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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866796/interplay-between-hippocampal-sharp-wave-ripple-events-and-vicarious-trial-and-error-behaviors-in-decision-making
#1
Andrew E Papale, Mark C Zielinski, Loren M Frank, Shantanu P Jadhav, A David Redish
Current theories posit that memories encoded during experiences are subsequently consolidated into longer-term storage. Hippocampal sharp-wave-ripple (SWR) events have been linked to this consolidation process during sleep, but SWRs also occur during awake immobility, where their role remains unclear. We report that awake SWR rates at the reward site are inversely related to the prevalence of vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors, thought to be involved in deliberation processes. SWR rates were diminished immediately after VTE behaviors and an increase in the rate of SWR events at the reward site predicted a decrease in subsequent VTE behaviors at the choice point...
November 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846828/the-potential-effectiveness-of-the-nutrition-improvement-program-on-infant-and-young-child-feeding-and-nutritional-status-in-the-northwest-and-southwest-regions-of-cameroon-central-africa
#2
Kate Reinsma, Godlove Nkuoh, Emmanuel Nshom
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent international focus on maternal and child nutrition, little attention is paid to nutrition capacity development. Although infant feeding counselling by health workers increases caregivers' knowledge, and improves breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and children's linear growth, most of the counselling in sub-Saharan Africa is primarily conducted by nurses or volunteers, and little is done to develop capacity for nutrition at the professional, organizational, or systemic levels...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832604/intra-and-inter-regional-cortical-interactions-related-to-sharp-wave-ripples-and-dentate-spikes
#3
Drew B Headley, Vasiliki Kanta, Denis Pare
The hippocampus generates population events termed sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and dentate spikes (DSs). While little is known about DSs, SWR-related hippocampal discharges during sleep are thought to replay prior waking activity, reactivating the cortical networks that encoded the initial experience. During slow-wave sleep, such reactivations likely occur during up-states, when most cortical neurons are depolarized. However, most studies have examined the relationship between SWRs and up-states measured in single neocortical regions...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804006/ramadan-fasting-effects-on-postural-control-in-the-elderly-a-comparison-between-fallers-and-non-fallers
#4
Rabeb Laatar, Rym Baccouch, Rihab Borji, Hiba Kachouri, Haithem Rebai, Sonia Sahli
Our purpose was to compare the effects of Ramadan fasting on postural control in elderly fallers and non-fallers. The protocol involved twenty-four healthy old volunteer males divided into two groups: fallers (mean age = 75.43 ± 5.26 years, weight = 67.25 ± 5.30 kg and height = 1.65 ± 0.02 m) and non-fallers (mean age = 72.3 ± 6.42 years, weight = 65.5 ± 6.15 kg and height = 1.64 ± 0.03 m). Participants performed a simple reaction time test (SRT) and a postural control protocol on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (BR), during the second (SWR) and the fourth week (FWR) of Ramadan and three weeks after Ramadan (AR)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760209/pristane-accelerated-autoimmune-disease-in-swr-x-nzb-f1-mice-leads-to-prominent-tubulointerstitial-inflammation-and-human-lupus-nephritis-like-fibrosis
#5
Agnes Gardet, Wei C Chou, Taylor L Reynolds, Diana B Velez, Kai Fu, Julia M Czerkowicz, Jeffrey Bajko, Ann M Ranger, Normand Allaire, Hannah M Kerns, Sarah Ryan, Holly M Legault, Robert W Dunstan, Robert Lafyatis, Matvey Lukashev, Joanne L Viney, Jeffrey L Browning, Dania Rabah
Mouse models lupus nephritis (LN) have provided important insights into disease pathogenesis, although none have been able to recapitulate all features of the human disease. Using comprehensive longitudinal analyses, we characterized a novel accelerated mouse model of lupus using pristane treatment in SNF1 (SWR X NZB F1) lupus prone mice (pristane-SNF1 mice). Pristane treatment in SNF1 mice accelerated the onset and progression of proteinuria, autoantibody production, immune complex deposition and development of renal lesions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760158/optogenetically-blocking-sharp-wave-ripple-events-in-sleep-does-not-interfere-with-the-formation-of-stable-spatial-representation-in-the-ca1-area-of-the-hippocampus
#6
Krisztián A Kovács, Joseph O'Neill, Philipp Schoenenberger, Markku Penttonen, Damaris K Ranguel Guerrero, Jozsef Csicsvari
During hippocampal sharp wave/ripple (SWR) events, previously occurring, sensory input-driven neuronal firing patterns are replayed. Such replay is thought to be important for plasticity-related processes and consolidation of memory traces. It has previously been shown that the electrical stimulation-induced disruption of SWR events interferes with learning in rodents in different experimental paradigms. On the other hand, the cognitive map theory posits that the plastic changes of the firing of hippocampal place cells constitute the electrophysiological counterpart of the spatial learning, observable at the behavioral level...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741109/patient-safety-walkaround-a-communication-tool-for-the-reallocation-of-health-service-resources-an-italian-experience-of-safety-healthcare-implementation
#7
Davide Ferorelli, Fiorenza Zotti, Silvio Tafuri, Angela Pezzolla, Alessandro Dell'Erba
