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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527540/whispering-by-individuals-using-tracheoesophageal-speech
#1
Jeff Searl
OBJECTIVES: This study compared whispering attempts by adults using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech with those by adults with a larynx. Comparisons were based on listener judgments, visual-perceptual assessment of spectrograms, and measures of the acoustic signal. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seventeen TE and 10 laryngeal speakers produced sentences in a whisper and in their spoken voice. Listeners judged sentences as whispered or spoken...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521120/synaptotagmins-that-s-why-so-many
#2
Chong Chen, Peter Jonas
Synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) was originally identified as a slow Ca(2+) sensor for lysosome fusion, but its function at fast synapses is controversial. The paper by Luo and Südhof (2017) in this issue of Neuron shows that at the calyx of Held in the auditory brainstem Syt7 triggers asynchronous release during stimulus trains, resulting in reliable and temporally precise high-frequency transmission. Thus, a slow Ca(2+) sensor contributes to the fast signaling properties of the calyx synapse.
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521049/22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-is-associated-with-impaired-auditory-steady-state-gamma-response
#3
Kit Melissa Larsen, Giovanni Pellegrino, Michelle Rosgaard Birknow, Trine Nørgaard Kjær, William Frans Christiaan Baaré, Michael Didriksen, Line Olsen, Thomas Werge, Morten Mørup, Hartwig Roman Siebner
Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. 22q11.2 deletion carriers without manifest psychotic disorder offer the possibility to identify functional abnormalities that precede clinical onset. Since schizophrenia is associated with a reduced cortical gamma response to auditory stimulation at 40 Hz, we hypothesized that the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) may be attenuated in nonpsychotic individuals with a 22q11.2 deletion...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517948/randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-internet-cognitive-behavioral-skills-based-program-for-auditory-hallucinations-in-persons-with-psychosis
#4
Jennifer D Gottlieb, Vasudha Gidugu, Mihoko Maru, Miriam C Tepper, Matthew J Davis, Jennifer Greenwold, Ruth A Barron, Brian P Chiko, Kim T Mueser
OBJECTIVE: Despite strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), most clinicians in the United States have received little or no training in the approach and access remains very low, indicating a potential role for technology in increasing access to this intervention. Coping With Voices (CWV) is a 10-session, interactive, Web-based CBTp skills program that was developed to meet this need, and was shown to be feasible and associated with reduced severity of auditory hallucinations in a previous pilot study...
May 18, 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516807/neurofeedback-based-enhancement-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-feasibility-in-healthy-subjects
#5
Kathryn Rieger, Marie-Helene Rarra, Nicolas Moor, Laura Diaz Hernandez, Anja Baenninger, Nadja Razavi, Thomas Dierks, Daniela Hubl, Thomas Koenig
Previous studies showed a global reduction of the event-related potential component N100 in patients with schizophrenia, a phenomenon that is even more pronounced during auditory verbal hallucinations. This reduction assumingly results from dysfunctional activation of the primary auditory cortex by inner speech, which reduces its responsiveness to external stimuli. With this study, we tested the feasibility of enhancing the responsiveness of the primary auditory cortex to external stimuli with an upregulation of the event-related potential component N100 in healthy control subjects...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504196/human-subthalamic-nucleus-automatic-auditory-change-detection-as-a-basis-for-action-selection
#6
Marcus Heldmann, Thomas F Münte, Lejla Paracka, Frederike Beyer, Norbert Brüggemann, Assel Saryyeva, Dirk Rasche, Joachim K Krauss, Volker M Tronnier
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) shapes motor behavior and is important for the initiation and termination of movements. Here we ask whether the STN takes aggregated sensory information into account, in order to exert this function. To this end, local field potentials (LFP) were recorded in eight patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and receiving deep-brain stimulation of the STN bilaterally. Bipolar recordings were obtained postoperatively from the externalized electrode leads. Patients were passively exposed to trains of auditory stimuli containing global deviants, local deviants or combined global/local deviants...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496171/altered-balance-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-learning-in-a-genetically-modified-mouse-model-of-glutamatergic-dysfunction-relevant-to-schizophrenia
