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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210335/training-level-does-not-affect-auditory-perception-of-the-magnitude-of-ball-spin-in-table-tennis
#1
Daniel P R Santos, Roberto N Barbosa, Luiz H P Vieira, Paulo R P Santiago, Alessandro M Zagatto, Matheus M Gomes
Identifying the trajectory and spin of the ball with speed and accuracy is critical for good performance in table tennis. The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of table tennis players presenting different levels of training/experience to identify the magnitude of the ball spin from the sound produced when the racket hit the ball. Four types of "forehand" contact sounds were collected in the laboratory, defined as: Fast Spin (spinning ball forward at 140 r/s); Medium Spin (105 r/s); Slow Spin (84 r/s); and Flat Hit (less than 60 r/s)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210218/phasic-firing-and-coincidence-detection-by-subthreshold-negative-feedback-divisive-or-subtractive-or-better-both
#2
Gemma Huguet, Xiangying Meng, John Rinzel
Phasic neurons typically fire only for a fast-rising input, say at the onset of a step current, but not for steady or slow inputs, a property associated with type III excitability. Phasic neurons can show extraordinary temporal precision for phase locking and coincidence detection. Exemplars are found in the auditory brain stem where precise timing is used in sound localization. Phasicness at the cellular level arises from a dynamic, voltage-gated, negative feedback that can be recruited subthreshold, preventing the neuron from reaching spike threshold if the voltage does not rise fast enough...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207576/relationship-between-peripheral-and-psychophysical-measures-of-amplitude-modulation-detection-in-cochlear-implant-users
#3
Viral D Tejani, Paul J Abbas, Carolyn J Brown
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex...
February 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204984/musical-competence-and-phoneme-perception-in-a-foreign-language
#4
Swathi Swaminathan, E Glenn Schellenberg
We investigated whether musical competence was associated with the perception of foreign-language phonemes. The sample comprised adult native-speakers of English who varied in music training. The measures included tests of general cognitive abilities, melody and rhythm perception, and the perception of consonantal contrasts that were phonemic in Zulu but not in English. Music training was associated positively with performance on the tests of melody and rhythm perception, but not with performance on the phoneme-perception task...
February 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202466/time-varying-auditory-gain-control-in-response-to-double-pulse-stimuli-in-harbour-porpoises-is-not-mediated-by-a-stapedial-reflex
#5
Asger Emil Munch Schrøder, Kristian Beedholm, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Echolocating animals reduce their output level and hearing sensitivity, presumably to stabilize the perceived echo intensity during target approaches. In bats this variation in hearing sensitivity is formed by a call-induced stapedial reflex that tapers off over time after the call. Here we test the hypothesis that a similar mechanism exists in toothed whales by subjecting a trained harbour porpoise to a series of double sound pulses varying in delay and frequency, while measuring the magnitudes of the evoked ABRs...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195187/sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#6
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179180/developing-a-3-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-examining-neural-and-cognitive-function-in-an-equine-model
#7
Kirsty Roberts, Andrew J Hemmings, Sebastian D McBride, Matthew O Parker
BACKGROUND: Large animal models of human neurological disorders are advantageous compared to rodent models due to their neuroanatomical complexity, longevity and their ability to be maintained in naturalised environments. Some large animal models spontaneously develop behaviours that closely resemble the symptoms of neural and psychiatric disorders. The horse is an example of this; the domestic form of this species consistently develops spontaneous stereotypic behaviours akin to the compulsive and impulsive behaviours observed in human neurological disorders such as Tourette's syndrome...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174530/an-event-related-field-study-of-rapid-grammatical-plasticity-in-adult-second-language-learners
#8
Ainhoa Bastarrika, Douglas J Davidson
The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how Spanish adult learners of Basque respond to morphosyntactic violations after a short period of training on a small fragment of Basque grammar. Participants (n = 17) were exposed to violation and control phrases in three phases (pretest, training, generalization-test). In each phase participants listened to short Basque phrases and they judged whether they were correct or incorrect. During the pre-test and generalization-test, participants did not receive any feedback...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174453/effects-of-inclined-treadmill-walking-training-with-rhythmic-auditory-stimulation-on-balance-and-gait-in-stroke-patients
#9
Sung Kyeung Yoon, Soon Hee Kang
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine if an inclined treadmill with rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training can improve balance and gait ability in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty participants were randomly divided into three groups: inclined treadmill with rhythmic auditory stimulation training group (n=10), inclined treadmill training group (n=10), and treadmill training group (n=10). For all groups, the training was conducted for 4 weeks, 30 minutes per session, 5 times per week...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168713/prepulse-inhibition-and-facilitation-of-the-postauricular-reflex-a-vestigial-remnant-of-pinna-startle
#10
Steven A Hackley, Xi Ren, Amy Underwood, Fernando Valle-Inclán
If the postauricular reflex (PAR) is to be used effectively in studies of emotion and attention, its sensitivity to basic modulatory effects such as prepulse inhibition and facilitation must be determined. Two experiments were carried out with healthy young adults to assess the effects of transient and sustained visual prestimuli on the pinna-flexion response to trains of startle probes. In the first experiment, participants passively viewed a small white square. It was displayed from 1,000 ms prior to onset of a train of noise bursts until the end of that train...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162137/are-parkinson-s-patients-more-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-risk-a-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-study
#11
Jacob D Jones, Jared J Tanner, Michael Okun, Catherine C Price, Dawn Bowers
