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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810171/properties-of-intermodal-transfer-after-dual-visuo-and-auditory-motor-adaptation
#1
Gerd Schmitz, Otmar L Bock
Previous work documented that sensorimotor adaptation transfers between sensory modalities: When subjects adapt with one arm to a visuomotor distortion while responding to visual targets, they also appear to be adapted when they are subsequently tested with auditory targets. Vice versa, when they adapt to an auditory-motor distortion while pointing to auditory targets, they appear to be adapted when they are subsequently tested with visual targets. Therefore, it was concluded that visuomotor as well as auditory-motor adaptation use the same adaptation mechanism...
August 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807860/hidden-markov-modeling-of-frequency-following-responses-to-mandarin-lexical-tones
#2
Fernando Llanos, Zilong Xie, Bharath Chandrasekaran
BACKGROUND: The frequency-following response (FFR) is a scalp-recorded electrophysiological potential reflecting phase-locked activity from neural ensembles in the auditory system. The FFR is often used to assess the robustness of subcortical pitch processing. Due to low signal-to-noise ratio at the single-trial level, FFRs are typically averaged across thousands of stimulus repetitions. Prior work using this approach has shown that subcortical encoding of linguistically-relevant pitch patterns is modulated by long-term language experience...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806336/musical-rehabilitation-in-adult-cochlear-implant-recipients-with-a-self-administered-software
#3
Leah Smith, Lee Bartel, Samidha Joglekar, Joseph Chen
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine if a self-administered computer-based rehabilitation program could improve music appreciation and speech understanding in adults who have a cochlear implant (CI). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary adult CI program. PATIENTS: Twenty-one postlingually deafened cochlear implant users between the ages of 27 and 79 years were recruited. INTERVENTIONS(S): A self-administered music rehabilitative software was designed to help improve the perception of musical patterns of increasing complexity, as well as pitch and timbre perception, premised on focused and divided attention...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804398/the-transfer-of-skills-from-cognitive-and-physical-training-to-activities-of-daily-living-a-randomised-controlled-study
#4
Magdalena Hagovska, Iveta Nagyova
Ageing is associated with the deterioration of all cognitive functions, including attention, memory and psychomotor speed. It has not yet been clearly confirmed whether the effects of cognitive and physical interventions can improve activities of daily living (ADL). This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive and physical training on cognitive functions and the transfer to ADL. Eighty older people with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 67.07 ± 4.3 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40)...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800501/learning-effects-of-dynamic-postural-control-by-auditory-biofeedback-versus-visual-biofeedback-training
#5
Naoya Hasegawa, Kenta Takeda, Moe Sakuma, Hiroki Mani, Hiroshi Maejima, Tadayoshi Asaka
Augmented sensory biofeedback (BF) for postural control is widely used to improve postural stability. However, the effective sensory information in BF systems of motor learning for postural control is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning effects of visual versus auditory BF training in dynamic postural control. Eighteen healthy young adults were randomly divided into two groups (visual BF and auditory BF). In test sessions, participants were asked to bring the real-time center of pressure (COP) in line with a hidden target by body sway in the sagittal plane...
August 2, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792451/a-novel-computer-oculomotor-rehabilitation-cor-program-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi
#6
Kenneth J Ciuffreda, Naveen K Yadav, Preethi Thiagarajan, Diana P Ludlam
Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) manifest a wide range of visual dysfunctions. One of the most prevalent involves the oculomotor system, which includes version, vergence, and accommodation. However, until recently, there has been no comprehensive, computer-based program for remediation of these oculomotor deficits. We present such an oculomotor rehabilitation program that has been tested in a clinical trial in patients having TBI with a high degree of success based on before-and-after objective system recordings, performance measures, and related visual symptomotology...
August 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780178/the-effects-of-noise-exposure-and-musical-training-on-suprathreshold-auditory-processing-and-speech-perception-in-noise
#7
Ingrid Yeend, Elizabeth Francis Beach, Mridula Sharma, Harvey Dillon
Recent animal research has shown that exposure to single episodes of intense noise causes cochlear synaptopathy without affecting hearing thresholds. It has been suggested that the same may occur in humans. If so, it is hypothesized that this would result in impaired encoding of sound and lead to difficulties hearing at suprathreshold levels, particularly in challenging listening environments. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of noise exposure on auditory processing, including the perception of speech in noise, in adult humans...
