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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769110/prevalence-and-determinants-of-selected-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-and-receiving-care-in-the-south-west-regional-hospitals-of-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Roland Cheofor Ngu, Simeon-Pierre Choukem, Christian Akem Dimala, Julius N Ngu, Gottlieb Lobe Monekosso
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors are not routinely assessed in the care of HIV patients in developing countries, known to have the highest disease burden. We described the prevalence and factors associated with major cardio-metabolic risk factors (obesity, diabetes and hypertension) in HIV/AIDS patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and obesity were 11.3% (95% CI 8.10-15.43), 24.8% (95% CI 20.1-30.0) and 14.5% (95% CI 11...
May 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723670/circuit-mechanisms-of-hippocampal-reactivation-during-sleep
#2
Paola Malerba, Maxim Bazhenov
The hippocampus is important for memory and learning, being a brain site where initial memories are formed and where sharp wave - ripples (SWR) are found, which are responsible for mapping recent memories to long-term storage during sleep-related memory replay. While this conceptual schema is well established, specific intrinsic and network-level mechanisms driving spatio-temporal patterns of hippocampal activity during sleep, and specifically controlling off-line memory reactivation are unknown. In this study, we discuss a model of hippocampal CA1-CA3 network generating spontaneous characteristic SWR activity...
April 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599704/pacing-hippocampal-sharp-wave-ripples-with-weak-electric-stimulation
#3
Huiyi Jiang, Shicheng Liu, Xinling Geng, Adam Caccavano, Katherine Conant, Stefano Vicini, Jianyoung Wu
Sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) are spontaneous neuronal population events that occur in the hippocampus during sleep and quiet restfulness, and are thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of episodic memory. SWRs occur at a rate of 30-200 events per minute. Their overall abundance may, however, be reduced with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Here we report that the abundance of SWR within murine hippocampal slices can be increased by paced administration of a weak electrical stimulus, especially when the spontaneously occurring rate is low or compromised...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593774/the-role-of-hydrogen-peroxide-in-mediating-the-mechanical-wounding-induced-freezing-tolerance-in-wheat
#4
Tong Si, Xiao Wang, Chunzhao Zhao, Mei Huang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Dong Jiang
Systemic wound response (SWR), a well-characterized systemic signaling response, plays crucial roles in plant defense responses. Progress in understanding of the SWR in abiotic stress has also been aided by the researchers. However, the function of SWR in freezing stress remains elusive. In this study, we showed that local mild mechanical wounding enhanced freezing tolerance in newly occurred systemic leaves of wheat plants ( Triticum aestivum L.). Wounding significantly increased the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, net photosynthetic rate, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes under freezing stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519185/canal-wall-down-procedure-with-soft-posterior-meatal-wall-reconstruction-in-acquired-cholesteatoma-focus-on-postoperative-middle-ear-status
#5
Tomoyasu Tachibana, Shin Kariya, Yorihisa Orita, Michihiro Nakada, Takuma Makino, Yasutoshi Komatsubara, Yuko Matsuyama, Yuto Naoi, Kazunori Nishizaki
OBJECTIVES: We reviewed surgical results of canal wall-down tympanoplasty (CWDT) with soft posterior meatal wall reconstruction (SWR) for acquired cholesteatoma (AC), and identified factors associated with surgical outcomes. METHODS: Results from 119 ears with AC (pars flaccida, n = 99; pars tensa, n = 20) that underwent CWDT with SWR were retrospectively reviewed. We defined postoperative balloon-like retraction (PBR) with web formation, which needed reoperation to clean accumulated cerumen, as postoperative deep retraction pocket (PDRP)...
March 8, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470428/determining-forest-duff-water-content-using-a-low-cost-standing-wave-ratio-sensor
#6
Xiaofei Yan, Yajie Zhao, Qiang Cheng, Xiaoliang Zheng, Yandong Zhao
Forest duff (fermentation and humus) water content is an important parameter for fire risk prediction and water resource management. However, accurate determination of forest duff water content is difficult due to its loose structure. This study evaluates the feasibility of a standing wave ratio (SWR) sensor to accurately determine the forest duff water content. The performance of this sensor was tested on fermentation and humus with eight different compaction levels. Meanwhile, a commercialized time domain reflectometry (TDR) was employed for comparison...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444801/widespread-and-precise-reprogramming-of-yeast-protein-genome-interactions-in-response-to-heat-shock
#7
Vinesh Vinayachandran, Rohit Reja, Matthew J Rossi, Bongsoo Park, Lila Rieber, Chitvan Mittal, Shaun Mahony, B Franklin Pugh
Gene expression is controlled by a variety of proteins that interact with the genome. Their precise organization and mechanism of action at every promoter remains to be worked out. To better understand the physical interplay among genome-interacting proteins, we examined the temporal binding of a functionally diverse subset of these proteins: nucleosomes (H3), H2AZ (Htz1), SWR (Swr1), RSC (Rsc1, Rsc3, Rsc58, Rsc6, Rsc9, Sth1), SAGA (Spt3, Spt7, Ubp8, Sgf11), Hsf1, TFIID (Spt15/TBP and Taf1), TFIIB (Sua7), TFIIH (Ssl2), FACT (Spt16), Pol II (Rpb3), and Pol II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) phosphorylation at serines 2, 5, and 7...