The study aims to evaluate the use of Patient Safety Walkaround (SWR) execution model in an Italian Hospital, through the adoption of parametric indices, survey tools, and process indicators.In the 1st meeting an interview was conducted to verify the knowledge of concepts of clinical risk management (process indicators). One month after, the questions provided by Frankel (survey tool) were administered.Each month after, an SWR has been carried trying to assist the healthcare professionals and collecting suggestions and solutions...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669180/reliability-and-accuracy-of-a-standardized-shallow-water-running-test-to-determine-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#8
Elizabeth F Nagle, Mary E Sanders, Bethany B Gibbs, Barry A Franklin, Jacquelyn A Nagle, Philip J Prins, Caleb D Johnson, Robert J Robertson
A standardized fitness assessment is critical for the development of an individualized exercise prescription. Although the benefits of aquatic exercise have been well established, there remains the need for a standardized non-swimming protocol to accurately assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in shallow water. The present investigation was designed to assess: 1) reliability of a standardized Shallow Water Run (SWR) test of CRF; and 2) accuracy of a standardized SWR compared with a land-based treadmill test (LTM)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633034/heat-stress-and-inadequate-sanitary-facilities-at-workplaces-an-occupational-health-concern-for-women
#9
Vidhya Venugopal, Shanmugam Rekha, Krishnamoorthy Manikandan, Perumal Kamalakkannan Latha, Viswanathan Vennila, Nalini Ganesan, Perumal Kumaravel, Stephen Jeremiah Chinnadurai
BACKGROUND: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014-2015...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568518/reverse-replay-of-hippocampal-place-cells-is-uniquely-modulated-by-changing-reward
#10
R Ellen Ambrose, Brad E Pfeiffer, David J Foster
Hippocampal replays are episodes of sequential place cell activity during sharp-wave ripple oscillations (SWRs). Conflicting hypotheses implicate awake replay in learning from reward and in memory retrieval for decision making. Further, awake replays can be forward, in the same order as experienced, or reverse, in the opposite order. However, while the presence or absence of reward has been reported to modulate SWR rate, the effect of reward changes on replay, and on replay direction in particular, has not been examined...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535369/rapid-classification-of-hippocampal-replay-content-for-real-time-applications
#11
Xinyi Deng, Daniel F Liu, Mattias P Karlsson, Loren M Frank, Uri T Eden
Sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events in the hippocampus replay millisecond-timescale patterns of place cell activity related to the past experience of an animal. Interrupting SWR events leads to learning and memory impairments, but how the specific patterns of place cell spiking seen during SWRs contribute to learning and memory remains unclear. A deeper understanding of this issue will require the ability to manipulate SWR events based on their content. Accurate real-time decoding of SWR replay events requires new algorithms that are able to estimate replay content and the associated uncertainty, along with software and hardware that can execute these algorithms for biological interventions on a millisecond timescale...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463666/response-to-comment-on-a-histone-acetylation-switch-regulates-h2a-z-deposition-by-the-swr-c-remodeling-enzyme
#12
COMMENT
Shinya Watanabe, Craig L Peterson
Wang et al report a failure to reproduce our biochemical observation that the INO80C and SWR1C/SWR1/SWR-C chromatin remodeling enzymes catalyze replacement of nucleosomal H2A.Z with H2A when the substrate contains H3-K56Q. They point to technical problems with our dimer exchange assay. In response, we have recapitulated our findings using a mobility shift assay that was developed and employed by Wang and colleagues.
July 22, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463665/comment-on-a-histone-acetylation-switch-regulates-h2a-z-deposition-by-the-swr-c-remodeling-enzyme
#13
COMMENT
Feng Wang, Anand Ranjan, Debbie Wei, Carl Wu
Watanabe et al (Reports, 12 April 2013, p. 195) study the yeast SWR1/SWR-C complex responsible for depositing the histone variant H2A.Z by replacing nucleosomal H2A with H2A.Z. They report that reversal of H2A.Z replacement is mediated by SWR1 and related INO80 on an H2A.Z nucleosome carrying H3K56Q. Using multiple assays and reaction conditions, we find no evidence of such reversal of H2A.Z exchange.
July 22, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317846/nmda-receptor-antagonism-differentially-reduces-acquisition-and-expression-of-sucrose-and-fructose-conditioned-flavor-preferences-in-balb-c-and-swr-mice
#14
Tamar T Kraft, Donald Huang, Melanie Lolier, Deena Warshaw, Sam LaMagna, Elona Natanova, Anthony Sclafani, Richard J Bodnar
Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) are elicited by sucrose and fructose relative to saccharin in rats and inbred mice. Whereas dopamine, but not opioid receptor antagonists interfere with the acquisition (learning) and expression (maintenance) of sugar-CFP in rats, these antagonists differentially affect acquisition and expression of sucrose- and fructose-CFP in BALB/c and SWR inbred mice. Given that NMDA receptor antagonism with MK-801 blocks acquisition, but not expression of fructose-CFP in rats, the present study examined whether MK-801 altered the expression and acquisition of sucrose- and fructose-CFP in BALB/c and SWR mice...
