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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102097/familiar-auditory-sensory-training-in-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-study
#1
Emily Galassi Sullivan, Ann Guernon, Brett Blabas, Amy A Herrold, Theresa L-B Pape
PURPOSE: The evaluation and treatment for patients with prolonged periods of seriously impaired consciousness following traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as a vegetative or minimally conscious state, poses considerable challenges, particularly in the chronic phases of recovery. METHOD: This blinded crossover study explored the effects of familiar auditory sensory training (FAST) compared with a sham stimulation in a patient seven years post severe TBI. Baseline data were collected over 4 weeks to account for variability in status with neurobehavioral measures, including the Disorders of Consciousness scale (DOCS), Coma Near Coma scale (CNC), and Consciousness Screening Algorithm...
January 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096427/influence-of-fatiguing-noise-on-auditory-evoked-responses-to-stimuli-of-various-levels-in-a-beluga-whale-delphinapterus-leucas
#2
Vladimir V Popov, Evgeniya V Sysueva, Dmitry I Nechaev, Viatcheslav V Rozhnov, Alexander Ya Supin
The negative impact of man-made noise on the hearing of odontocetes attracts considerable recent attention. Mostly permanent or temporary reductions in sensitivity are known as permanent or temporary threshold shift (PTS or TTS, respectively) were investigated. In the present study, the effects of a fatiguing sound on the hearing of a beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas within a wide range of levels of test signals was investigated. The fatiguing noise was half-octave band-limited noise centered at 32 kHz. Post-exposure effects of this noise on the evoked responses to test stimuli (rhythmic pip trains with a 45-kHz center frequency) at various levels (from threshold to 60 dB above threshold) was measured...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095201/multisensory-bayesian-inference-depends-on-synapse-maturation-during-training-theoretical-analysis-and-neural-modeling-implementation
#3
Mauro Ursino, Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso
Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088681/maintenance-effects-of-working-memory-intervention-cogmed-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#4
Amanda Fuentes, Elizabeth N Kerr
PURPOSE: To extend previous research documenting the benefits of working memory (WM) intervention (Cogmed) immediately post-intervention in children with epilepsy by assessing the 3-month maintenance effects. METHODS: Participants involved in a previous randomized clinical trial (RCT) were invited to participate if they completed Cogmed within the last 3months (n=15) and additional participants (n=13) were prospectively recruited. Standardized assessments of near-transfer effects (i...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088500/voice-emotion-perception-and-production-in-cochlear-implant-users
#5
REVIEW
N T Jiam, M Caldwell, M L Deroche, M Chatterjee, C J Limb
Voice emotion is a fundamental component of human social interaction and social development. Unfortunately, cochlear implant users are often forced to interface with highly degraded prosodic cues as a result of device constraints in extraction, processing, and transmission. As such, individuals with cochlear implants frequently demonstrate significant difficulty in recognizing voice emotions in comparison to their normal hearing counterparts. Cochlear implant-mediated perception and production of voice emotion is an important but relatively understudied area of research...
January 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078966/visual-and-cross-modal-cues-increase-the-identification-of-overlapping-visual-stimuli-in-balint-s-syndrome
#6
Daniela D'Imperio, Michele Scandola, Valeria Gobbetto, Cristina Bulgarelli, Matteo Salgarello, Renato Avesani, Valentina Moro
INTRODUCTION: Cross-modal interactions improve the processing of external stimuli, particularly when an isolated sensory modality is impaired. When information from different modalities is integrated, object recognition is facilitated probably as a result of bottom-up and top-down processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cross-modal stimulation in a case of simultanagnosia. METHOD: We report a detailed analysis of clinical symptoms and an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study of a patient affected by Balint's syndrome, a rare and invasive visual-spatial disorder following bilateral parieto-occipital lesions...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078408/-rehabilitation-in-children-and-adults-an-overview
#7
A Illg
BACKGROUND: The rehabilitation of patients with hearing loss includes technical, medical, and therapeutic education interventions. The success of cochlear implant (CI) treatment depends on joint coordination and execution of all measures. During the history of CI, expansion of the spectrum of indication criteria has led to evolution of auditory-verbal therapy, speech therapy, and auditory training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper describes the current status of therapeutic knowledge and experience of hearing and speech therapeutic rehabilitation in children and adults...