February 14, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438824/low-bone-toughness-in-the-tallyho-model-of-juvenile-type-2-diabetes-does-not-worsen-with-age
#8
Amy Creecy, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Mustafa Unal, R Clay Bunn, Paul Voziyan, Jeffry S Nyman
Fracture risk increases as type 2 diabetes (T2D) progresses. With the rising incidence of T2D, in particular early-onset T2D, a representative pre-clinical model is needed to study mechanisms for treating or preventing diabetic bone disease. Towards that goal, we hypothesized that fracture resistance of bone from diabetic TallyHO mice decreases as the duration of diabetes increases. Femurs and lumbar vertebrae were harvested from male, TallyHO mice and male, non-diabetic SWR/J mice at 16weeks (n≥12 per strain) and 34weeks (n≥13 per strain) of age...
May 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335604/dentate-network-activity-is-necessary-for-spatial-working-memory-by-supporting-ca3-sharp-wave-ripple-generation-and-prospective-firing-of-ca3-neurons
#9
Takuya Sasaki, Verónica C Piatti, Ernie Hwaun, Siavash Ahmadi, John E Lisman, Stefan Leutgeb, Jill K Leutgeb
Complex spatial working memory tasks have been shown to require both hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) activity and dentate gyrus (DG) neuronal activity. We therefore asked whether DG inputs to CA3 contribute to spatial working memory by promoting SWR generation. Recordings from DG and CA3 while rats performed a dentate-dependent working memory task on an eight-arm radial maze revealed that the activity of dentate neurons and the incidence rate of SWRs both increased during reward consumption. We then found reduced reward-related CA3 SWR generation without direct input from dentate granule neurons...
February 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249981/differences-in-exercise-capacity-and-responses-to-training-in-24-inbred-mouse-strains
#10
Joshua J Avila, Seung Kyum Kim, Michael P Massett
Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in response to a standardized exercise training protocol differ substantially between individuals. Results from cross-sectional, twin, and family studies indicate genetics contribute to individual differences in both baseline exercise capacity and the response to training. Exercise capacity and responses to training also vary between inbred strains of mice. However, such studies have utilized a limited number of inbred strains. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize exercise-training responses in a larger number of genetically diverse strains of inbred mice and estimate the contribution of genetic background to exercise training responses...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156261/soil-water-repellency-of-the-artificial-soil-and-natural-soil-in-rocky-slopes-as-affected-by-the-drought-stress-and-polyacrylamide
#11
Zhang Chen, Ruixin Wang, Pengyuan Han, Hailong Sun, Haifeng Sun, Chengjun Li, Lixia Yang
Soil water repellency (SWR) causes reduced soil water storage, enhanced runoff and reduced ecosystem productivity. Therefore, characterization of SWR is a prerequisite for effective environmental management. SWR has been reported under different soils, land uses and regions of the world, particularly in forest land and after wildfires; however, the understanding of this variable in the artificial soil of rocky slope eco-engineering is still rather limited. This study presented the characterization of SWR in the artificial soil affected by the polyacrylamide (PAM) and drought stress...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149742/stability-of-heavy-metals-in-soil-washing-residue-with-and-without-biochar-addition-under-accelerated-ageing
#12
Zhengtao Shen, Deyi Hou, Bin Zhao, Wendi Xu, Yong Sik Ok, Nanthi S Bolan, Daniel S Alessi
Soil washing residue (SWR), which typically concentrates the washed toxic metals and is comprised of high contents of clay particles, may pose risks to the surrounding environment. This study aims to simulate accelerated ageing to assess the stability of selected metals (Cd2+ (132mg/kg), Cu2+ (248mg/kg) and Pb2+ (3470mg/kg)) in a SWR (89.68% of clay) with and without biochar treatment. The soil was incubated under constant moisture and wet-dry cycles (accelerated ageing), respectively, and the mobility and fractions of heavy metals in the soils with and without biochar treatment were examined...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089440/hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-during-learning-is-stronger-in-awake-compared-with-sleep-states
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Wenbo Tang, Justin D Shin, Loren M Frank, Shantanu P Jadhav
Hippocampal sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events occur during both behavior (awake SWRs) and slow-wave sleep (sleep SWRs). Awake and sleep SWRs both contribute to spatial learning and memory, thought to be mediated by the coordinated reactivation of behavioral experiences in hippocampal-cortical circuits seen during SWRs. Current hypotheses suggest that reactivation contributes to memory consolidation processes, but whether awake and sleep reactivation are suited to play similar or different roles remains unclear...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042247/murine-genetic-variance-in-muscarinic-cholinergic-receptor-antagonism-of-sucrose-and-saccharin-solution-intakes-in-three-inbred-mouse-strains
#14
Faye Bourie, Kerstin Olsson, Ben Iskhakov, Agata Buras, Gabriela Fazilov, Merna Shenouda, Julia Zhezherya, Richard J Bodnar
Nutritive (e.g., sucrose) and non-nutritive (e.g., saccharin) sweeteners stimulate intake in inbred mouse strains. BALB/c, SWR and C57BL/6 mice differ in the ability of dopamine (DA) D1 (SCH23390) and opioid (naltrexone) receptor antagonism to alter sucrose intake. Whereas SCH23390 comparably reduced cumulative sucrose intake in all three strains, naltrexone reduced cumulative sucrose intake maximally in C57/BL/6 mice, in intermediate fashion in BALB/c mice, but not in SWR mice. Whereas cumulative saccharin intake was reduced by DA D1 receptor antagonism in BALB/c and SWR mice, naltrexone was more potent in SWR relative to BALB/c mice...
