolated, or in association with cutaneous hyperpigmentation and/or hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, termed McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). GH hypersecretion has been described in 10-20% of MAS-BFD patients. Aim of the study is to determine the impact of GH-insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) axis hyperactivity on MAS-BFD morbidities and the efficacy of GH excess therapy...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Charles Zhang, Steven F Miller, Jasmien Roosenboom, George L Wehby, Lina M Moreno Uribe, Jacqueline T Hecht, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Kaare Christensen, Mary L Marazita, Seth M Weinberg
The biological relatives of offspring with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have been shown to exhibit distinctive facial features, including excess asymmetry, which are hypothesized to indicate the presence of genetic risk factors. The significance of excess soft tissue nasal asymmetry in at-risk relatives is unclear and was examined in the present study. Our sample included 164 unaffected parents from families with a history of orofacial clefting and 243 adult controls. Geometric morphometric methods were used to analyze the coordinates of 15 nasal landmarks collected from three-dimensional facial surface images...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Swantje Notzon, Christian Steinberg, Peter Zwanzger, Markus Junghöfer
BACKGROUND: Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). This stimulation is supposed to restore excitability of prefrontal cortex regions that exhibit diminished regulation of emotion-generative systems in MDD. Based on the valence lateralization hypothesis, inhibitory rTMS of the right dlPFC has also been applied in MDD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Bing Han, Xing Wang, Zili Li, Biao Yi, Cheng Liang, Xiaoxia Wang
PURPOSE: Orthognathic surgery with simultaneous condylectomy under digital guidance has been proved to be a feasible method to treat hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and precision of correction of HH by use of this method. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a case-series study. Fourteen patients with HH who had undergone simultaneous bimaxillary orthognathic surgery and condylectomy from January 2016 to April 2017 were included in this study...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jessica Luana Dos Santos, Renata Zoraida Rizental Delgado, Greison Rabelo de Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayroza Rangel
Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, with no gender predilection. Individuals with NBCCS are commonly diagnosed between 17 and 35 years old and can present multiple basal cell carcinomas scattered throughout the body, presence of recurrent and early-onset odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and skeletal abnormalities. This article describes a case of a 13-year-old white boy who referred complaining of facial asymmetry. Extraoral examination revealed volumetric increase displacing the nasal ala from the right side and extended to the zygomatic bone...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Felix Kunz, Tilmann Schweitzer, Stephan Große, Nina Waßmuth, Angelika Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Hartmut Böhm, Philipp Meyer-Marcotty, Christian Linz
Background: As there are very few long-term studies on the effects of head orthosis on deformational plagiocephaly (DP), we investigated the outcomes of patients, including facial symmetry and dental occlusion. Methods: Forty-five infants with DP [cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) > 3.5 per cent] were divided into two groups: one treated with head orthosis (32 infants) and another without (13 infants). Another group without head asymmetry (CVAI ≤ 3.5 per cent) served as control...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Jacqueline M Ogier, Benedicta D Arhatari, Marina R Carpinelli, Bradley K McColl, Michael A Wilson, Rachel A Burt
Alternate splicing is a critical regulator of gene expression in eukaryotes, however genetic mutations can cause erroneous splicing and disease. Most recorded splicing disorders are caused by mutations of splice donor/acceptor sites, however intronic mutations can affect splicing. Clinical exome analyses largely ignore intronic sequence, limiting the detection of mutations to within coding regions. We describe 'Trooper', a novel mouse model of CHARGE syndrome harbouring a pathogenic point mutation in Chd7. The mutation is 18 nucleotides upstream of exon 10 and creates a cryptic acceptor site, causing exon skipping and partial intron retention...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Martin Blum, Tim Ott
Symmetry is appealing, be it in architecture, art or facial expression, where symmetry is a key feature to finding someone attractive or not. Yet, asymmetries are widespread in nature, not as an erroneous deviation from the norm but as a way to adapt to the prevailing environmental conditions at a time. Asymmetries in many cases are actively selected for: they might well have increased the evolutionary fitness of a species. Even many single-celled organisms are built asymmetrically, such as the pear-shaped ciliate Paramecium, which may depend on its asymmetry to navigate towards the oxygen-richer surface of turbid waters, at least based on modeling...
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
N Udomlarptham, C-H Lin, Y-C Wang, E W-C Ko
The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of traditional two-dimensional planning (2DP) and three-dimensional surgical simulation (3DS) in the surgical correction of skeletal class III with facial asymmetry. This retrospective cohort study included 37 consecutive adult Taiwanese patients. Preoperative and postoperative three-dimensional cephalometric measurements were obtained from cone beam computed tomography scans. The outcome variables were the differences in preoperative and postoperative linear and angular measurements and the differences between the two groups after surgery...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Veronika Moslerová, Martina Dadáková, Ján Dupej, Eva Hoffmannova, Jiří Borský, Miloš Černý, Přemysl Bejda, Karolína Kočandrlová, Jana Velemínská
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate facial asymmetry changes in pre-school patients with orofacial clefts after neonatal cheiloplasty and to compare facial asymmetry with age-matched healthy controls. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The sample consisted of patients with unilateral cleft lip (UCL), unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), and bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). The patients were divided in two age groups with a mean age of 3 years (n = 51) and 4.5 years (n = 45), respectively, and 78 age-matched individuals as controls...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jurij Kiefer, David Braig, Jan R Thiele, Holger Bannasch, G Björn Stark, Steffen U Eisenhardt
PURPOSE: Facial paralysis has a profound impact on functionality and esthetics of the oral region. In patients with strong skin laxity and soft tissue ptosis, functional smile reconstruction is challenging due to the accentuated asymmetry at rest. Thus, the purpose of the study was to analyze facial symmetry in this patient clientele following a combination of dynamic reanimation with fascial strips for static suspension compared to functional gracilis transfer alone. METHODS: In 2014, we altered the single-stage approach for microsurgical smile reconstruction in patients with significant soft tissue ptosis by adding fascia lata grafts for static support...
