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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#1
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430009/real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-to-down-regulate-superior-temporal-gyrus-activity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-hallucinations-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
Natasza D Orlov, Vincent Giampietro, Owen O'Daly, Sheut-Ling Lam, Gareth J Barker, Katya Rubia, Philip McGuire, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Paul Allen
Neurocognitive models and previous neuroimaging work posit that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) arise due to increased activity in speech-sensitive regions of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Here, we examined if patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and AVH could be trained to down-regulate STG activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF). We also examined the effects of rtfMRI-NF training on functional connectivity between the STG and other speech and language regions...
February 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422710/developing-foundational-counseling-skills-for-addressing-adherence-issues-in-auditory-rehabilitation
#3
REVIEW
Carole E Johnson, Anna Marie Jilla, Jeffrey L Danhauer
Successfully getting patients with confirmed hearing loss to use hearing aids is a major challenge for hearing health care professionals. Treatment adherence has been defined as the active involvement of patients in collaborating with health care providers to plan and manage treatment regimens. Counseling patients with hearing loss on adherence to recommendations of hearing aid uptake and utilization is dependent upon building a patient-centered therapeutic relationship during the initial diagnostic evaluation...
February 2018: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415081/auditory-steady-state-responses-in-primary-and-non-primary-regions-of-the-auditory-cortex-in-neonatal-ventral-hippocampal-lesion-rats
#4
Sibin Li, Lanlan Ma, Yuchen Wang, Xuejiao Wang, Yingzhuo Li, Ling Qin
Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) represent the electrophysiological activity of the auditory nervous system in response to a periodic acoustic stimulus. Spectrogram analysis can reveal the frequency and phase information entrained in ASSRs. Clinically, the ASSR is used to detect abnormalities in electroencephalographs obtained from schizophrenia patients, who show reduced power and phase locking of ASSRs. The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rat is a widely used model to investigate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of schizophrenia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414944/posterior-parietal-cortex-represents-sensory-history-and-mediates-its-effects-on-behaviour
#5
Athena Akrami, Charles D Kopec, Mathew E Diamond, Carlos D Brody
Many models of cognition and of neural computations posit the use and estimation of prior stimulus statistics: it has long been known that working memory and perception are strongly impacted by previous sensory experience, even when that sensory history is not relevant to the current task at hand. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms and regions of the brain that are necessary for computing and using such prior experience are unknown. Here we report that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413429/auditory-temporal-perceptual-learning-and-transfer-in-chinese-speaking-children-with-developmental-dyslexia
#6
Manli Zhang, Weiyi Xie, Yanzhi Xu, Xiangzhi Meng
Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training. Recent studies found that auditory perceptual learning may improve phonological skills in individuals with developmental dyslexia in alphabetic writing system. However, whether auditory perceptual learning could also benefit the reading skills of those learning the Chinese logographic writing system is, as yet, unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the remediation effect of auditory temporal perceptual learning on Mandarin-speaking school children with developmental dyslexia...
January 29, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412144/early-life-stress-determines-the-effects-of-glucocorticoids-and-stress-on-hippocampal-function-electrophysiological-and-behavioral-evidence-respectively
#7
Anup G Pillai, Marit Arp, Els Velzing, Sylvie L Lesuis, Mathias V Schmidt, Florian Holsboer, Marian Joëls, Harm J Krugers
Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task...
February 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407275/influence-of-non-contextual-auditory-stimuli-on-navigation-in-a-virtual-reality-context-involving-executive-functions-among-patients-after-stroke
#8
Melanie Cogne, Marie-Helene Violleau, Evelyne Klinger, Pierre-Alain Joseph
BACKGROUND: Topographical disorientation is frequent among patients after a stroke and can be well explored with virtual environments (VEs). VEs also allow for the addition of stimuli. A previous study did not find any effect of non-contextual auditory stimuli on navigational performance in the Virtual Action Planning-Supermarket (VAP-S) simulating a medium-sized 3D supermarket. However, the perceptual or cognitive load of the sounds used was not high. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how non-contextual auditory stimuli with high load affect navigational performance in the VAP-S for patients who have had a stroke and any correlation between this performance and dysexecutive disorders...
