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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646481/effects-of-geography-on-mental-health-disparities-on-sexual-minorities-in-new-york-city
#1
Jacob Felson, Amy Adamczyk
Gay and lesbian individuals have higher rates of psychological distress than do heterosexual individuals. The minority stress hypothesis attributes this disparity to adversity-related stress experienced by sexual minorities. In support of this idea, research in the U.S. has generally found that mental health disparities between sexual minorities and others are narrower in places where tolerance is relatively high. However, few studies have examined disparities between sexual minorities and others in neighborhoods where sexual minorities are most highly concentrated...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646355/racial-disparities-in-menu-labeling-usage-analysis-of-the-2012-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-brfss-sugar-sweetened-beverage-and-menu-labeling-module
#2
Sufana Shikdar, Sumihiro Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: Race/ethnic disparities in obesity are widely reported and are often attributed to diet-related factors, such as menu-labeling usage. We aimed to determine whether racial difference exists in menu-labeling usage. METHODS: Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used. Menu labeling was measured from the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Menu Labeling module administered in 18 states. We stratified the population into four race/ethnic categories: non-Hispanic whites (reference, n = 66,019, 63%), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 13,623, 13%), Hispanics (n = 14,671, 14%), and others (n = 7336, 7%)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645707/syndemic-factors-mediate-the-relationship-between-sexual-stigma-and-depression-among-sexual-minority-women-and-gender-minorities
#3
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Tonia Poteat, Anne C Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Stigma and discrimination contribute to elevated depression risks among sexual minority women (SMW) and gender minority (GM) people who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or queer. Syndemics theory posits that adverse psychosocial outcomes cluster to negatively impact health and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities. We tested whether a syndemic condition composed of low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, and economic insecurity mediated the relationship between sexual stigma and depressive symptoms among SMW/GM...
June 20, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645647/racial-disparity-in-mycosis-fungoides-an-analysis-of-4495-cases-from-the-us-national-cancer-database
#4
Chang Su, Kevin A Nguyen, Harrison X Bai, Ya Cao, Yongguang Tao, Rong Xiao, Giorgos Karakousis, Paul J Zhang, Guiying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown contradictory results regarding the survival outcomes among white, African American, and Asian patients with mycosis fungoides (MF). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival outcomes among white, African American, and Asian patients with MF and to determine other prognostic factors of the disease. METHODS: The US National Cancer Database was used to identify patients with histologically confirmed MF from 2004 to 2014...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645619/supporting-and-caring-for-transgender-and-gender-nonconforming-youth-in-the-urology-practice
#5
REVIEW
L E Conard
INTRODUCTION: Gender identity is a person's internal sense of gender, which may be different than the sex they were assigned at birth. Pediatric urologists are starting to see more transgender and gender non-conforming (TGN) youth and need to be able to provide culturally competent and appropriate care for these patients and their caregivers. This review will discuss common transgender terminology, specific health concerns and treatment options. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A systematic literature review was performed on Medline(®), PubMed(®), and Google Scholar™ for key words transgender, gender dysphoria and gender identity disorder...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645039/fundamental-causes-of-accelerated-declines-in-colorectal-cancer-mortality-modeling-multiple-ways-that-disadvantage-influences-mortality-risk
#6
Sean A P Clouston, Marcie S Rubin, David Chae, Jeremy Freese, Barbara Nemesure, Bruce G Link
BACKGROUND: Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality reflect the distribution of effective preventions. Social inequalities often generate unequal diffusion of medical interventions, resulting in disparate outcomes while preventions are being disseminated throughout the population. This study used a novel method to examine whether Race (Black versus White) and SES influenced when rates of CRC mortality started to decline, and how rapidly they did so. METHOD: Mortality counts from 1968-2010 were derived from death certificates of U...
June 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645019/using-network-screening-methods-to-determine-locations-with-specific-safety-issues-a-design-consistency-case-study
#7
Andrew J Butsick, Jonathan S Wood, Paul P Jovanis
The Highway Safety Manual provides multiple methods that can be used to identify sites with promise (SWiPs) for safety improvement. However, most of these methods cannot be used to identify sites with specific problems. Furthermore, given that infrastructure funding is often specified for use related to specific problems/programs, a method for identifying SWiPs related to those programs would be very useful. This research establishes a method for Identifying SWiPs with specific issues. This is accomplished using two safety performance functions (SPFs)...