March 30, 2018: Microsurgery
Pauliina Utriainen, Helena Valta, Sigridur Björnsdottir, Outi Mäkitie, Eva Horemuzova
Objective: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) presents as skeletal lesions in which normal bone is replaced by abnormal fibrous tissue due to mosaic GNAS mutation. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) refers to FD combined with skin (café-au-lait) and endocrine manifestations. This study describes the clinical childhood manifestations of polyostotic FD and MAS in a Nordic cohort. Patients and design: We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of pediatric patients ( n  = 16) with polyostotic FD with or without MAS diagnosed and followed in two Nordic Pediatric tertiary clinics between 1996 and 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
A Goldman, U Wollina
Unilateral frontalis muscle palsy is a debilitating disease with a heterogeneous etiology. Congenital or acquired unilateral paralysis of the frontalis muscle causes ipsilateral brow ptosis and contralateral hypermobility of the non-paralytic frontalis muscle, resulting in a bizarre asymmetry and emotional embarrassment. We present five patients with unilateral frontal muscle paralysis, two males and three females, aged between 32 and 68, treated with botulinum toxin A injection to the contralateral (non-affected) side...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
Güntera Meinhardt, Davida Kurbel, Bozanab Meinhardt-Injac, Maltea Persike
Some years ago an asymmetry was reported for the inversion effect for horizontal (H) and vertical (V) relational face manipulations (Goffaux & Rossion, 2007). Following research examined whether a specific disruption of long-range relations underlies the H/V inversion asymmetry (Sekunova & Barton, 2008). Here, we tested how detection of changes in interocular distance (H) and eye height (V) depends on cardinal internal features and external feature surround. Results replicated the H/V inversion asymmetry...
March 19, 2018: Vision Research
Yanko Castro-Govea, Amin Vela-Martinez, Luis Alberto Treviño-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Non-syndromic craniosynostosis causes craniofacial asymmetry and may persist after cranioplasty. These postoperative asymmetries are primarily depressions. In some cases, patients may be subjected to pranks and harassment by their peers, affecting their psychosocial development. We propose lipoinjection enriched with adipose stem cells (ASCs) to treat the sequelae of craniosynostosis in the fronto-orbital and temporal complex in cranioplasty patients, with the goal of improving the appearance of the upper third of the face...
March 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Kofi O Boahene, James Owusu, Lisa Ishii, Masaru Ishii, Shaun Desai, Irene Kim, Leslie Kim, Patrick Byrne
Importance: A multivector functional muscle flap that closely simulates the biomechanical effects of facial muscle groups is essential for complete smile restoration after facial paralysis. Objective: To determine the feasibility of a multivector gracilis muscle flap design for reanimation after facial paralysis and to analyze the effect on the smile display zone. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective analysis of patients who underwent a double paddle multivector gracilis flap for complete facial paralysis between June 2015 and December 2016 was carried out in a tertiary hospital...
March 22, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Min-Hee Oh, Sung-Ja Kang, Jin-Hyoung Cho
Objective: This retrospective study compared the three-dimensional (3D) structure of mandibular condyles between adults with and without facial asymmetry, and whether it influences menton deviation. Methods: Sixty adult patients were classified into symmetry and asymmetry groups based on the menton deviation on postero-anterior radiographs. The right/left differences of 3D measurements were compared between the two groups, and measurements were compared separately on the right and left sides...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
Jinfeng Yu, Yun Hu, Mingna Huang, Jun Chen, Xiaoqian Ding, Leilei Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the skeletal and dental characteristics in skeletal class III patients with facial asymmetry and to analyse the relationships among various parts of the stomatognathic system to provide a theoretical basis for clinical practice. METHODS: Asymmetric cone-beam computed tomography data acquired from 56 patients were evaluated using Mimics 10.0 and 3-Matic software. Skeletal and dental measurements were performed to assess the three-dimensional differences between two sides...
March 15, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Risa Usumi-Fujita, Koichi Nakakuki, Koichi Fujita, Machiko Kosugi, Ikuo Yonemitus, Eiji Fukuyama, Takashi Ono
Facial asymmetry can be caused by unilateral condylar hyperplasia. In such cases, it may be difficult to achieve symmetry since there is dentoalveolar compensation on the affected side, and the occlusal cant does not correspond to the frontal mandibular deviation. In the case presented, surgical orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery planning was accomplished for a patient with facial asymmetry due to condylar hyperplasia. The surgical plan was devised with particular attention to the severe dentoalveolar compensation...
March 21, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
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