January 30, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402816/further-evidence-of-the-positive-influence-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-speech-and-language-in-patients-with-aphasia-after-stroke-results-from-a-double-blind-intervention-with-sham-condition
#9
Mohammad Haghighi, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Nazila Ranjbar, Mohammad Ali Seifrabie
BACKGROUND: After a stroke, up to 20% of patients suffer from aphasia. The preferred treatment for stroke-related aphasia (SRA) is regular speech and language training (SLT). In the present study, we investigated to what extent adjuvant repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might enhance recovery. While there is growing evidence of the positive effect of adjuvant rTMS on aphasia, no study has yet been based on an Iranian sample. METHOD: A total of 12 patients (mean age: 55 years; right-handed; 7 women) underwent treatment for SRA 1 month after stroke...
January 16, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400420/musical-training-induces-functional-and-structural-auditory-motor-network-plasticity-in-young-adults
#10
Qiongling Li, Xuetong Wang, Shaoyi Wang, Yongqi Xie, Xinwei Li, Yachao Xie, Shuyu Li
Playing music requires a strong coupling of perception and action mediated by multimodal integration of brain regions, which can be described as network connections measured by anatomical and functional correlations between regions. However, the structural and functional connectivities within and between the auditory and sensorimotor networks after long-term musical training remain largely uninvestigated. Here, we compared the structural connectivity (SC) and resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within and between the two networks in 29 novice healthy young adults before and after musical training (piano) with those of another 27 novice participants who were evaluated longitudinally but with no intervention...
February 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392290/voice-articulation-and-prosody-contribute-to-listener-perceptions-of-speaker-gender-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Yeptain Leung, Jennifer Oates, Siew Pang Chan
Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of the aspects of verbal communication contributing to listener perceptions of speaker gender with a view to providing clinicians with guidance for the selection of the training goals when working with transsexual individuals. Method: Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines were adopted in this systematic review. Studies evaluating the contribution of aspects of verbal communication to listener perceptions of speaker gender were rated against a new risk of bias assessment tool...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386570/endogenous-emotion-generation-ability-is-associated-with-the-capacity-to-form-multimodal-internal-representations
#12
Haakon Engen, Philipp Kanske, Tania Singer
Training the capacity to self-generate emotions can be a potent "vaccine" against negative stressors and be an effective intervention for affective psychopathology. However, due to a lack of knowledge about sources of individual differences in generation abilities, it is unclear how to optimally design such interventions. We investigated one potential source of variation, namely preference for using different information modalities (Visual Imagery, Auditory Imagery, Bodily Interoception, and Semantic Analysis)...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378977/real-time-classification-of-auditory-sentences-using-evoked-cortical-activity-in-humans
#13
David Aaron Moses, Matthew Leonard, Edward F Chang
OBJECTIVE: Recent research has characterized the anatomical and functional basis of speech perception in the human auditory cortex. These advances have made it possible to decode speech information from activity in brain regions like the superior temporal gyrus, but no published work has demonstrated this ability in real-time, which is necessary for neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces. APPROACH: Here, we introduce a real-time Neural Speech Recognition (rtNSR) software package, which was used to classify spoken input from high-resolution electrocorticography signals in real-time...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378522/auditory-repetition-suppression-alterations-in-relation-to-cognitive-functioning-in-fragile-x-syndrome-a-combined-eeg-and-machine-learning-approach
#14
Inga Sophia Knoth, Tarek Lajnef, Simon Rigoulot, Karine Lacourse, Phetsamone Vannasing, Jacques L Michaud, Sébastien Jacquemont, Philippe Major, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippé
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder causing cognitive and behavioural deficits. Repetition suppression (RS), a learning phenomenon in which stimulus repetitions result in diminished brain activity, has been found to be impaired in FXS. Alterations in RS have been associated with behavioural problems in FXS; however, relations between RS and intellectual functioning have not yet been elucidated. METHODS: EEG was recorded in 14 FXS participants and 25 neurotypical controls during an auditory habituation paradigm using repeatedly presented pseudowords...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378452/remediation-of-spatial-processing-disorder-spd
