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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337114/precondition-of-right-frontal-region-with-anodal-tdcs-can-restore-the-fear-memory-impairment-induced-by-acpa-in-male-mice
#1
Fariborz Manteghi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Fear memory and learning cause behavioural patterns such as fight or flight responses, which increase survival probability, but unfit processing of fear memory and learning can lead to maladaptive behaviours and maladies such as phobias, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorders. The growing prevalence of these maladies shows the need to quest novel methods for their treatment. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the right frontal region as a precondition neuromodulator and arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, as a fear memory impairing agent to assess their effects on contextual and auditory fear conditioning (reliable model for fear studies)...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323282/an-autism-associated-serotonin-transporter-variant-disrupts-multisensory-processing
#2
J K Siemann, C L Muller, C G Forsberg, R D Blakely, J Veenstra-VanderWeele, M T Wallace
Altered sensory processing is observed in many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with growing evidence that these impairments extend to the integration of information across the different senses (that is, multisensory function). The serotonin system has an important role in sensory development and function, and alterations of serotonergic signaling have been suggested to have a role in ASD. A gain-of-function coding variant in the serotonin transporter (SERT) associates with sensory aversion in humans, and when expressed in mice produces traits associated with ASD, including disruptions in social and communicative function and repetitive behaviors...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319881/40hz-auditory-steady-state-responses-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness-correlation-between-phase-locking-index-and-coma-recovery-scale-revised-score
#3
Marek Binder, Urszula Górska, Inga Griskova-Bulanova
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate whether 40Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) could be sensitive to the state of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) as estimated with Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) diagnostic tool. METHODS: Fifteen DOC patients and 24 healthy controls took part in the study. The 40Hz click trains were used to evoke ASSRs. Mean evoked amplitude (EA) and phase-locking index (PLI) within 38-42Hz window were calculated for 100ms bins, starting from -200 to 700ms relative to stimulus onset...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318969/auditory-perceptual-evaluation-of-voice-quality-of-cochlear-implanted-and-normal-hearing-individuals-a-reliability-study
#4
Ana Cristina Coelho, Alcione Ghedini Brasolotto, Ana Carolina Nascimento Fernandes, Daniela Malta de Souza Medved, Eduardo Magalhães da Silva, Fayez Bahmad Júnior
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present an experience in rating voices of adults with normal hearing and adults with cochlear implants and critically examine the outcomes, discussing pros and cons of the methodology used. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional, prospective study. METHODS: One hundred and fifty voice samples, consisting of 50 sustained vowels, 50 samples of connected speech, and 50 samples of conversational speech, belonging to 25 adults with hearing impairment with cochlear implants and 25 adults with normal hearing, were perceptually analyzed for inter-rater agreement and intra-rater reliability...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317848/polyphonic-sonification-of-electrocardiography-signals-for-diagnosis-of-cardiac-pathologies
#5
Jakob Nikolas Kather, Thomas Hermann, Yannick Bukschat, Tilmann Kramer, Lothar R Schad, Frank Gerrit Zöllner
Electrocardiography (ECG) data are multidimensional temporal data with ubiquitous applications in the clinic. Conventionally, these data are presented visually. It is presently unclear to what degree data sonification (auditory display), can enable the detection of clinically relevant cardiac pathologies in ECG data. In this study, we introduce a method for polyphonic sonification of ECG data, whereby different ECG channels are simultaneously represented by sound of different pitch. We retrospectively applied this method to 12 samples from a publicly available ECG database...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317321/development-of-a-home-based-auditory-training-to-improve-speech-recognition-on-the-telephone-for-patients-with-cochlear-implants-a-randomized-trial
#6
Friedrich Ihler, Jenny Blum, Gino Steinmetz, Bernhard G Weiss, Stefan Zirn, Martin Canis
OBJECTIVES: Speech recognition on the telephone poses a challenge for patients with cochlear implants due to a reduced bandwidth of transmission. This trial evaluates a home-based auditory training with telephone-specific filtered speech material to improve sentence recognition. DESIGN: Randomized controlled parallel double-blind. SETTING: One tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: 20 postlingually deafened patients with cochlear implants...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298887/automated-operant-conditioning-in-the-mouse-home-cage
#7
Nikolas A Francis, Patrick O Kanold
Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290958/comparative-assessment-of-three-approaches-of-teaching-nonmedically-trained-persons-in-the-handling-of-supraglottic-airways-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Mario Hensel, Willi Schmidbauer, Michael Benker, Paula Schmieder, Thoralf Kerner
