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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913408/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-cortical-plasticity-impairments-in-schizophrenia-and-modulation-by-the-nmda-receptor-agonist-d-serine
#1
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Odeta Beggel, Stephanie Rohrig, Jonathan M Lehrfeld, Nadine Revheim, Nayla P Lehrfeld, Jacob Reep, Emily Parker, Gail Silipo, Merav Ahissar, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in cortical plasticity that affect sensory brain regions and lead to impaired cognitive performance. Here we examined underlying neural mechanisms of auditory plasticity deficits using combined behavioural and neurophysiological assessment, along with neuropharmacological manipulation targeted at the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Cortical plasticity was assessed in a cohort of 40 schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients relative to 42 healthy control subjects using a fixed reference tone auditory plasticity task...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913315/speech-enhancement-based-on-neural-networks-improves-speech-intelligibility-in-noise-for-cochlear-implant-users
#2
Tobias Goehring, Federico Bolner, Jessica J M Monaghan, Bas van Dijk, Andrzej Zarowski, Stefan Bleeck
Speech understanding in noisy environments is still one of the major challenges for cochlear implant (CI) users in everyday life. We evaluated a speech enhancement algorithm based on neural networks (NNSE) for improving speech intelligibility in noise for CI users. The algorithm decomposes the noisy speech signal into time-frequency units, extracts a set of auditory-inspired features and feeds them to the neural network to produce an estimation of which frequency channels contain more perceptually important information (higher signal-to-noise ratio, SNR)...
November 29, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904240/effectiveness-of-exercise-on-functional-mobility-in-adults-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#3
Hillary Lawrence, Sara Hills, Nicole Kline, Kyra Weems, Antonette Doty
Purpose: We identified evidence evaluating the effect of exercise on functional mobility in adults (aged 18 y or older) with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: An exhaustive search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the earliest available evidence (1975) to the present (January 2016) for studies whose participants were ambulatory adults with CP receiving conservative treatment to address functional mobility limitations...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#4
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891687/effect-of-preceding-stimulation-on-sound-localization-and-its-representation-in-the-auditory-midbrain
#5
Sandra Tolnai, Rainer Beutelmann, Georg M Klump
Prior stimulation can influence the perception of sound source location. Some psychophysical sound localization procedures differ in the amount of prior stimulation, which may affect measures of localization accuracy. If and how particularly the number of preceding stimuli affects sound localization and the neural representation of sound source position has not been investigated so far and will be the focus of the present report. We trained Mongolian gerbils in a left/right discrimination task where the target stimulus was preceded by silence or followed a number of reference stimuli...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891078/neural-and-response-correlations-to-complex-natural-sounds-in-the-auditory-midbrain
#6
Dominika Lyzwa, Florentin Wörgötter
How natural communication sounds are spatially represented across the inferior colliculus, the main center of convergence for auditory information in the midbrain, is not known. The neural representation of the acoustic stimuli results from the interplay of locally differing input and the organization of spectral and temporal neural preferences that change gradually across the nucleus. This raises the question of how similar the neural representation of the communication sounds is across these gradients of neural preferences, and whether it also changes gradually...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890441/the-ability-for-cocaine-and-cocaine-associated-cues-to-compete-for-attention
#7
Kyle K Pitchers, Taylor R Wood, Cari J Skrzynski, Terry E Robinson, Martin Sarter
In humans, reward cues, including drug cues in addicts, are especially effective in biasing attention towards them, so much so they can disrupt ongoing task performance. It is not known, however, whether this happens in rats. To address this question, we developed a behavioral paradigm to assess the capacity of an auditory drug (cocaine) cue to evoke cocaine-seeking behavior, thus distracting thirsty rats from performing a well-learned sustained attention task (SAT) to obtain a water reward. First, it was determined that an auditory cocaine cue (tone-CS) reinstated drug-seeking equally in sign-trackers (STs) and goal-trackers (GTs), which otherwise vary in the propensity to attribute incentive salience to a localizable drug cue...
November 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890161/primary-or-secondary-tasks-dual-task-interference-between-cyclist-hazard-perception-and-cadence-control-using-cross-modal-sensory-aids-with-rider-assistance-bike-computers
#8
Chao-Yang Yang, Cheng-Tse Wu
This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888073/early-life-inflammation-with-lps-delays-fear-extinction-in-adult-rodents
#9
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877118/contexts-paired-with-junk-food-impair-goal-directed-behavior-in-rats-implications-for-decision-making-in-obesogenic-environments
#10
Michael D Kendig, Ambrose M K Cheung, Joel S Raymond, Laura H Corbit
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877106/the-language-tone-and-prosody-of-emotions-neural-substrates-and-dynamics-of-spoken-word-emotion-perception
#11
REVIEW
Einat Liebenthal, David A Silbersweig, Emily Stern
Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala-a subcortical center for emotion perception-are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876480/noise-dosimetry-for-tactical-environments
#12
Christopher J Smalt, Joe Lacirignola, Shakti K Davis, Paul T Calamia, Paula P Collins
Noise exposure and the subsequent hearing loss are well documented aspects of military life. Numerous studies have indicated high rates of noise-induced hearing injury (NIHI) in active-duty service men and women, and recent statistics from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs indicate a population of veterans with hearing loss that is growing at an increasing rate. In an effort to minimize hearing loss, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) updated its Hearing Conservation Program in 2010, and also has recently revised the DoD Design Criteria Standard Noise Limits (MIL-STD-1474E) which defines allowable noise levels in the design of all military acquisitions including weapons and vehicles...