June 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644780/avoiding-racial-essentialism-in-medical-science-curricula
#8
Lundy Braun, Barry Saunders
A wave of medical student activism is shining a spotlight on medical educators' sometimes maladroit handling of racial categories in teaching about health disparities. Coinciding with recent critiques, primarily by social scientists, regarding the imprecise and inappropriate use of race as a biological or epidemiological risk factor in genetics research, medical student activism has triggered new collaborations among students, faculty, and administrators to rethink how race is addressed in the medical curriculum...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644767/blood-lead-levels-and-risk-factors-for-lead-exposure-among-pregnant-women-in-western-french-guiana-the-role-of-manioc-consumption
#9
Diane Rimbaud, Marion Restrepo, Anne Louison, Rachida Boukhari, Vanessa Ardillon, Gabriel Carles, Véronique Lambert, Anne Jolivet
Concerns regarding lead (Pb) poisoning in French Guiana first arose in 2011 following the discovery of excessively high levels of the metal amongst children in a small neighborhood without any apparent source of Pb. Since 2012, blood lead level (BLL) measurement has been proposed for all pregnant women in western French Guiana. The aim of this study was to determine BLL in pregnant women in this region and identify factors associated with elevated BLL. An observational study of a consecutive sample of women who delivered in the maternity ward of the hospital was conducted...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644394/synergistic-effect-of-mos%C3%A2-and-sio%C3%A2-nanoparticles-as-lubricant-additives-for-magnesium-alloy-steel-contacts
#10
Hongmei Xie, Bin Jiang, Xingyu Hu, Cheng Peng, Hongli Guo, Fusheng Pan
The tribological performances of the SiO₂/MoS₂ hybrids as lubricant additives were explored by a reciprocating ball-on-flat tribometer for AZ31 magnesium alloy/AISI 52100 bearing steel pairs. The results demonstrated that the introduction of SiO₂/MoS₂ hybrids into the base oil exhibited a significant reduction in the friction coefficient and wear volume as well as an increase in load bearing capacity, which was better than the testing results of the SiO₂ or MoS₂ nanolubricants. Specifically, the addition of 0...
June 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644347/age-and-sex-normalization-of-intestinal-permeability-measures-for-the-improved-assessment-of-enteropathy-in-infancy-and-early-childhood-results-from-the-mal-ed-study
#11
Margaret N Kosek, Gwenyth O Lee, Richard L Guerrant, Rashidul Haque, Gagandeep Kang, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pascal Bessong, Asad Ali, Estomih Mduma, Pablo Peñataro Yori, William A Faubion, Aldo A M Lima, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Carl Mason, Sudhir Babji, Ravinder Singh, Shahida Qureshi, Peter S Kosek, Amidou Samie, John Pascal, Sanjaya Shrestha, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Dennis R Lang, Anita Zaidi, Laura E Caulfield, Michael Gottlieb
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe changes in intestinal permeability in early childhood in diverse epidemiologic settings. METHODS: In a birth cohort study, the lactulose:mannitol (L:M) test was administered to 1980 children at 4 time points in the first 24 months of life in 8 countries. Data from the Brazil site with an incidence of diarrhea similar to that seen in the United States and no growth faltering was used as an internal study reference to derive age- and sex-specific z scores for mannitol and lactulose recoveries and the L:M ratio...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643885/a-critical-assessment-of-the-direct-catalytic-oxidation-of-methane-to-methanol
#12
Manoj Ravi, Marco Ranocchiari, Jeroen A van Bokhoven
Despite the emerging number of disparate approaches for the direct selective partial oxidation of methane, none of them has translated into an industrial process. The oxidation of methane to methanol is a difficult yet intriguing and rewarding task as it has the potential to eliminate the prevalent natural gas flaring by providing novel routes to its valorisation. This review considers the synthesis of methanol and methanol derivatives from methane by homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways. In establishing the severe limitations related to the direct catalytic synthesis of methanol from methane, we highlight the vastly superior performance of systems, which produce methanol derivatives or incorporate specific measures such as the use of multi-component catalysts to stabilise methanol...
June 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643658/quality-assessment-of-pelvic-ultrasound-for-uterine-myoma-according-to-the-cngof-guidelines
#13
D Perrot, H Fernandez, J M Levaillant, P Capmas
INTRODUCTION: French guidelines regarding the minimum criteria for gynaecological ultrasound were given in a recent report in 2016, by the French National College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (CNGOF). An accurate report is essential for the optimal care of women, especially those presenting myomas. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of gynaecological ultrasound reports for women with type 0 to 2 uterine myomas, referring to the items contained in the French guidelines...
