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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915474/racial-differences-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Giuliano Di Pietro, Ganna Chornokur, Nagi B Kumar, Chemar Davis, Jong Y Park
Disparities between African American and Caucasian men in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment in the United States have been well established, with significant racial disparities documented at all stages of PCa management, from differences in the type of treatment offered to progression-free survival or death. These disparities appear to be complex in nature, involving biological determinants as well as socioeconomic and cultural aspects. We present a review of the literature on racial disparities in the diagnosis of PCa, treatment, survival, and genetic susceptibility...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915434/differences-in-the-mutational-landscape-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-african-americans-and-caucasians
#2
Foluso O Ademuyiwa, Yu Tao, Jingqin Luo, Katherine Weilbaecher, Cynthia X Ma
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs at higher frequency in African Americans compared with Caucasians. It is unclear if the biology of TNBC is different in African American versus Caucasians. In this study, we sought to evaluate racial differences in the molecular pathology of TNBC. METHODS: Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified TNBC patients with information on race. We analyzed differences in clinical characteristics, tumor somatic mutations, and gene expression patterns by race from whole exome and microarray data...
December 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914876/phylogenetic-insights-into-age-disparate-partnerships-and-hiv
#3
Mary Kathryn Grabowski, Justin Lessler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914874/transmission-networks-and-risk-of-hiv-infection-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-a-community-wide-phylogenetic-study
#4
Tulio de Oliveira, Ayesha B M Kharsany, Tiago Gräf, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Anneke Grobler, Adrian Puren, Savathree Madurai, Cheryl Baxter, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of HIV infection in young women in Africa is very high. We did a large-scale community-wide phylogenetic study to examine the underlying HIV transmission dynamics and the source and consequences of high rates of HIV infection in young women in South Africa. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional household survey of randomly selected individuals aged 15-49 years in two neighbouring subdistricts (one urban and one rural) with a high burden of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
November 30, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914710/higher-net-acid-excretion-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-kidney-disease-progression-in-patients-with%C3%A2-diabetes
#5
Julia J Scialla, John Asplin, Mirela Dobre, Alex R Chang, James Lash, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Radhakrishna R Kallem, L Lee Hamm, Harold I Feldman, Jing Chen, Lawrence J Appel, Cheryl A M Anderson, Myles Wolf
Higher diet-dependent nonvolatile acid load is associated with faster chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but most studies have used estimated acid load or measured only components of the gold standard, net acid excretion (NAE). Here we measured NAE as the sum of urine ammonium and titratable acidity in 24-hour urines from a random subset of 980 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. In multivariable models accounting for demographics, comorbidity and kidney function, higher NAE was significantly associated with lower serum bicarbonate (0...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914688/systematic-review-of-rheumatic-disease-epidemiology-in-the-indigenous-populations-of-canada-the-united-states-australia-and-new-zealand
#6
REVIEW
Cairistin McDougall, Kelle Hurd, Cheryl Barnabe
OBJECTIVE: Past publications have highlighted an excess rheumatic disease incidence and prevalence in indigenous populations of Canada (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis), and the United States of America (Alaska Native and American Indian). We have updated these reviews and expanded the scope to include New Zealand (Maori) and Australia (Aborigine) indigenous populations. METHODS: We performed a broad search using medical literature databases, indigenous specific online indexes, and government websites to identify publications reporting the incidence and/or prevalence of arthritis conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, gout, osteoarthritis, systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis) in the indigenous populations of Canada, America, New Zealand, and Australia...
November 1, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914522/the-validity-of-us-nutritional-surveillance-usda-s-loss-adjusted-food-availability-data-series-1971-2010
#7
Edward Archer, Diana M Thomas, Samantha M McDonald, Gregory Pavela, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill, Steven N Blair
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 1971-2010 United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability (LAFA) per capita caloric consumption estimates. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated for nationally representative samples of US adults, 20-74 years, using the Institute of Medicine's predictive equations with "low-active" (TEE L-ACT) and "sedentary" (TEE SED) physical activity values. TEE estimates were subtracted from LAFA estimates to create disparity values (kcal/d)...
November 2016: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914506/use-of-high-intensity-statins-for-patients-with-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-veterans-affairs-health-system-practice-impact-of-the-new-cholesterol-guidelines
#8
Fatima Rodriguez, Shoutzu Lin, David J Maron, Joshua W Knowles, Salim S Virani, Paul A Heidenreich
BACKGROUND: The November 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We sought to determine how these guidelines are being adopted at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System and identify treatment gaps. METHODS: We examined administrative data from the VA 12 months prior to the index dates of April 1, 2013, and after April 1, 2014, to identify patients ≤75 years of age with ≥2 codes for ASCVD...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914238/intergenerational-transmission-of-child-abuse-and-neglect-do-maltreatment-type-perpetrator-and-substantiation-status-matter
#9
Jessica Dym Bartlett, Chie Kotake, Rebecca Fauth, M Ann Easterbrooks
A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children...
November 30, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913962/bathing-and-associated-treatments-in-atopic-dermatitis
#10
REVIEW
Julia K Gittler, Jason F Wang, Seth J Orlow
Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common complaints presenting to dermatologists, and patients typically inquire as to appropriate bathing recommendations. Although many dermatologists, allergists, and primary-care practitioners provide explicit bathing instructions, recommendations regarding frequency of bathing, duration of bathing, and timing related to emollient and medication application relative to bathing vary widely. Conflicting and vague guidelines stem from knowledge related to the disparate effects of water on skin, as well as a dearth of studies, especially randomized controlled trials, evaluating the effects of water and bathing on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis...