#7
David J Sanderson, Aletheia Lee, Rolf Sprengel, Peter H Seeburg, Paul J Harrison, David M Bannerman
The GluA1 AMPAR subunit (encoded by the Gria1 gene) has been implicated in schizophrenia. Gria1 knockout in mice results in recently experienced stimuli acquiring aberrantly high salience. This suggests that GluA1 may be important for learning that is sensitive to the temporal contiguity between events. To test this, mice were trained on a Pavlovian trace conditioning procedure in which the presentation of an auditory cue and food were separated by a temporal interval. Wild-type mice initially learnt, but with prolonged training came to withhold responding during the trace-conditioned cue, responding less than for another cue that was nonreinforced...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493346/no-effect-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-slow-wave-sleep-on-emotional-recognition-memory
#8
Jennifer E Ashton, Scott A Cairney, M Gareth Gaskell
Recent work has suggested that the benefits of sleep for memory consolidation are enhanced for highly salient (versus non-salient) memories. Using a technique known as targeted memory reactivation, it is possible to selectively strengthen newly learned memories by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether emotionally salient memories are also more responsive to targeted memory reactivation in slow-wave sleep than neutral memories. In an initial training phase, participants memorised emotionally negative and neutral pictures, which were each paired with a semantically related sound...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490644/background-noise-exerts-diverse-effects-on-the-cortical-encoding-of-foreground-sounds
#9
Brian James Malone, Marc A Heiser, Ralph Eugene Beitel, Christoph E Schreiner
In natural listening conditions, many sounds must be detected and identified in the context of competing sound sources which function as background noise. Traditionally, noise is thought to degrade the cortical representation of sounds by suppressing responses and increasing response variability. However, recent studies of neural network models and brain slices have shown that background synaptic noise can improve the detection of signals. Because acoustic noise affects the synaptic background activity of cortical networks, it may improve the cortical responses to signals...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490194/prepulse-inhibition-of-the-auditory-off-response-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#10
Eishi Motomura, Koji Inui, Makoto Nishihara, Megumi Tanahashi, Ryusuke Kakigi, Motohiro Okada
A weak preceding sound stimulus attenuates the startle response evoked by an intense sound stimulus. Like startle reflexes, change-related auditory responses are suppressed by a weak leading stimulus (ie, a prepulse). We aim to examine whether a prepulse inhibits cerebral responses to the sound offset and how the prepulse magnitude affects the degree of the prepulse inhibition (PPI). Using magnetoencephalography, we recorded the Off-P50m elicited by an offset of a train sound of 100-Hz clicks in 12 healthy subjects...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488135/obat-an-open-source-and-low-cost-operant-box-for-auditory-discriminative-tasks
#11
Mauricio Watanabe Ribeiro, José Firmino Rodrigues Neto, Edgard Morya, Fabrício Lima Brasil, Mariana Ferreira Pereira de Araújo
Operant-conditioning boxes are widely used in animal training, allowing researchers to shape specific behaviors through reinforcements and/or punishments. Commercially available devices are expensive and run with proprietary software and hardware, hampering adaptations for the specific needs of an experiment. Therefore, many low-cost and open-source devices have recently been developed, but there are still few options for studying auditory behaviors. To overcome this problem, we developed a device based on a computer and an Arduino Mega 2560 board, named OBAT (Operant Box for Auditory Tasks), designed to present two different auditory stimuli to small primates...
May 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487626/continuous-auditory-feedback-of-eye-movements-an-exploratory-study-toward-improving-oculomotor-control
#12
Eric O Boyer, Arthur Portron, Frederic Bevilacqua, Jean Lorenceau
As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484666/hearing-and-balance-disorders-in-the-state-of-hawai-i-demographics-and-demand-for-services
#13
Mohsin Ahmed M Shaikh, James W Hall, Cindy McManus, Henry L Lew
Hearing and balance disorders affect people of all ages. Among children, hearing loss affects speech and language development, academic performance, and psychosocial development. Hearing loss in adults negatively impacts work productivity, cognitive function, and psychosocial status. Prevalence of hearing loss in children in Hawai'i is higher than the national average. Research indicates that hearing loss is a prevalent condition among veterans and advanced age adults. This is of particular concern in Hawai'i as the state is home to many military training facilities and has a large elderly population...