July 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774649/the-dynamic-imprint-of-word-learning-on-the-dorsal-language-pathway
#8
María-Ángeles Palomar-García, Ana Sanjuán, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, César Ávila
According to Hickok and Poeppel (2007), the acquisition of new vocabulary rests on the dorsal language pathway connecting auditory and motor areas. The present study tested this hypothesis longitudinally by measuring BOLD signal changes during a verbal repetition task and modulation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in the dorsal stream. Thirty-five healthy participants, divided into trained and control groups, completed fMRI sessions on days 1, 10, and 24. Between days 1 and 10, the trained group learned 84 new pseudowords associated with 84 native words...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774646/subcortical-and-cortical-correlates-of-pitch-discrimination-evidence-for-two-levels-of-neuroplasticity-in-musicians
#9
Federica Bianchi, Jens Hjortkjær, Sébastien Santurette, Robert J Zatorre, Hartwig R Siebner, Torsten Dau
Musicians are highly trained to discriminate fine pitch changes but the neural bases of this ability are poorly understood. It is unclear whether such training-dependent differences in pitch processing arise already in the subcortical auditory system or are linked to more central stages. To address this question, we combined psychoacoustic testing with functional MRI to measure cortical and subcortical responses in musicians and non-musicians during a pitch-discrimination task. First, we estimated behavioral pitch-discrimination thresholds for complex tones with harmonic components that were either resolved or unresolved in the auditory system...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769835/music-of-the-7ts-predicting-and-decoding-multivoxel-fmri-responses-with-acoustic-schematic-and-categorical-music-features
#10
Michael A Casey
Underlying the experience of listening to music are parallel streams of auditory, categorical, and schematic qualia, whose representations and cortical organization remain largely unresolved. We collected high-field (7T) fMRI data in a music listening task, and analyzed the data using multivariate decoding and stimulus-encoding models. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment, which measured BOLD responses evoked by naturalistic listening to twenty-five music clips from five genres. Our first analysis applied machine classification to the multivoxel patterns that were evoked in temporal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769773/finding-home-landmark-ambiguity-in-human-navigation
#11
Simon Jetzschke, Marc O Ernst, Julia Froehlich, Norbert Boeddeker
Memories of places often include landmark cues, i.e., information provided by the spatial arrangement of distinct objects with respect to the target location. To study how humans combine landmark information for navigation, we conducted two experiments: To this end, participants were either provided with auditory landmarks while walking in a large sports hall or with visual landmarks while walking on a virtual-reality treadmill setup. We found that participants cannot reliably locate their home position due to ambiguities in the spatial arrangement when only one or two uniform landmarks provide cues with respect to the target...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764482/strength-of-onset-and-ongoing-cues-in-judgments-of-lateral-position
#12
Richard L Freyman, Patrick M Zurek
This study describes the contributions to auditory image position of an interaural time delay (ITD) cue at onset relative to subsequent ITDs during the ongoing part of a stimulus. Test stimuli were trains of 1-ms binaural noise bursts; lateral position was measured with a wideband acoustic pointer that subjects adjusted to match the intracranial position of test stimuli. In different conditions the ongoing part of the stimulus (the bursts following the first one) either had a consistent ITD (the same ITD on each ongoing burst), or had alternating leading and lagging components with ITDs that opposed one another...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756239/trading-of-dynamic-interaural-time-and-level-difference-cues-and-its-effect-on-the-auditory-motion-onset-response-measured-with-electroencephalography
#13
Christian F Altmann, Ryuhei Ueda, Benoit Bucher, Shigeto Furukawa, Kentaro Ono, Makio Kashino, Tatsuya Mima, Hidenao Fukuyama
Interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD) constitute the two main cues for sound localization in the horizontal plane. Despite extensive research in animal models and humans, the mechanism of how these two cues are integrated into a unified percept is still far from clear. In this study, our aim was to test with human electroencephalography (EEG) whether integration of dynamic ITD and ILD cues is reflected in the so-called motion-onset response (MOR), an evoked potential elicited by moving sound sources...
