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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223930/frequency-selectivity-in-macaque-monkeys-measured-using-a-notched-noise-method
#1
Jane A Burton, Margit E Dylla, Ramnarayan Ramachandran
The auditory system is thought to process complex sounds through overlapping bandpass filters. Frequency selectivity as estimated by auditory filters has been well quantified in humans and other mammalian species using behavioral and physiological methodologies, but little work has been done to examine frequency selectivity in nonhuman primates. In particular, knowledge of macaque frequency selectivity would help address the recent controversy over the sharpness of cochlear tuning in humans relative to other animal species...
November 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220308/learning-midlevel-auditory-codes-from-natural-sound-statistics
#2
Wiktor Młynarski, Josh H McDermott
Interaction with the world requires an organism to transform sensory signals into representations in which behaviorally meaningful properties of the environment are made explicit. These representations are derived through cascades of neuronal processing stages in which neurons at each stage recode the output of preceding stages. Explanations of sensory coding may thus involve understanding how low-level patterns are combined into more complex structures. To gain insight into such midlevel representations for sound, we designed a hierarchical generative model of natural sounds that learns combinations of spectrotemporal features from natural stimulus statistics...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214438/interactions-between-top-down-and-bottom-up-attention-in-barn-owls-tyto-alba
#3
Tidhar Lev-Ari, Yoram Gutfreund
Selective attention, the prioritization of behaviorally relevant stimuli for behavioral control, is commonly divided into two processes: bottom-up, stimulus-driven selection and top-down, task-driven selection. Here, we tested two barn owls in a visual search task that examines attentional capture of the top-down task by bottom-up mechanisms. We trained barn owls to search for a vertical Gabor patch embedded in a circular array of differently oriented Gabor distractors (top-down guided search). To track the point of gaze, a lightweight wireless video camera was mounted on the owl's head...
December 6, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213229/reflex-modification-audiometry-reveals-dual-roles-for-olivocochlear-neurotransmission
#4
Paul D Allen, Anne E Luebke
Approximately 15% of American adults report some degree of difficulty hearing in a noisy environment or have auditory filtering difficulties. There are objective clinical tests of auditory filtering, yet few tests exist for mouse models that do not rely on extensive training. We have used reflex modification audiometry (RMA) and developed exclusion criteria for the mouse model. This RMA based test makes use of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and the ability of prepulses to inhibit the ASR [i.e., prepulse inhibition (PPI)] to assess the mouse's ability to detect prepulse signals presented in quiet or embedded in masking noise...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211684/independent-component-analysis-for-cochlear-implant-artifacts-attenuation-from-electrically-evoked-auditory-steady-state-response-measurements
#5
Hanne Deprez, Robin Gransier, Michael Hofmann, Astrid van Wieringen, Jan Wouters, Marc Moonen
OBJECTIVE: Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) are potentially useful for objective cochlear implant (CI) fitting and follow-up of the auditory maturation in infants and children with a CI. EASSRs are recorded in the electro-encephalogram (EEG) in response to electrical stimulation with continuous pulse trains, and are distorted by significant CI artifacts related to this electrical stimulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate a CI artifacts attenuation method based on independent component analysis (ICA) for three EASSR datasets...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211649/hearing-shapes-event-related-potentials-reveal-the-time-course-of-auditory-visual-sensory-substitution
#6
Christian Graulty, Orestis Papaioannou, Phoebe Bauer, Michael A Pitts, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez
In auditory-visual sensory substitution, visual information (e.g., shape) can be extracted through strictly auditory input (e.g., soundscapes). Previous studies have shown that image-to-sound conversions that follow simple rules [such as the Meijer algorithm; Meijer, P. B. L. An experimental system for auditory image representation. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 39, 111-121, 1992] are highly intuitive and rapidly learned by both blind and sighted individuals. A number of recent fMRI studies have begun to explore the neuroplastic changes that result from sensory substitution training...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205707/massed-versus-spaced-practice-in-vocology-effect-of-a-short-term-intensive-voice-training-versus-a-longer-term-traditional-voice-training
#7
Iris Meerschman, Kristiane Van Lierde, Caro Van Puyvelde, Astrid Bostyn, Sofie Claeys, Evelien D'haeseleer
BACKGROUND: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy non-professional voice users. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A pre-/post-test randomized control group design with follow-up measurements was used...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205588/machine-learning-for-decoding-listeners-attention-from-eeg-evoked-by-continuous-speech
#8
Tobias de Taillez, Birger Kollmeier, Bernd T Meyer
Previous research has shown that it is possible to predict which speaker is attended in a multi-speaker scene by analyzing a listener's EEG activity. In this study, existing linear models that learn the mapping from neural activity to an attended speech envelope are replaced by a non-linear neural network. The proposed architecture takes into account the temporal context of the estimated envelope, and is evaluated using EEG data obtained from 20 normal-hearing listeners who focused on one speaker in a two-speaker setting...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203648/musical-training-sharpens-and-bonds-ears-and-tongue-to-hear-speech-better
#9
Yi Du, Robert J Zatorre
The idea that musical training improves speech perception in challenging listening environments is appealing and of clinical importance, yet the mechanisms of any such musician advantage are not well specified. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that musicians outperformed nonmusicians in identifying syllables at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), which was associated with stronger activation of the left inferior frontal and right auditory regions in musicians compared with nonmusicians...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195428/temporal-effects-in-interaural-and-sequential-level-difference-perception
#10
Bernhard Laback, Mathias Dietz, Philip Joris