January 11, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077662/stability-and-plasticity-in-neural-encoding-of-linguistically-relevant-pitch-patterns
#8
Zilong Xie, Rachel Reetzke, Bharath Chandrasekaran
While life-long language experience modulates subcortical encoding of pitch patterns, there is emerging evidence that short-term training introduced in adulthood also shapes subcortical pitch encoding. Here, we use a cross-language design to examine the stability of language experience-dependent subcortical plasticity over multiple days. We then examine the extent to which behavioral relevance induced by speech sound-to-category training leads to plastic changes in subcortical pitch encoding in adulthood relative to adolescence, a period of ongoing maturation of subcortical and cortical auditory processing...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074913/auditory-localisation-biases-increase-with-sensory-uncertainty
#9
Sara E Garcia, Pete R Jones, Gary S Rubin, Marko Nardini
Psychophysical studies have frequently found that adults with normal hearing exhibit systematic errors (biases) in their auditory localisation judgments. Here we tested (i) whether systematic localisation errors could reflect reliance on prior knowledge, as has been proposed for other systematic perceptual biases, and (ii) whether auditory localisation biases can be reduced following training with accurate visual feedback. Twenty-four normal hearing participants were asked to localise the position of a noise burst along the azimuth before, during, and after training with visual feedback...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073936/human-exploration-of-enclosed-spaces-through-echolocation
#10
Virginia L Flanagin, Sven Schörnich, Michael Schranner, Nadine Hummel, Ludwig Wallmeier, Magnus Wahlberg, Thomas Stephan, Lutz Wiegrebe
: Some blind humans have developed echolocation, as a method of navigation in space. Echolocation is a truly active sense because subjects analyze echoes of dedicated, self-generated sounds to assess space around them. Using a special virtual space technique we assess how humans perceive enclosed spaces through echolocation, thereby revealing the interplay between sensory and vocal-motor neural activity while humans perform this task. Sighted subjects were trained to detect small changes in virtual room size analyzing real-time generated echoes of their vocalizations...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071929/effects-of-smartphone-based-memory-training-for-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Seo Jin Oh, Sungmin Seo, Ji Hyun Lee, Myeong Ju Song, Min-Sup Shin
OBJECTIVES: We explored whether newly developed application (Smartphone-based brain Anti-aging and memory Reinforcement Training, SMART) improved memory performance in older adults with subjective memory complaints (SMC). METHOD: A total of 53 adults (range: 50-68 years; 52.8% female) were randomized into either one of two intervention groups [SMART (n = 18) vs. Fit Brains® (n = 19)] or a wait-list group (n = 16). Participants in the intervention groups underwent 15-20 minutes of training per day, five days per week for 8 weeks...
January 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066520/gait-training-interventions-for-lower-extremity-amputees-a-systematic-literature-review
#12
M Jason Highsmith, Casey R Andrews, Claire Millman, Ashley Fuller, Jason T Kahle, Tyler D Klenow, Katherine L Lewis, Rachel C Bradley, John J Orriola
Lower extremity (LE) amputation patients who use prostheses have gait asymmetries and altered limb loading and movement strategies when ambulating. Subsequent secondary conditions are believed to be associated with gait deviations and lead to long-term complications that impact function and quality of life as a result. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of evidence supporting gait training interventions and to formulate evidence statements to guide practice and research related to therapeutic gait training for lower extremity amputees...
