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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#1
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687204/long-term-music-training-modulates-the-recalibration-of-audiovisual-simultaneity
#2
Crescent Jicol, Michael J Proulx, Frank E Pollick, Karin Petrini
To overcome differences in physical transmission time and neural processing, the brain adaptively recalibrates the point of simultaneity between auditory and visual signals by adapting to audiovisual asynchronies. Here, we examine whether the prolonged recalibration process of passively sensed visual and auditory signals is affected by naturally occurring multisensory training known to enhance audiovisual perceptual accuracy. Hence, we asked a group of drummers, of non-drummer musicians and of non-musicians to judge the audiovisual simultaneity of musical and non-musical audiovisual events, before and after adaptation with two fixed audiovisual asynchronies...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681993/noise-exposure-and-auditory-thresholds-of-military-musicians-a-follow-up-study
#3
Reinhard Müller, Joachim Schneider
Background: Military musicians are working in a noisy environment with high sound exposure levels above the international standards. Aim of the current study is to find out, whether they develop the expected hearing impairments. Adherence to the regulations for prevention in musicians is more difficult than in other occupational fields. Methods: In an interval of 13.3 years, 36 out of 58 male military musicians of a German army music corps were subjected twice to an audiometric audit...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678758/identification-of-memory-reactivation-during-sleep-by-eeg-classification
#4
Suliman Belal, James Cousins, Wael El-Deredy, Laura Parkes, Jules Schneider, Hikaru Tsujimura, Alexia Zoumpoulaki, Marta Perapoch, Lorena Santamaria Covariabus, Penelope Lewis
Memory reactivation during sleep is critical for consolidation, but also extremely difficult to measure as it is subtle, distributed and temporally unpredictable. This article reports a novel method for detecting such reactivation in standard sleep recordings. During learning, participants produced a complex sequence of finger presses, with each finger cued by a distinct audio-visual stimulus. Auditory cues were then re-played during subsequent sleep to trigger neural reactivation through a method known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677192/the-dyad-adaptive-paced-auditory-serial-addition-test-da-pasat-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676512/occupational-functional-plasticity-revealed-by-brain-entropy-a-resting-state-fmri-study-of-seafarers
#6
Nizhuan Wang, Huijun Wu, Min Xu, Yang Yang, Chunqi Chang, Weiming Zeng, Hongjie Yan
Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been increasingly used to assess brain function. Brain entropy is an effective model for evaluating the alteration of brain complexity. Specifically, the sample entropy (SampEn) provides a feasible solution for revealing the brain's complexity. Occupation is one key factor affecting the brain's activity, but the neuropsychological mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, in this article, based on fMRI and a brain entropy model, we explored the functional complexity changes engendered by occupation factors, taking the seafarer as an example...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674984/rhythm-and-melody-tasks-for-school-aged-children-with-and-without-musical-training-age-equivalent-scores-and-reliability
#7
Kierla Ireland, Averil Parker, Nicholas Foster, Virginia Penhune
Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7-13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673567/electric-acoustic-forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-ipsilateral-residual-hearing
#8
Marina Imsiecke, Benjamin Krüger, Andreas Büchner, Thomas Lenarz, Waldo Nogueira
In order to investigate the temporal mechanisms of the auditory system, psychophysical forward masking experiments were conducted in cochlear implant users who had preserved acoustic hearing in the ipsilateral ear. This unique electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) population allowed the measurement of threshold recovery functions for acoustic or electric probes in the presence of electric or acoustic maskers, respectively. In the electric masking experiment, the forward masked threshold elevation of acoustic probes was measured as a function of the time interval after the offset of the electric masker, i...
April 9, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673483/training-humans-to-categorize-monkey-calls-auditory-feature-and-category-selective-neural-tuning-changes
#9
Xiong Jiang, Mark A Chevillet, Josef P Rauschecker, Maximilian Riesenhuber
Grouping auditory stimuli into common categories is essential for a variety of auditory tasks, including speech recognition. We trained human participants to categorize auditory stimuli from a large novel set of morphed monkey vocalizations. Using fMRI-rapid adaptation (fMRI-RA) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques, we gained evidence that categorization training results in two distinct sets of changes: sharpened tuning to monkey call features (without explicit category representation) in left auditory cortex and category selectivity for different types of calls in lateral prefrontal cortex...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672170/the-boundaries-of-auditory-perception-for-within-word-syllable-segregation-in-untrained-and-trained-adult-listeners
#10
Tayla Brown, Elizabeth Murray, Patricia McCabe
Syllable segregation is among the core diagnostic features of both childhood apraxia of speech and acquired apraxia of speech; however, little is known about the limen of perception of syllable segregation. The purpose of this research was therefore to explore adult listeners' auditory perception of within-word syllable segregation in trained and untrained adult listeners. Two experimental design studies, each with two phases, were conducted. Study one included 40 untrained listeners (aged 18-28 years), and study two included 5 trained listeners (10-25 years of experience)...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670934/musical-training-bilingualism-and-executive-function-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control
#11
Annalise A D'Souza, Linda Moradzadeh, Melody Wiseheart
The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither...
