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Anti cancer nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429085/the-role-of-rna-alternative-splicing-in-regulating-cancer-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Itamar Kozlovski, Zahava Siegfried, Adi Amar-Schwartz, Rotem Karni
Tumor cells alter their metabolism by a wide array of mechanisms to promote growth and proliferation. Dysregulated expression and/or somatic mutations of key components of the glycolytic pathway/TCA cycle as well as other metabolic pathways allow tumor cells to improve their ability to survive harsh conditions such as hypoxia and the presence of reactive oxygen species, as well as the ability to obtain nutrients to increase lipids, protein, and nucleic acids biogenesis. Approximately 95% of the human protein encoding genes undergo alternative splicing (AS), a regulated process of gene expression that greatly diversifies the proteome by creating multiple proteins from a single gene...
April 20, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399862/chitosan-nanoparticle-mediated-co-delivery-of-shatg-5-and-gefitinib-synergistically-promoted-the-efficacy-of-chemotherapeutics-through-the-modulation-of-autophagy
#2
Yan Zheng, Chang Su, Liang Zhao, Yijie Shi
BACKGROUND: Autophagy reportedly plays vital and complex roles in many diseases. During times of starvation or energy deficiency, autophagy will occur at higher levels to provide cells with the nutrients or energy necessary to survive in stressful conditions. Some anti-cancer drugs induce protective autophagy and reduce cell apoptosis. Autophagy can adversely affect apoptosis, and blocking autophagy will increase the sensitivity of cells to apoptosis signals. METHODS: We designed chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) to promote the co-delivery of gefitinib (an anti-cancer drug) and shRNA-expressing plasmid DNA that targets the Atg-5 gene (shAtg-5) as an autophagy inhibitor to improve anti-cancer effects and autophagy mediation...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399181/evolutionary-emergence-of-angiogenesis-in-avascular-tumors-using-a-spatial-public-goods-game
#3
Javad Salimi Sartakhti, Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, David Basanta, Mehdi Sadeghi
Natural selection in cancer often results in the emergence of increasingly malignant tumor cells that display many if not all of the hallmarks of cancer. One of the most important traits acquired during cancer progression is angiogenesis. Tumor cells capable of secreting pro-angiogenic factors can be seen as cooperators where the improved oxygenation, nutrient delivery and waste disposal resulting from angiogenesis could be seen as a public good. Under this view, the relatively costly secretion of molecular signals required to orchestrate angiogenesis would be undertaken exclusively by cooperating tumor cells but the benefits of angiogenesis would be felt by neighboring tumor cells regardless of their contribution to the process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392768/cannabidiol-reduces-leukemic-cell-size-but-is-it-important
#4
Nikoletta Kalenderoglou, Tara Macpherson, Karen L Wright
The anti-cancer effect of the plant-derived cannabinoid, cannabidiol, has been widely demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. However, this body of preclinical work has not been translated into clinical use. Key issues around this failure can be related to narrow dose effects, the cell model used and incomplete efficacy. A model of acute lymphoblastic disease, the Jurkat T cell line, has been used extensively to study the cannabinoid system in the immune system and cannabinoid-induced apoptosis. Using these cells, this study sought to investigate the outcome of those remaining viable cells post-treatment with cannabidiol, both in terms of cell size and tracking any subsequent recovery...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391610/essential-amino-acid-mixtures-drive-cancer-cells-to-apoptosis-through-proteasome-inhibition-and-autophagy-activation
#5
Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Massimiliano Cuccioloni, Mauro Angeletti, Vincenzo Flati, Giovanni Corsetti, Evasio Pasini, Francesco S Dioguardi, Anna Maria Eleuteri
Cancer cells require both energy and material to survive and duplicate in a competitive environment. Nutrients, such as amino acids (AAs), are not only a caloric source, as they can modulate cell metabolism and modify hormones homeostasis. Our hypothesis is that the environmental messages provided by AAs rule the dynamics of cancer cells life or death, and the alteration of the balance between essential (EAAs) and non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) (lower and higher than 50%, respectively) present in nutrients may represent a key instrument to alter environment-dependent messages thus mastering cancer cells destiny...
April 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361267/anti-angiogenesis-for-cancer-revisited-is-there-a-role-for-combinations-with-immunotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Rakesh R Ramjiawan, Arjan W Griffioen, Dan G Duda
Angiogenesis is defined as the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and has been characterized as an essential process for tumor cell proliferation and viability. This has led to the development of pharmacological agents for anti-angiogenesis to disrupt the vascular supply and starve tumor of nutrients and oxygen, primarily through blockade of VEGF/VEGFR signaling. This effort has resulted in 11 anti-VEGF drugs approved for certain advanced cancers, alone or in combination with chemotherapy or other targeted therapies...