#15
Kelley Graydon, Bram Van Dun, Dani Tomlin, Richard Dowell, Gary Rance
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of deficit-specific remediation for spatial processing disorder, quantify effects of remediation on functional listening, and determine if remediation is maintained. DESIGN: Participants had SPD, diagnosed using the Listening in Spatialised Noise-Sentences test. The LiSN and Learn software was provided as auditory training. Post-training, repeat LiSN-S testing was conducted. Questionnaires pre- and post-training acted as subjective measures of remediation...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378293/nmda-receptors-in-the-avian-amygdala-and-the-premotor-arcopallium-mediate-distinct-aspects-of-appetitive-extinction-learning
#16
Meng Gao, Daniel Lengersdorf, C Stüttgen Maik, Onur Güntürkün
Extinction learning is an essential mechanism that enables constant adaptation to ever-changing environmental conditions. The underlying neural circuit is mostly studied with rodent models using auditory cued fear conditioning. In order to uncover the variant and the invariant neural properties of extinction learning, we adopted pigeons as an animal model in an appetitive sign-tracking paradigm. The animals firstly learned to respond to two conditioned stimuli in two different contexts (CS-1 in context A and CS-2 in context B), before conditioned responses to the stimuli were extinguished in the opposite contexts (CS-1 in context B and CS-2 in context A)...
January 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371904/computer-based-auditory-training-programs-for-children-with-hearing-impairment-a-scoping-review
#17
REVIEW
Manohar Nanjundaswamy, Prashanth Prabhu, Revathi Kittur Rajanna, Raghavendra Gulaganji Ningegowda, Madhuri Sharma
Introduction  Communication breakdown, a consequence of hearing impairment (HI), is being fought by fitting amplification devices and providing auditory training since the inception of audiology. The advances in both audiology and rehabilitation programs have led to the advent of computer-based auditory training programs (CBATPs). Objective  To review the existing literature documenting the evidence-based CBATPs for children with HIs. Since there was only one such article, we also chose to review the commercially available CBATPs for children with HI...
January 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371895/computerized-auditory-training-in-students-electrophysiological-and-subjective-analysis-of-therapeutic-effectiveness
#18
Ândrea de Melo, Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo, Michele Vargas Garcia, Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio
Introduction  Computerized auditory training (CAT) has been building a good reputation in the stimulation of auditory abilities in cases of auditory processing disorder (APD). Objective  To measure the effects of CAT in students with APD, with typical or atypical phonological acquisition, through electrophysiological and subjective measures, correlating them pre- and post-therapy. Methods  The sample for this study includes14 children with APD, subdivided into children with APD and typical phonological acquisition (G1), and children with APD and atypical phonological acquisition (G2)...
January 2018: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369646/setting-the-alarm-word-emotional-attributes-require-consolidation-to-be-operational
#19
Nicolas Dumay, Dinkar Sharma, Nora Kellen, Sarah Abdelrahim
Demonstrations of emotional Stroop in conditioned made-up words are flawed because of the lack of task ensuring similar word encoding across conditions. Here, participants were trained on associations between made-up words (e.g., 'drott') and pictures with an alarming or neutral content (e.g., 'a dead sheep' vs. 'a munching cow') in a situation that required attention to both ends of each association. To test whether word emotional attributes need to consolidate before they can hijack attention, one set of associations was learned seven days before the test, whereas the other set was learned either six hrs or immediately before the test...
January 25, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365070/encoding-of-auditory-temporal-gestalt-in-the-human-brain
#20
Michael P Notter, Michael Hanke, Micah M Murray, Eveline Geiser
The perception of an acoustic rhythm is invariant to the absolute temporal intervals constituting a sound sequence. It is unknown where in the brain temporal Gestalt, the percept emerging from the relative temporal proximity between acoustic events, is encoded. Two different relative temporal patterns, each induced by three experimental conditions with different absolute temporal patterns as sensory basis, were presented to participants. A linear support vector machine classifier was trained to differentiate activation patterns in functional magnetic resonance imaging data to the 2 different percepts...
January 20, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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