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased vulnerability for vascular-related cognitive impairment relative to controls. The underlying assumption behind this hypothesis relates to brain reserve and that both PD and vascular risk factors impair similar fronto-executive cognitive systems. METHODS: The sample included 67 PD patients and 61 older controls (total N=128). Participants completed neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal delayed recall/memory, language, and auditory attention...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161447/how-do-adolescent-students-perceive-aging-teachers-voices
#12
Deborah Gampel, Leslie Piccolotto Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze adolescent evaluations of aging teachers' perceived vocal age (PVA) and pleasantness, relative to actual vocal parameters. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Digital speech samples of 23 teachers over 65 years in age were collected. Three speech-language pathologists and voice specialists evaluated and classified the vocal parameters on a seven-point scale according to a perceptual-auditory voice analysis protocol, developed especially for this study...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161286/meg-and-eeg-demonstrate-similar-test-retest-reliability-of-the-40hz-auditory-steady-state-response
#13
Kristina T Legget, Allison K Hild, Sarah E Steinmetz, Steven T Simon, Donald C Rojas
The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders, but research investigating the test-retest reliability of this measure is needed. We previously reported ASSR reliability, measured by electroencephalography (EEG), to 40Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli. The purpose of the current study was to (a) assess the reliability of the MEG-measured ASSR to 40Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli, and (b) compare test-retest reliability between MEG and EEG measures of ASSR, which has not previously been investigated...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158197/rehabilitation-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-effectiveness-of-two-multidisciplinary-treatments
#14
Ilaria Clerici, Davide Ferrazzoli, Roberto Maestri, Fabiola Bossio, Ilaria Zivi, Margherita Canesi, Gianni Pezzoli, Giuseppe Frazzitta
BACKGROUND: to date, there are no medical or surgical treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). It is possible to speculate that patients with PSP could benefit from rehabilitative treatments designed for Parkinson's disease, including the use of robot-assisted walking training. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate whether the use of the robotic device Lokomat® is superior in PSP patients to the use of treadmill with visual cues and auditory feedbacks (treadmill-plus) in the context of an aerobic, multidisciplinary, intensive, motor-cognitive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) conceived for Parkinsonian patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157111/waist-up-protection-for-blind-individuals-using-the-eyecane-as-a-primary-and-secondary-mobility-aid
#15
Galit Buchs, Noa Simon, Shachar Maidenbaum, Amir Amedi
BACKGROUND: One of the most stirring statistics in relation to the mobility of blind individuals is the high rate of upper body injuries, even when using the white-cane. OBJECTIVE: We here addressed a rehabilitation- oriented challenge of providing a reliable tool for blind people to avoid waist-up obstacles, namely one of the impediments to their successful mobility using currently available methods (e.g., white-cane). METHODS: We used the EyeCane, a device we developed which translates distances from several angles to haptic and auditory cues in an intuitive and unobtrusive manner, serving both as a primary and secondary mobility aid...
February 2, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154796/continuous-vs-intermittent-neurofeedback-to-regulate-auditory-cortex-activity-of-tinnitus-patients-using-real-time-fmri-a-pilot-study
#16
Kirsten Emmert, Rotem Kopel, Yury Koush, Raphael Maire, Pascal Senn, Dimitri Van De Ville, Sven Haller
The emerging technique of real-time fMRI neurofeedback trains individuals to regulate their own brain activity via feedback from an fMRI measure of neural activity. Optimum feedback presentation has yet to be determined, particularly when working with clinical populations. To this end, we compared continuous against intermittent feedback in subjects with tinnitus. Fourteen participants with tinnitus completed the whole experiment consisting of nine runs (3 runs × 3 days). Prior to the neurofeedback, the target region was localized within the auditory cortex using auditory stimulation (1 kHz tone pulsating at 6 Hz) in an ON-OFF block design...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151878/a-training-approach-to-improve-stepping-automaticity-while-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-pilot-study
#17
Taylor Chomiak, Alexander Watts, Nicole Meyer, Fernando V Pereira, Bin Hu
BACKGROUND: Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). METHODS: This was a 4-week prospective intervention pilot study...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149066/do-yogis-have-learning-styles-a-somatic-solution
#18
William Ben Strean
BACKGROUND: Learning styles has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al. asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. AIMS: This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students' differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping...
January 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139679/mismatch-negativity-is-a-sensitive-and-predictive-biomarker-of-perceptual-learning-during-auditory-cognitive-training-in-schizophrenia
#19
Veronica B Perez, Melissa Tarasenko, Makoto Miyakoshi, Sean T Pianka, Scott D Makeig, David L Braff, Neal R Swerdlow, Gregory A Light
Computerized cognitive training is gaining empirical support for use in the treatment of schizophrenia (SZ). While cognitive training is efficacious for SZ at a group level when delivered in sufficiently intensive doses (eg, 30-50 h), there is variability in individual patient response. The identification of biomarkers sensitive to the neural systems engaged by cognitive training interventions early in the course of treatment could facilitate personalized assignment to treatment. This proof-of-concept study was conducted to determine whether mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential index of auditory sensory discrimination associated with cognitive and psychosocial functioning, would predict gains in auditory perceptual learning and exhibit malleability after initial exposure to the early stages of auditory cognitive training in SZ...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139164/toward-a-choice-based-judgment-bias-task-for-horses
#20
Sara Hintze, Emma Roth, Iris Bachmann, Hanno Würbel
Judgment bias tasks for nonhuman animals are promising tools to assess emotional valence as a measure of animal welfare. In view of establishing a valid judgment bias task for horses, the present study aimed to evaluate 2 versions (go/no-go and active choice) of an auditory judgment bias task for horses in terms of acquisition learning and discrimination of ambiguous cues. Five mares and 5 stallions were randomly assigned to the 2 designs and trained for 10 trials per day to acquire different operant responses to a low-frequency tone and a high-frequency tone, respectively...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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