March 30, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358375/novel-prosurvival-function-of-yip1a-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells-constitutive-activation-of-the-ire1-and-perk-pathways-of-the-unfolded-protein-response
#7
Yuki Taguchi, Yuta Horiuchi, Fumi Kano, Masayuki Murata
Cancer cells are under chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to hypoxia, low levels of nutrients, and a high metabolic demand for proliferation. To survive, they constitutively activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). The inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1) and protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling branches of the UPR have been shown to have cytoprotective roles in cancer cells. UPR-induced autophagy is another prosurvival strategy of cancer cells, possibly to remove misfolded proteins and supply nutrients...
March 30, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351332/tumor-rim-cells-from-resistance-to-vascular-targeting-agents-to-complete-tumor-ablation
#8
REVIEW
Khaled Seidi, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Nosratollah Zarghami
Current vascular targeting strategies pursue two main goals: anti-angiogenesis agents aim to halt sprouting and the formation of new blood vessels, while vascular disrupting agents along with coaguligands seek to compromise blood circulation in the vessels. The ultimate goal of such therapies is to deprive tumor cells out of oxygen and nutrients long enough to succumb cancer cells to death. Most of vascular targeting agents presented promising therapeutic potential, but the final goal which is cure is rarely achieved...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346347/biosynthesis-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-by-a-newly-isolated-bacterium-paenibacillus-sp-tku042-and-its-effect-on-reducing-plasma-glucose-in-a-mouse-model
#9
Van Bon Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, Yao-Haur Kuo, San-Lang Wang
Paenibacillus sp. TKU042, a bacterium isolated from Taiwanese soil, produced α-glucosidase inhibitors (aGIs) in the culture supernatant when commercial nutrient broth (NB) was used as the medium for fermentation. The supernatant of fermented NB (FNB) showed stronger inhibitory activities than acarbose, a commercial anti-diabetic drug. The IC50 and maximum α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (aGIA) of FNB and acarbose against α-glucosidase were 81 μg/mL, 92% and 1395 μg/mL, 63%, respectively. FNB was found to be strongly thermostable, retaining 95% of its relative activity, even after heating at 100 °C for 30 min...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317223/cancer-with-low-cathepsin-d-levels-is-susceptible-to-v-atpase-inhibition
#10
Satoshi Kitazawa, Satoru Nishizawa, Hideyuki Nakagawa, Masaaki Funata, Kazuho Nishimura, Tomoyoshi Soga, Takahito Hara
Vacuolar (H(+) )-ATPases (V-ATPases) have important roles in the supply of nutrients to tumors by mediating autophagy and the endocytic uptake of extracellular fluids. Accordingly, V-ATPases are attractive therapeutic targets for cancer. However, the clinical use of V-ATPase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has not been realized, possibly owing to their high toxicity in humans. V-ATPase inhibition may be an appropriate strategy in highly susceptible cancers. In this study, we explored markers of V-ATPase inhibitor sensitivity...
March 19, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274614/metformin-represses-glucose-starvation-induced-autophagic-response-in-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-promotes-cell-death
#11
Samson Mathews Samuel, Suparna Ghosh, Yasser Majeed, Gnanapragasam Arunachalam, Mohamed M Emara, Hong Ding, Chris R Triggle
Metformin, the most frequently administered drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is being investigated for its potential in the treatment of various types of cancer; however, the cellular basis for this putative anti-cancer action remains controversial. In the current study we examined the effect of metformin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in glucose-starved micro-vascular endothelial cells (MECs). The rationale for our experimental protocol is that in a growing tumor MECs are subjected to hypoxia and nutrient/glucose starvation that results from the reduced supply and relatively high consumption of glucose...
March 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270148/mdm4-actively-restrains-cytoplasmic-mtorc1-by-sensing-nutrient-availability
#12
Francesca Mancini, Emanuela Teveroni, Giusy Di Conza, Valentina Monteleone, Ivan Arisi, Marsha Pellegrino, Marianna Buttarelli, Luisa Pieroni, Mara D'Onofrio, Andrea Urbani, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Massimiliano Mazzone, Fabiola Moretti
BACKGROUND: Many tumor-related factors have shown the ability to affect metabolic pathways by paving the way for cancer-specific metabolic features. Here, we investigate the regulation of mTORC1 by MDM4, a p53-inhibitor with oncogenic or anti-survival activities depending on cell growth conditions. METHOD: MDM4-mTOR relationship was analysed through experiments of overexpression or silencing of endogenous proteins in cell culture and using purified proteins in vitro...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270076/doxycycline-as-potential-anti-cancer-agent
#13
Isra Ali, Khalid O Alfarouk, Stephan J Reshkin, Muntaser E Ibrahim
Cancer cells do create hostile microenvironment (deprivation of nutrients, accumulation of acidity, anoxic habitat). Those cells are not only adapted to this sanctuary environment, blunting of immunity but also, grow, migrate to the distal area (metastasis) and communicate with each other in a unique population structure and organization too (clonal expansion). The adaptation requirements push those types of adaptable cells (cancer cells) to be primitive cells. The prevailing pharmacological approach in treating cancer is developing a chemotherapeutic agent that acts on rapidly proliferating cells that stuck with normally growing epithelium and bone marrow too...