November 20, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874023/methylphenidate-and-memory-and-attention-adaptation-training-for-persistent-cognitive-symptoms-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Brenna C McDonald, Laura A Flashman, David B Arciniegas, Robert J Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C Sprehn, Flora M Hammond, Arthur C Maerlender, Carrie L Kruck, Karen L Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N Wall, Andrew J Saykin, Thomas W McAllister
The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (ie, with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19), MAAT/placebo (N=17), and ABT/placebo (N=18)...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873538/the-effects-of-elevated-hearing-thresholds-on-performance-in-a-paintball-simulation-of-individual-dismounted-combat
#14
Benjamin Sheffield, Douglas Brungart, Jennifer Tufts, James Ness
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between hearing acuity and operational performance in simulated dismounted combat. DESIGN: Individuals wearing hearing loss simulation systems competed in a paintball-based exercise where the objective was to be the last player remaining. Four hearing loss profiles were tested in each round (no hearing loss, mild, moderate and severe) and four rounds were played to make up a match. This allowed counterbalancing of simulated hearing loss across participants...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872268/consistent-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-a-multisite-study
#15
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Erik G Jönsson, Helena Fatouros-Bergman, Lena Flyckt, Ingrid Melle, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Lars T Westlye
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental illness with high heritability and complex etiology. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging has implicated disrupted brain network connectivity in the pathophysiology. However, previous findings are inconsistent, likely due to a combination of methodological and clinical variability and relatively small sample sizes. Few studies have used a data-driven approach for characterizing pathological interactions between regions in the whole brain and evaluated the generalizability across independent samples...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867664/the-case-for-musical-instrument-training-in-cerebral-palsy-for-neurorehabilitation
#16
REVIEW
Ana Alves-Pinto, Varvara Turova, Tobias Blumenstein, Renée Lampe
Recent imaging studies in cerebral palsy (CP) have described several brain structural changes, functional alterations, and neuroplastic processes that take place after brain injury during early development. These changes affect motor pathways as well as sensorimotor networks. Several of these changes correlate with behavioral measures of motor and sensory disability. It is now widely acknowledged that management of sensory deficits is relevant for rehabilitation in CP. Playing a musical instrument demands the coordination of hand movements with integrated auditory, visual, and tactile feedback, in a process that recruits multiple brain regions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867257/learningrx-cognitive-training-effects-in-children-ages-8-14-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Dick M Carpenter, Christina Ledbetter, Amy Lawson Moore
In a randomized controlled study, we examined the effects of a one-on-one cognitive training program on memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, attention, and General Intellectual Ability (GIA) score for students ages 8-14. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group to complete 60 h of cognitive training or to a wait-list control group. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in multiple cognitive skills after completing cognitive training with ThinkRx, a LearningRx program...
September 2016: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866990/longitudinal-auditory-learning-facilitates-auditory-cognition-as-revealed-by-microstate-analysis
#18
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Katarina L Matthes, Martin Meyer
The current study investigates cognitive processes as reflected in late auditory-evoked potentials as a function of longitudinal auditory learning. A normal hearing adult sample (n=15) performed an active oddball task at three consecutive time points (TPs) arranged at two week intervals, and during which EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised of syllables consisting of a natural fricative (/sh/,/s/,/f/) embedded between two /a/ sounds, as well as morphed transitions of the two syllables that served as deviants...
November 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864088/modality-invariant-audio-visual-association-coding-in-crow-endbrain-neurons
#19
Felix W Moll, Andreas Nieder
Single neuron activity in the corvid nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), the supposed avian functional analog of the prefrontal cortex, represents associations of auditory with visual stimuli. This is of high adaptive value for songbirds that need to rely on audio-visual associations to communicate, find a mate or escape predators. However, it remains unclear whether NCL neurons can represent cross-modal associations in a modality invariant, abstract fashion. To dissociate between modality-dependent and modality-invariant NCL activity, we trained two crows to match auditory sample cues with visual test stimuli, and vice versa, across a temporal memory delay...
November 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858128/investigating-three-types-of-continuous-auditory-feedback-in-visuo-manual-tracking
#20
Éric O Boyer, Frédéric Bevilacqua, Patrick Susini, Sylvain Hanneton
The use of continuous auditory feedback for motor control and learning is still understudied and deserves more attention regarding fundamental mechanisms and applications. This paper presents the results of three experiments studying the contribution of task-, error-, and user-related sonification to visuo-manual tracking and assessing its benefits on sensorimotor learning. First results show that sonification can help decreasing the tracking error, as well as increasing the energy in participant's movement...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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