BACKGROUND: The use of supraglottic airways has been recommended in combat trauma airway management. To ensure an adequate airway management on the battlefield, suitable training concepts are sought to efficiently teach as many soldiers as possible. Our aim was to compare three approaches of teaching laypersons in the handling of supraglottic airways in a mannequin model. METHODS: In this prospective randomized blinded study, 285 military service men without any medical background were divided into three groups and trained in the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA) and the Laryngeal Tube Disposable (LT-D)...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286477/transfer-effects-to-a-multimodal-dual-task-after-working-memory-training-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#9
Stephan Heinzel, Jérôme Rimpel, Christine Stelzel, Michael A Rapp
Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270763/neuromodulatory-effects-of-auditory-training-and-hearing-aid-use-on-audiovisual-speech-perception-in-elderly-individuals
#10
Luodi Yu, Aparna Rao, Yang Zhang, Philip C Burton, Dania Rishiq, Harvey Abrams
Although audiovisual (AV) training has been shown to improve overall speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners, there has been a lack of direct brain imaging data to help elucidate the neural networks and neural plasticity associated with hearing aid (HA) use and auditory training targeting speechreading. For this purpose, the current clinical case study reports functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from two hearing-impaired patients who were first-time HA users. During the study period, both patients used HAs for 8 weeks; only one received a training program named ReadMyQuips(TM) (RMQ) targeting speechreading during the second half of the study period for 4 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270570/baf53b-a-neuron-specific-nucleosome-remodeling-factor-is-induced-after-learning-and-facilitates-long-term-memory-consolidation
#11
Miran Yoo, Kwang-Yeon Choi, Jieun Kim, Mujun Kim, Jaehoon Shim, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Hye-Yeon Cho, Jungpyo Oh, Hyung-Su Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Jin-Hee Han
Although epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation have recently been implicated in memory consolidation and persistence, the role of nucleosome-remodeling is largely unexplored. Recent studies show that the functional loss of BAF53b, a post-mitotic neuron-specific subunit of the BAF nucleosome-remodeling complex, results in the deficit of consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory and cocaine-associated memory in the rodent brain. However, it is unclear whether BAF53b expression is regulated during memory formation and how BAF53b regulates fear memory in the amygdala, a key brain site for fear memory encoding and storage...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261053/auditory-spatial-recalibration-in-congenital-blind-individuals
#12
Sara Finocchietti, Giulia Cappagli, Monica Gori
Blind individuals show impairments for auditory spatial skills that require complex spatial representation of the environment. We suggest that this is partially due to the egocentric frame of reference used by blind individuals. Here we investigate the possibility of reducing the mentioned auditory spatial impairments with an audio-motor training. Our hypothesis is that the association between a motor command and the corresponding movement's sensory feedback can provide an allocentric frame of reference and consequently help blind individuals in understanding complex spatial relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259857/auditory-training-changes-temporal-lobe-connectivity-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-a-randomised-trial
#13
Zoe Vj Woodhead, Jennifer Crinion, Sundeep Teki, Will Penny, Cathy J Price, Alexander P Leff
INTRODUCTION: Aphasia is one of the most disabling sequelae after stroke, occurring in 25%-40% of stroke survivors. However, there remains a lack of good evidence for the efficacy or mechanisms of speech comprehension rehabilitation. TRIAL DESIGN: This within-subjects trial tested two concurrent interventions in 20 patients with chronic aphasia with speech comprehension impairment following left hemisphere stroke: (1) phonological training using 'Earobics' software and (2) a pharmacological intervention using donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255373/effect-of-rhythmic-auditory-stimulation-on-gait-kinematic-parameters-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
REVIEW
M Shahraki, M Sohrabi, H R Taheri Torbati, K Nikkhah, M NaeimiKia
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait kinematic parameters of patients with multiple sclerosis. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 18 subjects, comprising 4 males and 14 females with Multiple Sclerosis with expanded disability status scale of 3 to 6 were chosen. Subjects were selected by available and targeted sampling and were randomly divided into two experimental (n = 9) and control (n = 9) groups. Exercises were gait with rhythmic auditory stimulation by a metronome device, in addition to gait without stimulation for the experimental and control groups, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254512/electrocorticographic-delineation-of-human-auditory-cortical-fields-based-on-effects-of-propofol-anesthesia
#15
Kirill V Nourski, Matthew I Banks, Mitchell Steinschneider, Ariane E Rhone, Hiroto Kawasaki, Rashmi N Mueller, Michael M Todd, Matthew A Howard
The functional organization of human auditory cortex remains incompletely characterized. While the posteromedial two thirds of Heschl's gyrus (HG) is generally considered to be part of core auditory cortex, additional subdivisions of HG remain speculative. To further delineate the hierarchical organization of human auditory cortex, we investigated regional heterogeneity in the modulation of auditory cortical responses under varying depths of anesthesia induced by propofol. Non-invasive studies have shown that propofol differentially affects auditory cortical activity, with a greater impact on non-core areas...