October 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979306/in-silico-screening-of-il-1%C3%AE-production-inhibitors-using-chemometric-tools
#15
Amirhossein Sakhteman, Najmeh Edraki, Bahram Hemmateenejad, Ramin Miri, Alireza Foroumadi, Abbas Shafiee, Mehdi Khoshneviszadeh
The IL-1β plays a major role in inflammatory disorders and IL-1β production inhibitors can be used in the treatment of inflammatory and related diseases. In this study, quantitative relationships between the structures of 46 pyridazine derivatives (inhibitors of IL-1β production) and their activities were investigated by Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) technique Stepwise Regression Method (ES-SWR). The genetic algorithm (GA) has been proposed for improvement of the performance of the MLR modeling by choosing the most relevant descriptors...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973436/dual-function-of-swc5-in-swr-remodeling-atpase-activation-and-histone-h2a-eviction
#16
Lu Sun, Ed Luk
The chromatin remodeler SWR deposits histone H2A.Z at promoters and other regulatory sites via an ATP-driven histone exchange reaction that replaces nucleosomal H2A with H2A.Z. Simultaneous binding of SWR to both H2A nucleosome and free H2A.Z induces SWR ATPase activity and engages the histone exchange mechanism. Swc5 is a conserved subunit of the 14-polypeptide SWR complex that is required for the histone exchange reaction, but its molecular role is unknown. We found that Swc5, although not required for substrate binding, is required for SWR ATPase stimulation, suggesting that Swc5 is required to couple substrate recognition to ATPase activation...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950903/bayesian-network-model-for-identification-of-pathways-by-integrating-protein-interaction-with-genetic-interaction-data
#17
Changhe Fu, Su Deng, Guangxu Jin, Xinxin Wang, Zu-Guo Yu
BACKGROUND: Molecular interaction data at proteomic and genetic levels provide physical and functional insights into a molecular biosystem and are helpful for the construction of pathway structures complementarily. Despite advances in inferring biological pathways using genetic interaction data, there still exists weakness in developed models, such as, activity pathway networks (APN), when integrating the data from proteomic and genetic levels. It is necessary to develop new methods to infer pathway structure by both of interaction data...
September 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#18
Zhi Yong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs) and require initial excitation of CA1 PCs as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
January 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883625/redundant-functions-for-nap1-and-chz1-in-h2a-z-deposition
#19
Raghuvar Dronamraju, Srinivas Ramachandran, Deepak K Jha, Alexander T Adams, Julia V DiFiore, Michael A Parra, Nikolay V Dokholyan, Brian D Strahl
H2A.Z is a histone H2A variant that contributes to transcriptional regulation, DNA damage response and limits heterochromatin spreading. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, H2A.Z is deposited by the SWR-C complex, which relies on several histone chaperones including Nap1 and Chz1 to deliver H2A.Z-H2B dimers to SWR-C. However, the mechanisms by which Nap1 and Chz1 cooperate to bind H2A.Z and their contribution to H2A.Z deposition in chromatin is not well understood. Using structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a series of H2A...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828401/abnormalities-in-dynamic-brain-activity-caused-by-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-are-partially-rescued-by-the-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-smm-189
#20
Yu Liu, Samuel S McAfee, Natalie M Guley, Nobel Del Mar, Wei Bu, Scott A Heldt, Marcia G Honig, Bob M Moore, Anton Reiner, Detlef H Heck
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model...
July 2017: ENeuro
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