December 3, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913907/development-of-a-culturally-informed-child-safety-curriculum-for-american-indian-families
#11
Ryan M Berns, Emily J Tomayko, Kate A Cronin, Ronald J Prince, Tassy Parker, Alexandra K Adams
American Indian (AI) children are disproportionately affected by unintentional injuries, with injury mortality rates approximately 2.3 times higher than the combined rates for all children in the United States. Although multiple risk factors are known to contribute to these increased rates, a comprehensive, culturally informed curriculum that emphasizes child safety is lacking for this population. In response to this need, academic and tribal researchers, tribal community members, tribal wellness staff, and national child safety experts collaborated to develop a novel child safety curriculum...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#12
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913765/prevalence-of-chronic-conditions-and-multimorbidities-in-a-geographically-defined-geriatric-population-with-diverse-races-and-ethnicities
#13
Eunjung Lim, Krupa Gandhi, James Davis, John J Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of chronic conditions and multimorbidities in the geriatric population of a state with diverse races/ethnicities. METHOD: Fifteen chronic conditions and their dyads and triads were investigated using Hawaii Medicare 2012 data. For each condition, a multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate differences in race/ethnicity, adjusting for subject characteristics...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913723/the-utility-of-the-maude-database-for-osseointegrated-auditory-implants
#14
Daniel H Coelho, Alex J Tampio
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of Manufacturer and User Friendly Device Experience (MAUDE) database in studying osseointegrated auditory implant (OAI)-related complications. METHODS: The MAUDE database was searched for all reports involving OAIs (ie, Baha, Ponto, Sophono). Complications were classified into 1 or more of 6 categories-implant, abutment, processor, skin, surgery, and other. Subcategories were generated to prevent overgeneralization. Other variables recorded included date of report, number of complications per report, manufacturer, and time from complication to report...
January 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913658/social-determinants-and-teen-pregnancy-prevention-exploring-the-role-of-nontraditional-partnerships
#15
Taleria R Fuller, Carla P White, Jocelyn Chu, Deborah Dean, Naomi Clemmons, Carmen Chaparro, Jessica L Thames, Anitra Belle Henderson, Pebbles King
Addressing the social determinants of health (SDOH) that influence teen pregnancy is paramount to eliminating disparities and achieving health equity. Expanding prevention efforts from purely individual behavior change to improving the social, political, economic, and built environments in which people live, learn, work, and play may better equip vulnerable youth to adopt and sustain healthy decisions. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the Office of Adolescent Health funded state- and community-based organizations to develop and implement the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative...
December 1, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912002/a-novel-application-of-multi-event-modeling-to-estimate-class-segregation-in-a-highly-migratory-oceanic-vertebrate
#16
T K Chapple, T Chambert, P E Kanive, S J Jorgensen, J J Rotella, S D Anderson, A B Carlisle, B A Block
Spatial segregation of animals by class (i.e., maturity or sex) within a population due to differential rates of temporary emigration (TE) from study sites can be an important life history feature to consider in population assessment and management. However, such rates are poorly known; new quantitative approaches to address these knowledge gaps are needed. We present a novel application of multi-event models that takes advantage of two sources of detections to differentiate temporary emigration from apparent absence to quantify class segregation within a study population of double-marked (photo-identified and tagged with coded acoustic transmitters) white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in central California...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911849/scalable-manufacturing-of-biomimetic-moldable-hydrogels-for-industrial-applications
#17
Anthony C Yu, Haoxuan Chen, Doreen Chan, Gillie Agmon, Lyndsay M Stapleton, Alex M Sevit, Mark W Tibbitt, Jesse D Acosta, Tony Zhang, Paul W Franzia, Robert Langer, Eric A Appel
Hydrogels are a class of soft material that is exploited in many, often completely disparate, industrial applications, on account of their unique and tunable properties. Advances in soft material design are yielding next-generation moldable hydrogels that address engineering criteria in several industrial settings such as complex viscosity modifiers, hydraulic or injection fluids, and sprayable carriers. Industrial implementation of these viscoelastic materials requires extreme volumes of material, upwards of several hundred million gallons per year...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911763/pandemic-influenza-and-socioeconomic-disparities-lessons-from-1918-chicago
#18
Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911583/advancing-research-on-structural-stigma-and-sexual-orientation-disparities-in-mental-health-among-youth
#19
Mark L Hatzenbuehler
Psychological research on stigma has focused largely on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and their interpersonal interactions with the nonstigmatized. This work has been critical in documenting many of the ways in which stigma operates to harm those who are targeted. However, this research has also tended to overlook broader structural forms of stigma, which refer to societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies and practices that constrain the lives of the stigmatized. In this article I describe the emerging field of research on structural stigma and review evidence documenting the harmful consequences of structural stigma for the mental/behavioral health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911534/structural-transitions-in-densifying-networks
#20
R Lambiotte, P L Krapivsky, U Bhat, S Redner
We introduce a minimal generative model for densifying networks in which a new node attaches to a randomly selected target node and also to each of its neighbors with probability p. The networks that emerge from this copying mechanism are sparse for p<1/2 and dense (average degree increasing with number of nodes N) for p≥1/2. The behavior in the dense regime is especially rich; for example, individual network realizations that are built by copying are disparate and not self-averaging. Further, there is an infinite sequence of structural anomalies at p=2/3, 3/4, 4/5, etc...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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