Temporal effects in interaural level difference (ILD) perception are not well understood. While it is often assumed that ILD sensitivity is independent of the temporal stimulus properties, a reduction of ILD sensitivity for stimuli with a high modulation rate has been reported (known under the term binaural adaptation). Experiment 1 compared ILD thresholds and sequential-level-difference (SLD) thresholds using 300-ms bandpass-filtered pulse trains (centered at 4 kHz) with rates of 100, 400, and 800 pulses per second (pps)...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188740/the-effect-of-tinnitus-specific-intracochlear-stimulation-on-speech-perception-in-patients-with-unilateral-or-asymmetric-hearing-loss-accompanied-with-tinnitus-and-the-effect-of-formal-auditory-training
#11
Remo A G J Arts, Erwin L J George, Miranda A M L Janssen, Andreas Griessner, Clemens Zierhofer, Robert J Stokroos
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies show that intracochlear electrical stimulation independent of environmental sounds appears to suppress tinnitus, even long-term. In order to assess the viability of this potential treatment option it is essential to study the effects of this tinnitus specific electrical stimulation on speech perception. DESIGN: A randomised, prospective crossover design. STUDY SAMPLE: Ten patients with unilateral or asymmetric hearing loss and severe tinnitus complaints...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186146/auditory-and-cognitive-performance-in-elderly-musicians-and-nonmusicians
#12
Massimo Grassi, Chiara Meneghetti, Enrico Toffalini, Erika Borella
Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection), and on simple (short-term memory) and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities) cognitive tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183828/musical-expectations-enhance-auditory-cortical-processing-in-musicians-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#13
Jeong Mi Park, Chun Kee Chung, June Sic Kim, Kyung Myun Lee, Jaeho Seol, Suk Won Yi
The present study investigated the influence of musical expectations on auditory representations in musicians and non-musicians using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that musical syntax is processed in the inferior frontal gyri, eliciting an early right anterior negativity (ERAN), and anatomical evidence has shown that interconnections occur between the frontal cortex and the belt and parabelt regions in the auditory cortex (AC). Therefore, we anticipated that musical expectations would mediate neural activities in the AC via an efferent pathway...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175767/effects-of-noise-overexposure-on-tone-detection-in-noise-in-nonhuman-primates
#14
Samantha N Hauser, Jane A Burton, Evan T Mercer, Ramnarayan Ramachandran
This report explores the consequences of acoustic overexposures on hearing in noisy environments for two macaque monkeys trained to perform a reaction time detection task using a Go/No-Go lever release paradigm. Behavioral and non-invasive physiological assessments were obtained before and after narrowband noise exposure. Physiological measurements showed elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds and absent distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) post-exposure relative to pre-exposure...
November 9, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174894/disruption-of-perceptual-learning-by-a-brief-practice-break
#15
David F Little, Yu-Xuan Zhang, Beverly A Wright
Some forms of associative learning require only a single experience to create a lasting memory [1, 2]. In contrast, perceptual learning often requires extensive practice within a day for performance to improve across days [3, 4]. This suggests that the requisite practice for durable perceptual learning is integrated throughout each day. If the total amount of daily practice is the only important variable, then a practice break within a day should not disrupt across-day improvement. To test this idea, we trained human listeners on an auditory frequency-discrimination task over multiple days and compared the performance of those who engaged in a single continuous practice session each day [4] with those who were given a 30-min break halfway through each practice session...
November 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163099/a-computational-analysis-of-neural-mechanisms-underlying-the-maturation-of-multisensory-speech-integration-in-neurotypical-children-and-those-on-the-autism-spectrum
#16
Cristiano Cuppini, Mauro Ursino, Elisa Magosso, Lars A Ross, John J Foxe, Sophie Molholm
Failure to appropriately develop multisensory integration (MSI) of audiovisual speech may affect a child's ability to attain optimal communication. Studies have shown protracted development of MSI into late-childhood and identified deficits in MSI in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Currently, the neural basis of acquisition of this ability is not well understood. Here, we developed a computational model informed by neurophysiology to analyze possible mechanisms underlying MSI maturation, and its delayed development in ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159134/model-selection-and-prediction-of-outcomes-in-recent-onset-schizophrenia-patients-who-undergo-cognitive-training
#17
Ian S Ramsay, Sisi Ma, Melissa Fisher, Rachel L Loewy, J Daniel Ragland, Tara Niendam, Cameron S Carter, Sophia Vinogradov
Predicting treatment outcomes in psychiatric populations remains a challenge, but is increasingly important in the pursuit of personalized medicine. Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in cognition, and targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing and working memory has been shown to improve some of these impairments; but little is known about the baseline patient characteristics predictive of cognitive improvement. Here we use a model selection and regression approach called least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to examine predictors of cognitive improvement in response to TCT for patients with recent onset schizophrenia...
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158027/a-conditioned-reinforcer-did-not-help-to-maintain-an-operant-conditioning-in-the-absence-of-a-primary-reinforcer-in-horses
#18
Léa Lansade, Ludovic Calandreau
The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR)...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154634/the-contribution-of-perceptual-factors-and-training-on-varying-audiovisual-integration-capacity
#19
Jonathan M P Wilbiks, Benjamin J Dyson
The suggestion that the capacity of audiovisual integration has an upper limit of 1 was challenged in 4 experiments using perceptual factors and training to enhance the binding of auditory and visual information. Participants were required to note a number of specific visual dot locations that changed in polarity when a critical auditory stimulus was presented, under relatively fast (200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA]) and slow (700-ms SOA) rates of presentation. In Experiment 1, transient cross-modal congruency between the brightness of polarity change and pitch of the auditory tone was manipulated...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#20
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
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