May 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479322/spike-timing-matters-in-novel-neuronal-code-involved-in-vibrotactile-frequency-perception
#14
Ingvars Birznieks, Richard M Vickery
Skin vibrations sensed by tactile receptors contribute significantly to the perception of object properties during tactile exploration [1-4] and to sensorimotor control during object manipulation [5]. Sustained low-frequency skin vibration (<60 Hz) evokes a distinct tactile sensation referred to as flutter whose frequency can be clearly perceived [6]. How afferent spiking activity translates into the perception of frequency is still unknown. Measures based on mean spike rates of neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex are sufficient to explain performance in some frequency discrimination tasks [7-11]; however, there is emerging evidence that stimuli can be distinguished based also on temporal features of neural activity [12, 13]...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478903/experiences-of-deafblind-people-about-health-care
#15
Carmen Fernández-Valderas, Juana Macías-Seda, Eugenia Gil-García
Deafblindness is a disability resulting from the combination of visual and auditory sensory impairments, which can manifest in different levels causing special communication problems. Deafblind people have special needs that derive from difficulties in sensing, understanding, attention and a lack of the skills required to function effectively in society. Deafblindness requires specialized services, personnel specifically trained in its care and special methods for communication. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to explore the experiences of deafblind people in relation to health care throughout their lives...
May 3, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472633/the-effect-of-left-frontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-propranolol-induced-fear-memory-acquisition-and-consolidation-deficits
#16
Mohammad Nasehi, Mozhgan Khani-Abyaneh, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Accumulating evidence supports the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in modulating numerous cognitive functions. Despite the fact that tDCS has been used for the enhancement of memory and cognition, very few animal studies have addressed its impact on the modulation of fear memory. This study was designed to determine whether pre/post-training frontal tDCS application would alter fear memory acquisition and/or consolidation deficits induced by propranolol in NMRI mice. Results indicated that administration of β1-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol (0...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462941/%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-blockade-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-but-not-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-rescues-the-immediate-extinction-deficit
#17
Thomas F Giustino, Jocelyn R Seemann, Gillian M Acca, Travis D Goode, Paul J Fitzgerald, Stephen Maren
Early psychological interventions, such as exposure therapy, rely on extinction learning to reduce the development of stress- and trauma-related disorders. However, recent research suggests that extinction often fails to reduce fear when administered soon after trauma. This immediate extinction deficit (IED) may be due to stress-induced dysregulation of neural circuits involved in extinction learning. We have shown that systemic β-adrenoceptor blockade with propranolol rescues the IED, but impairs delayed extinction...
May 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461701/activation-of-a-novel-p70-s6-kinase-1-dependent-intracellular-cascade-in-the-basolateral-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-is-required-for-the-acquisition-of-extinction-memory
#18
T N Huynh, E Santini, E Mojica, A E Fink, B S Hall, R N Fetcho, L Grosenick, K Deisseroth, J E LeDoux, C Liston, E Klann
Repeated presentations of a previously conditioned stimulus lead to a new form of learning known as extinction, which temporarily alters the response to the original stimulus. Previous studies have shown that the consolidation of extinction memory requires de novo protein synthesis. However, the role of specific nodes of translational control in extinction is unknown. Using auditory threat conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its effector p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in the extinction of auditory threat conditioning...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461217/multisensory-integration-in-short-term-memory-musicians-do-rock
#19
Avigael M Aizenman, Jason M Gold, Robert Sekuler
Demonstrated interactions between seeing and hearing led us to assess the link between music training and short-term memory for auditory, visual and audiovisual sequences of rapidly presented, quasi-random components. Visual sequences' components varied in luminance; auditory sequences' components varied in frequency. Concurrent components in audiovisual sequences were either congruent (the frequency of an auditory item increased monotonically with the luminance of the visual item it accompanied), or incongruent (an item's frequency was uncorrelated with luminance of the item it accompanied)...
April 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460147/integrating-anxiety-reduction-into-an-existing-self-management-of-auditory-hallucinations-course
#20
Robin K Buccheri, Louise Nigh Trygstad, Martha D Buffum, Dau-Shen Ju, Glenna A Dowling
High levels of anxiety were found to interfere with voice hearers' ability to benefit from a 10-Session Behavioral Management of Auditory Hallucinations Course. The 10-session course was revised, adding anxiety reduction strategies to the first four classes and reinforcing those strategies in the remaining eight classes. A multi-site study (N = 27) used repeated measures to determine whether the new 12-session course would significantly reduce anxiety. Ten course leaders were trained and taught the course six times at three different outpatient mental health sites...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
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