2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663129/effects-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-on-cognitive-performance
#12
Joseph L Etherton, Crystal D Oberle, Jayson Rhoton, Ashley Ney
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group...
April 16, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661612/hearing-self-motion-perception-mobility-and-aging
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer Campos, Robert Ramkhalawansingh, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller
Hearing helps us know where we are relative to important events and objects in our environment and it allows us to track our changing position dynamically over space and time. Auditory cues are used in combination with other sensory inputs (visual, vestibular, proprioceptive) to help us perceive our own movements through space, known as self-motion perception. Whether we are maintaining standing balance, walking, or driving, audition can provide unique and important information to help optimize self-motion perception, and consequently to support safe mobility...
March 31, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656951/auditory-system-target-engagement-during-plasticity-based-interventions-in-schizophrenia-a-focus-on-modulation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-type-glutamate-receptor-function
#14
REVIEW
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Neal R Swerdlow, Walter Dunn, Sophia Vinogradov
Cognitive deficits are predictive of long-term social and occupational functional deficits in schizophrenia but are currently without gold-standard treatments. In particular, augmentation of auditory cortical neuroplasticity may represent a rate-limiting first step before addressing higher-order cognitive deficits. We review the rationale for N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) modulators as treatments for auditory plasticity deficits in schizophrenia, along with potential serum and electroencephalographic target engagement biomarkers for NMDAR function...
February 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655595/working-memory-training-in-congenitally-blind-individuals-results-in-an-integration-of-occipital-cortex-in-functional-networks
#15
Helene Gudi-Mindermann, Johanna M Rimmele, Guido Nolte, Patrick Bruns, Andreas K Engel, Brigitte Röder
The functional relevance of crossmodal activation (e.g. auditory activation of occipital brain regions) in congenitally blind individuals is still not fully understood. The present study tested whether the occipital cortex of blind individuals is integrated into a challenged functional network. A working memory (WM) training over four sessions was implemented. Congenitally blind and matched sighted participants were adaptively trained with an n-back task employing either voices (auditory training) or tactile stimuli (tactile training)...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#16
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627173/room-to-move-plasticity-in-early-auditory-information-processing-and-auditory-learning-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-acute-pharmacological-challenge
#17
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge...
April 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624540/evaluation-of-speed-and-accuracy-of-next-generation-auditory-steady-state-response-and-auditory-brainstem-response-audiometry-in-children-with-normal-hearing-and-hearing-loss
#18
Yvonne S Sininger, Lisa L Hunter, Deborah Hayes, Patricia A Roush, Kristin M Uhler
OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this study was to compare the predicted audiometric thresholds obtained by auditory steady state response (ASSR) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) in infants and toddlers when both techniques use optimal stimuli and detection algorithms. This information will aid in determining the basis for large discrepancies in ABR and ASSR measures found in past studies. The hypothesis was that advancements in ASSR response detection would improve (lower) thresholds and decrease discrepancies between the thresholds produced by the two techniques...
April 5, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619097/pitch-matching-accuracy-and-temporal-auditory-processing
#19
Congeta Bruniere Xavier Fadel, Angela Ribas, Débora Lüders, Vinicius Ribas Fonseca, Monica Nunes Lima Cat
Introduction  Pitch-matching refers to the ability to vocally reproduce an acoustic model in a corresponding tone to the presented sound. This ability, which is dependent on pitch perception ability, can vary among individuals, and some are not able to sing in the correct tune or discriminate differences between tones. Objective  To correlate pitch-matching accuracy and auditory processing in individuals without musical training. Methods  A Pitch-Matching Test (vocal reproduction of synthesized and human voice sounds) and two commercially available tests of auditory temporal processing (the Pitch Pattern Sequence Test and the Random Gap Detection Test) were administered to all participants...
April 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605368/differences-and-similarities-in-early-vocabulary-development-between-children-with-hearing-aids-and-children-with-cochlear-implant-enrolled-in-3-year-auditory-verbal-intervention
#20
Lone Percy-Smith, Maria Hallstrøm, Jane Lignel Josvassen, Jeanette Hølledig Mikkelsen, Lena Nissen, Eveline Dieleman, Per Cayé-Thomasen
OBJECTIVE: The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a Nordic Auditory Verbal (AV) intervention for children with all degrees and types of hearing impairment (HI) using all kinds of hearing technology. A first specific objective was to identify differences and similarities in early vocabulary development between children with cochlear implant (CI) compared with children with hearing aids (HAs)/Bone anchored hearing aids (Bahs) enrolled in a 3-year AVprogram, and to compare the group of children with HI to a control group of children with normal hearing (NH)...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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