July 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748311/advantages-of-melodic-over-rhythmic-movement-sonification-in-bimanual-motor-skill-learning
#14
J F Dyer, P Stapleton, M W M Rodger
An important question for skill acquisition is whether and how augmented feedback can be designed to improve the learning of complex skills. Auditory information triggered by learners' actions, movement sonification, can enhance learning of a complex bimanual coordination skill, specifically polyrhythmic bimanual shape tracing. However, it is not clear whether the coordination of polyrhythmic sequenced movements is enhanced by auditory-specified timing information alone or whether more complex sound mappings, such as melodic sonification, are necessary...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736736/feedback-driven-sensory-mapping-adaptation-for-robust-speech-activity-detection
#15
Ashwin Bellur, Mounya Elhilali
Parsing natural acoustic scenes using computational methodologies poses many challenges. Given the rich and complex nature of the acoustic environment, data mismatch between train and test conditions is a major hurdle in data-driven audio processing systems. In contrast, the brain exhibits a remarkable ability at segmenting acoustic scenes with relative ease. When tackling challenging listening conditions that are often faced in everyday life, the biological system relies on a number of principles that allow it to effortlessly parse its rich soundscape...
March 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736171/northern-elephant-seals-memorize-the-rhythm-and-timbre-of-their-rivals-voices
#16
Nicolas Mathevon, Caroline Casey, Colleen Reichmuth, Isabelle Charrier
The evolutionary origin of rhythm perception, a cognitive ability essential to musicality, remains unresolved [1-5]. The ability to perceive and memorize rhythmic sounds is widely shared among humans [6] but seems rare among other mammals [7, 8]. Although the perception of temporal metrical patterns has been found in a few species, this ability has only been demonstrated through behavioral training [9] (but see [10] for an example of spontaneous tempo coordination in a bonobo), and there is no experimental evidence to indicate its biological function...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735593/virtual-reality-in-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-its-utility-acceptability-and-effectiveness
#17
M Rus-Calafell, P Garety, E Sason, T J K Craig, L R Valmaggia
Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid increase of studies testing the efficacy and acceptability of virtual reality in the assessment and treatment of mental health problems. This systematic review was carried out to investigate the use of virtual reality in the assessment and the treatment of psychosis. Web of Science, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest and PubMed databases were searched, resulting in the identification of 638 articles potentially eligible for inclusion; of these, 50 studies were included in the review...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733591/predictive-and-tempo-flexible-synchronization-to-a-visual-metronome-in-monkeys
#18
Ryuji Takeya, Masashi Kameda, Aniruddh D Patel, Masaki Tanaka
Predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to an auditory beat is a fundamental component of human music. To date, only certain vocal learning species show this behaviour spontaneously. Prior research training macaques (vocal non-learners) to tap to an auditory or visual metronome found their movements to be largely reactive, not predictive. Does this reflect the lack of capacity for predictive synchronization in monkeys, or lack of motivation to exhibit this behaviour? To discriminate these possibilities, we trained monkeys to make synchronized eye movements to a visual metronome...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732757/multimodal-exercise-training-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-persons-with-substantial-mobility-disability
#19
Brian M Sandroff, Rachel E Bollaert, Lara A Pilutti, Melissa L Peterson, Tracy Baynard, Bo Fernhall, Edward McAuley, Robert W Motl
BACKGROUND: Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. OBJECTIVES: The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability...
July 19, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726492/does-cognition-specific-computer-training-have-better-clinical-outcomes-than-non-specific-computer-training-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Ji-Hyuk Park, Jin-Hyuck Park
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between non-specific computer training (NCT) and cognition-specific computer training (CCT). DESIGN: Randomized controlled experimental study. SETTING: Local community welfare center. SUBJECTS: A total of 78 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomly assigned to the NCT ( n = 39) or CCT group ( n = 39). INTERVENTION: The NCT group underwent NCT using Nintendo Wii for improving functional performance, while the CCT group underwent CCT using CoTras for improving function of the cognitive domain specifically...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
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