April 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643458/treatment-outcomes-for-hodgkin-lymphoma-first-report-from-the-brazilian-prospective-registry
#14
Irene Biasoli, Nelson Castro, Marcia Delamain, Talita Silveira, James Farley, Belinda Pinto Simões, Cristiana Solza, Monica Praxedes, Otávio Baiocchi, Rafael Gaiolla, Fernanda Franceschi, Caroline Bonamin Sola, Carla Boquimpani, Nelma Clementino, Guilherme Perini, Kátia Pagnano, Giovanna Steffenello, Jacques Tabacof, Gilberto de Freitas Colli, Andrea Soares, Carmino de Souza, Carlos Sérgio Chiattone, Cristiane Milito, José Carlos Morais, Nelson Spector
Data about Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in developing countries are scarce and suggest the existence of substantial disparities in healthcare and outcomes in large areas of the world. In 2009, a prospective registry of HL was implemented in Brazil. Web-based data were contributed by 20 institutions across the country participating in the Brazilian Prospective Hodgkin's Lymphoma Registry. The aim of this study was to present the clinical features and outcomes of newly diagnosed patients with HL aged 13 to 90 years...
June 23, 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643270/ethnic-disparities-of-perceived-safety-climate-among-construction-workers-in-georgia-2015
#15
Michael Welton, David DeJoy, Maria Eugenia Castellanos, Mark Ebell, Ye Shen, Sara Robb
BACKGROUND: Safety climate involves worker perception about the relative importance where they work and safety climate and has been shown to be a reliable predictor of safety-related outcomes. METHODS: The primary objective of this study is to investigate ethnic differences in perceived safety climate among construction workers. Surveys (n = 179) that included a 10-item safety climate scale were administered in Athens, Georgia (GA), at local construction sites and home improvement stores during June-August, 2015...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643269/-doing-difference-and-fast-food-consumption-patterns-among-a-sample-of-white-and-african-american-emerging-adults
#16
Jeannette M Wade
Previous research has demonstrated that frequent consumption of fast food is linked to obesity and that trends in both are disparate across race and sex categories. Contextualizing race- and sex-related factors that structure fast food consumption in emerging adulthood is a much-needed contribution to social research. Specifically, this study uses the "doing difference" framework, to examine the frequency of fast food consumption in a sample of White and African American (18-25 years old). According to the framework, social inequalities are reproduced through dramaturgical performances of race, class, and gender...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643152/the-impact-of-speed-of-play-in-gambling-on-psychological-and-behavioural-factors-a-critical-review
#17
REVIEW
Andrew Harris, Mark D Griffiths
Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in its relative infancy, and the research possesses disparate methodologies and variables of interest. The aims of the current review is therefore to evaluate and summarise the existing body of evidence relating to speed of play in gambling, as well as discuss how this evidence can be used to inform harm minimisation approaches aimed at facilitating self-control during gambling...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643109/racial-differences-in-the-effects-of-comorbidity-on-breast-cancer-specific-survival
#18
Melissa L Santorelli, Kim M Hirshfield, Michael B Steinberg, Yong Lin, George G Rhoads, Elisa V Bandera, Kitaw Demissie
PURPOSE: In an effort to explain racial disparities in breast cancer survival, this study aimed to investigate how comorbidity affects breast cancer-specific mortality by race. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked data including 68,090 women 66+ years, who were diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in the United States from 1994 to 2004. Hospital and outpatient claims from the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis were used to identify comorbid conditions and patients were followed for survival through 2010...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643037/pediatric-spondylolysis-spinal-stenosis-and-disc-herniation-national-trends-in-decompression-and-discectomy-surgery-evaluated-through-the-kids-inpatient-database
#19
Tridu R Huynh, Carlito Lagman, Fadi Sweiss, Faris Shweikeh, Miriam Nuño, Doniel Drazin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe national trends in spinal decompression without fusion and discectomy procedures in the US pediatric inpatient population. METHODS: The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) was queried for pediatric patients with primary diagnoses of spinal spondylolysis/stenosis or disc herniation and having undergone spinal decompression without fusion or discectomy over more than a decade (2000 to 2012). The primary (indirect) outcomes of interest were in-hospital complication rates, length of stay (LOS), total costs, and discharge dispositions...
June 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#20
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
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