September 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236626/the-influence-of-vegetation-on-soil-water-repellency-markers-and-soil-hydrophobicity
#15
Jiefei Mao, Klaas G J Nierop, Max Rietkerk, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan C Dekker
Soil water repellency (SWR) markers are defined as hydrophobic compounds in soil causing SWR and are mainly derived from plants. Previous studies have shown the types and abundance of SWR-markers in soils. However, how these SWR-markers are exactly related to SWR and their origin is poorly understood. This study aims to understand the relationship between SWR-markers, vegetation type and cover and SWR for a simple sandy soil ecosystem, consisting of oaks with sedge and six grass species. All the soil (at different depth) and vegetation samples were collected in the field along a 6m transect, starting from an oak tree...
October 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235740/endogenous-opioids-regulate-glucocorticoid-dependent-stress-coping-strategies-in-mice
#16
Klaudia Szklarczyk, Michal Korostynski, Slawomir Golda, Marcin Piechota, Joanna Ficek, Ryszard Przewlocki
Coping skills are essential in determining the outcomes of aversive life events. Our research was aimed to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of different coping styles in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and SWR/J. We compared the influence of a preceding stressor (0.5h of restraint) on behavioral and gene expression profiles between these two strains. The C57BL/6J strain exhibited increased conditioned fear and high immobility (passive coping). Oppositely, the SWR/J mice demonstrated low freezing and immobility, low post-restraint anxiety and considerable struggling during the forced swim test (active coping)...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167501/estrogenicity-of-captive-southern-white-rhinoceros-diets-and-their-association-with-fertility
#17
Christopher W Tubbs, Laura A Moley, Jamie A Ivy, Lara C Metrione, Sydney LaClaire, Rachel G Felton, Barbara S Durrant, Matthew R Milnes
The captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR) population is not currently self-sustaining, primarily due to poor or absent reproduction of captive-born (F1+) females. In this study, we investigate the role of dietary phytoestrogens in this reproductive phenomenon by characterizing activation of SWR estrogen receptors (ESRs) 1 and 2 by diet items from nine North American institutions and comparing female SWR fertility to total diet estrogenicity. Of the diet items tested, alfalfa hay and soy and alfalfa-based commercial pellets were found to be the most potent activators of SWR ESRs...
May 7, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161522/apolipoprotein-e4-causes-age-dependent-disruption-of-slow-gamma-oscillations-during-hippocampal-sharp-wave-ripples
#18
Anna K Gillespie, Emily A Jones, Yuan-Hung Lin, Mattias P Karlsson, Kenneth Kay, Seo Yeon Yoon, Leslie M Tong, Philip Nova, Jessie S Carr, Loren M Frank, Yadong Huang
Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism by which it causes cognitive decline is unclear. In knockin (KI) mice, human apoE4 causes age-dependent learning and memory impairments and degeneration of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Here we report two functional apoE4-KI phenotypes involving sharp-wave ripples (SWRs), hippocampal network events critical for memory processes. Aged apoE4-KI mice had fewer SWRs than apoE3-KI mice and significantly reduced slow gamma activity during SWRs...
May 18, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112599/architecture-and-nucleotide-dependent-conformational-changes-of-the-rvb1-rvb2-aaa-complex-revealed-by-cryoelectron-microscopy
#19
Caroline A Ewens, Min Su, Liang Zhao, Nardin Nano, Walid A Houry, Daniel R Southworth
Rvb1 and Rvb2 are essential AAA+ proteins that interact together during the assembly and activity of diverse macromolecules including chromatin remodelers INO80 and SWR-C, and ribonucleoprotein complexes including telomerase and snoRNPs. ATP hydrolysis by Rvb1/2 is required for function; however, the mechanism that drives substrate remodeling is unknown. Here we determined the architecture of the yeast Rvb1/2 dodecamer using cryoelectron microscopy and identify that the substrate-binding insertion domain undergoes conformational changes in response to nucleotide state...
May 3, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102795/effects-of-ramadan-gasting-on-postural-balance-and-attentional-capacities-in-elderly-people
#20
R Laatar, R Borji, R Baccouch, F Zahaf, H Rebai, S Sahli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on postural balance and attentional capacities in older adults. SETTING: the Neurophysiology department of a University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen males aged between 65 and 80 years were asked to perform a postural balance protocol and a simple reaction time (SRT) test in four testing phases: one week before Ramadan (BR), during the second (SWR) and the fourth week of Ramadan (FWR) and 3 weeks after Ramadan (AR)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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