September 2016: Technology and Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060347/high-resolution-quantitative-synaptic-proteome-profiling-of-mouse-brain-regions-after-auditory-discrimination-learning
#13
Angela Kolodziej, Karl-Heinz Smalla, Sandra Richter, Alexander Engler, Rainer Pielot, Daniela C Dieterich, Wolfgang Tischmeyer, Michael Naumann, Thilo Kähne
The molecular synaptic mechanisms underlying auditory learning and memory remain largely unknown. Here, the workflow of a proteomic study on auditory discrimination learning in mice is described. In this learning paradigm, mice are trained in a shuttle box Go/NoGo-task to discriminate between rising and falling frequency-modulated tones in order to avoid a mild electric foot-shock. The protocol involves the enrichment of synaptosomes from four brain areas, namely the auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, at different stages of training...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045295/superior-ambiguous-occasion-setting-with-visual-than-temporal-feature-stimuli
#14
Andrew R Delamater, Rifka C Derman, Justin A Harris
Three experiments with rats compared the relative ease with which different sets of visual or temporal cues could participate in Pavlovian learning. In Experiment 1, 1 group was trained to discriminate between visual cues (Light vs. Dark), whereas the other group learned to discriminate between temporal cues (early [10 s] vs. late [90 s]). Both groups learned to distinguish food-paired from nonpaired periods equally well. In Experiment 2, 2 groups were trained on an ambiguous occasion setting task. For Group Visual, a 2-min Light period signaled that 1 10-s auditory conditioned stimulus, CS1, was reinforced with 1 unconditioned stimulus, US1, but that CS2 was not reinforced; whereas a 2-min dark period signaled that CS1 was not reinforced, but CS2 was reinforced with US2 (i...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044018/interindividual-variability-in-auditory-scene-analysis-revealed-by-confidence-judgements
#15
C Pelofi, V de Gardelle, P Egré, D Pressnitzer
Because musicians are trained to discern sounds within complex acoustic scenes, such as an orchestra playing, it has been hypothesized that musicianship improves general auditory scene analysis abilities. Here, we compared musicians and non-musicians in a behavioural paradigm using ambiguous stimuli, combining performance, reaction times and confidence measures. We used 'Shepard tones', for which listeners may report either an upward or a downward pitch shift for the same ambiguous tone pair. Musicians and non-musicians performed similarly on the pitch-shift direction task...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040019/relative-salience-of-spectral-and-temporal-features-in-auditory-long-term-memory
#16
Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz
In order to explore the representation of sound features in auditory long-term memory, two groups of ferrets were trained on Go vs Nogo, 3-zone classification tasks. The sound stimuli differed primarily along the spectral and temporal dimensions. In Group 1, two ferrets were trained to (i) classify tones based on their frequency (Tone-task), and subsequently learned to (ii) classify white noise based on its amplitude modulation rate (AM-task). In Group 2, two ferrets were trained to classify tones based on correlated combinations of their frequency and AM rate (AM-Tone task)...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012517/audio-visual-speech-perception-in-noise-implanted-children-and-young-adults-versus-normal-hearing-peers
#17
Riki Taitelbaum-Swead, Leah Fostick
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate auditory, visual and audiovisual speech perception abilities among two groups of cochlear implant (CI) users: prelingual children and long-term young adults, as compared to their normal hearing (NH) peers. METHODS: Prospective cohort study that included 50 participants, divided into two groups of CI (10 children and 10 adults), and two groups of normal hearing peers (15 participants each). Speech stimuli included monosyllabic meaningful and nonsense words in a signal to noise ratio of 0 dB...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011436/phonological-abilities-in-literacy-impaired-children-brain-potentials-reveal-deficient-phoneme-discrimination-but-intact-prosodic-processing
#18
Claudia Männel, Gesa Schaadt, Franziska K Illner, Elke van der Meer, Angela D Friederici
Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia) are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology), findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology) are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands...
November 27, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007316/skill-learning-from-kinesthetic-feedback
#19
David Pinzon, Roberto Vega, Yerly Paola Sanchez, Bin Zheng
BACKGROUND: It is important for a surgeon to perform surgical tasks under appropriate guidance from visual and kinesthetic feedback. However, our knowledge on kinesthetic (muscle) memory and its role in learning motor skills remains elementary. OBJECTIVES: To discover the effect of exclusive kinesthetic training on kinesthetic memory in both performance and learning. METHODS: In Phase 1, a total of twenty participants duplicated five 2 dimensional movements of increasing complexity via passive kinesthetic guidance, without visual or auditory stimuli...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002542/auditory-training-with-multiple-talkers-and-passage-based-semantic-cohesion
#20
Elizabeth D Casserly, Erin C Barney
Purpose: Current auditory training methods typically result in improvements to speech recognition abilities in quiet, but learner gains may not extend to other domains in speech (e.g., recognition in noise) or self-assessed benefit. This study examined the potential of training involving multiple talkers and training emphasizing discourse-level top-down processing to produce more generalized learning. Method: Normal-hearing participants (N = 64) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 auditory training protocols using noise-vocoded speech simulating the processing of an 8-channel cochlear implant: sentence-based single-talker training, training with 24 different talkers, passage-based transcription training, and a control (transcribing unvocoded sentence materials)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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