February 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268596/evaluation-of-multidrug-cancer-chronotherapy-based-on-cell-cycle-model-under-influences-of-circadian-clock
#14
Hiroshi Inokawa, Norihiro Katayama, Mitsuyuki Nakao
The intracellular circadian clock mechanisms are known to affect various substantial cellular machinery such as cell cycle progression, inflammatory response, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Cancer growth in various tissues is still under circadian control, which may be at least partly underlain by the survived connections between the intracellular machinery and the clock. Considering such findings, chronotherapy has been applied to cancer treatments, in which anti-cancer drugs are administered in scheduled circadian times so as to resolve the trade-off between damages against the normal and cancer cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257059/chitosan-based-multifunctional-platforms-for-local-delivery-of-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Seong-Chul Hong, Seung-Yup Yoo, Hyeongmin Kim, Jaehwi Lee
Chitosan has been widely used as a key biomaterial for the development of drug delivery systems intended to be administered via oral and parenteral routes. In particular, chitosan-based microparticles are the most frequently employed delivery system, along with specialized systems such as hydrogels, nanoparticles and thin films. Based on the progress made in chitosan-based drug delivery systems, the usefulness of chitosan has further expanded to anti-cancer chemoembolization, tissue engineering, and stem cell research...
March 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239982/phytochemicals-in-quinoa-and-amaranth-grains-and-their-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-potential-health-beneficial-effects-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Yao Tang, Rong Tsao
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e...
February 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226775/evaluation-of-multidrug-cancer-chronotherapy-based-on-cell-cycle-model-under-influences-of-circadian-clock
#17
Hiroshi Inokawa, Norihiro Katayama, Mitsuyuki Nakao, Hiroshi Inokawa, Norihiro Katayama, Mitsuyuki Nakao, Mitsuyuki Nakao, Hiroshi Inokawa, Norihiro Katayama
The intracellular circadian clock mechanisms are known to affect various substantial cellular machinery such as cell cycle progression, inflammatory response, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Cancer growth in various tissues is still under circadian control, which may be at least partly underlain by the survived connections between the intracellular machinery and the clock. Considering such findings, chronotherapy has been applied to cancer treatments, in which anti-cancer drugs are administered in scheduled circadian times so as to resolve the trade-off between damages against the normal and cancer cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187289/tumorigenic-and-immunosuppressive-effects-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz, Sarah E Bettigole, Laurie H Glimcher
Malignant cells utilize diverse strategies that enable them to thrive under adverse conditions while simultaneously inhibiting the development of anti-tumor immune responses. Hostile microenvironmental conditions within tumor masses, such as nutrient deprivation, oxygen limitation, high metabolic demand, and oxidative stress, disturb the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thereby provoking a cellular state of "ER stress." Sustained activation of ER stress sensors endows malignant cells with greater tumorigenic, metastatic, and drug-resistant capacity...
February 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161789/treatment-of-pancreatic-insufficiency-using-pancreatic-extract-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-a-pilot-study-picnic
#19
Nicholas Zdenkowski, George Radvan, Leanna Pugliese, Julie Charlton, Christopher Oldmeadow, Allison Fraser, Antonino Bonaventura
PURPOSE: Survival with advanced pancreatic cancer is less than 12 months. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency may contribute to pancreatic cancer-related cachexia, via nutrient malabsorption. We aimed to determine the feasibility of prescribing pancreatic extract (Creon®) for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, without frank malabsorption, were randomised in this feasibility study to pancreatic extract 50,000 units with meals and 25,000 units with snacks, or placebo...
February 4, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129624/erianin-inhibits-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-induced-tumor-angiogenesis
#20
Chang Su, Peng Zhang, Jianwen Liu, Yiou Cao
Tumor angiogenesis is the key process in tumor growth and metastasis, and transfers essential nutrients for solid tumor. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has been recognized as a more effective anti-cancer strategy for NSCLC and has acquired certain therapeutic effects. IDO has non-immune functions including regulating tumor angiogenesis and IDO dysregulation in cancer pathogenesis has been valued. Erianin is a natural product isolated from Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. The antitumor activity of erianin in many kinds of cancers had been demonstrated in previous studies...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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