February 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253692/the-influence-of-temporally-varying-noise-from-seismic-air-guns-on-the-detection-of-underwater-sounds-by-seals
#16
Jillian M Sills, Brandon L Southall, Colleen Reichmuth
Standard audiometric data are often applied to predict how noise influences hearing. With regard to auditory masking, critical ratios-obtained using tonal signals and flat-spectrum maskers-can be combined with noise spectral density levels derived from 1/3-octave band levels to predict signal amplitudes required for detection. However, the efficacy of this conventional model of masking may vary based on features of the signal and noise in question. The ability of resource managers to quantify masking from intermittent seismic noise is relevant due to widespread geophysical exploration...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245497/new-rules-for-visual-selection-isolating-procedural-attention
#17
Mahalakshmi Ramamurthy, Erik Blaser
High performance in well-practiced, everyday tasks-driving, sports, gaming-suggests a kind of procedural attention that can allocate processing resources to behaviorally relevant information in an unsupervised manner. Here we show that training can lead to a new, automatic attentional selection rule that operates in the absence of bottom-up, salience-driven triggers and willful top-down selection. Taking advantage of the fact that attention modulates motion aftereffects, observers were presented with a bivectorial display with overlapping, iso-salient red and green dot fields moving to the right and left, respectively, while distracted by a demanding auditory two-back memory task...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228737/schizophrenia-associated-with-epileptiform-discharges-without-seizures-successfully-treated-with-levetiracetam
#18
Dominique Endres, Evgeniy Perlov, Bernd Feige, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Nils Venhoff, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia-like disorders can be divided into endogenic or primary, idiopathic, polygenetic forms, and different secondary, organic subgroups [e.g., (para)epileptic, immunological, degenerative]. Epileptic and paraepileptic explanatory approaches have a long tradition due to the high rate of electroencephalography (EEG) alterations in patients with schizophrenia. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 23-year-old female patient suffering, since the age of 14 years, from a fluctuating paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome with formal thought disorder, fear, delusions of persecution, auditory, visual, and tactile hallucinations, as well as negative and cognitive symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225736/effects-of-long-term-musical-training-on-cortical-auditory-evoked-potentials
#19
Carolyn J Brown, Eun-Kyung Jeon, Virginia Driscoll, Bruna Mussoi, Shruti Balvalli Deshpande, Kate Gfeller, Paul J Abbas
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that musicians, as a group, have superior frequency resolution abilities when compared with nonmusicians. It is possible to assess auditory discrimination using either behavioral or electrophysiologic methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if the acoustic change complex (ACC) is sensitive enough to reflect the differences in spectral processing exhibited by musicians and nonmusicians. DESIGN: Twenty individuals (10 musicians and 10 nonmusicians) participated in this study...
March 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224320/forward-masking-in-cochlear-implant-users-electrophysiological-and-psychophysical-data-using-pulse-train-maskers
#20
Youssef Adel, Gaston Hilkhuysen, Arnaud Noreña, Yves Cazals, Stéphane Roman, Olivier Macherey
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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