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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920978/network-interactions-underlying-mirror-feedback-in-stroke-a-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#1
Soha Saleh, Mathew Yarossi, Thushini Manuweera, Sergei Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is potentially a powerful tool to facilitate recovery of disordered movement and stimulate activation of under-active brain areas due to stroke. The neural mechanisms underlying MVF have therefore been a focus of recent inquiry. Although it is known that sensorimotor areas can be activated via mirror feedback, the network interactions driving this effect remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to fill this gap by using dynamic causal modeling to test the interactions between regions in the frontal and parietal lobes that may be important for modulating the activation of the ipsilesional motor cortex during mirror visual feedback of unaffected hand movement in stroke patients...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914908/association-between-ventilatory-settings-and-development-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-due-to-brain-injury
#2
Eva Tejerina, Paolo Pelosi, Alfonso Muriel, Oscar Peñuelas, Yuda Sutherasan, Fernando Frutos-Vivar, Nicolás Nin, Andrew R Davies, Fernando Rios, Damian A Violi, Konstantinos Raymondos, Javier Hurtado, Marco González, Bin Du, Pravin Amin, Salvatore M Maggiore, Arnaud W Thille, Marco Antonio Soares, Manuel Jibaja, Asisclo J Villagomez, Michael A Kuiper, Younsuck Koh, Rui P Moreno, Amine Ali Zeggwagh, Dimitrios Matamis, Antonio Anzueto, Niall D Ferguson, Andrés Esteban
PURPOSE: In neurologically critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation (MV), the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality, but the role of ventilatory management has been scarcely evaluated. We evaluate the association of tidal volume, level of PEEP and driving pressure with the development of ARDS in a population of patients with brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study on mechanical ventilation...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914650/towards-upright-pedalling-to-drive-recovery-in-people-who-cannot-walk-in-the-first-weeks-after-stroke-movement-patterns-and-measurement
#3
Nicola J Hancock, Lee Shepstone, Philip Rowe, Phyo K Myint, Valerie M Pomeroy
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether people who are within 31days of stroke onset are able to produce controlled lower limb movement, and phasic activity in antagonistic lower limb muscle groups, during Upright Pedalling (UP). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Acute stroke unit within a University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight adults between 3 and 30days from stroke onset, with unilateral lower limb paresis and unable to walk without assistance...
November 15, 2016: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901591/driving-restrictions-post-stroke-physicians-compliance-with-regulations
#4
Selina Mårdh, Pamela Mårdh, Anna Anund
Objective Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on the individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are regulations on driving cessation post-stroke. The information on driving cessation should be given to all patients and noted in the journal. The present study sought to find out physician's compliance to driving regulations post-stroke as well as follow-up and gender aspects...
November 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899748/cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-drives-neurogenesis-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-stroke
#5
Isabel Bravo-Ferrer, María I Cuartero, Juan G Zarruk, Jesús M Pradillo, Olivia Hurtado, Víctor G Romera, Javier Díaz-Alonso, Juan M García-Segura, Manuel Guzmán, Ignacio Lizasoain, Ismael Galve-Roperh, María A Moro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability characterized by physical, cognitive, and emotional disturbances. Unfortunately, pharmacological options are scarce. The cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) is neuroprotective in acute experimental stroke by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. However, its role in chronic stroke is still unknown. METHODS: Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice; CB2R modulation was assessed by administering the CB2R agonist JWH133 ((6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran) or the CB2R antagonist SR144528 (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo-[2...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884193/reorganising-specialist-cancer-surgery-for-the-twenty-first-century-a-mixed-methods-evaluation-respect-21
#6
Naomi J Fulop, Angus I G Ramsay, Cecilia Vindrola-Padros, Michael Aitchison, Ruth J Boaden, Veronica Brinton, Caroline S Clarke, John Hines, Rachael M Hunter, Claire Levermore, Satish B Maddineni, Mariya Melnychuk, Caroline M Moore, Muntzer M Mughal, Catherine Perry, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, David C Shackley, Jonathan Vickers, Stephen Morris
BACKGROUND: There are longstanding recommendations to centralise specialist healthcare services, citing the potential to reduce variations in care and improve patient outcomes. Current activity to centralise specialist cancer surgical services in two areas of England provides an opportunity to study the planning, implementation and outcomes of such changes. London Cancer and Manchester Cancer are centralising specialist surgical pathways for prostate, bladder, renal, and oesophago-gastric cancers, so that these services are provided in fewer hospitals...
November 25, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881558/the-american-heart-association-s-new-institute-for%C3%A2-precision-cardiovascular-medicine
#7
Steven R Houser
"One size does not fit all." These 6 simple words represent the fundamental concept driving an unprecedented initiative of the American Heart Association, the Institute for Precision Cardiovascular Medicine. In the field of heart disease and stroke research, we have seen enormous knowledge advances in recent decades, all of which have led to breakthroughs in our ability to treat and prevent these illnesses. We celebrate these advances because they are allowing us to save and improve more lives than ever before...
November 22, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869313/the-role-of-the-mir-17-92-cluster-in-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-adults
#8
REVIEW
Ping Yang, Linghu Cai, Guan Zhang, Zhiqun Bian, Gaofeng Han
It is well known that neurogenesis is not the only concern for the fully functional recovery after brain or spinal cord injury, as it has been shed light on the critical role of angiogenesis in improving neurological functional recovery. Angiogenesis and neurogenesis coordinately interact with each other in the developing and adult brain, during which they may respond to similar mediators and receptors, in which they share a common posttranscriptional regulator: the miR-17-92 cluster. The miR-17-92 cluster was initially described as an oncogene and was later demonstrated to drive key physiological and pathological responses during development and diseases respectively...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845945/early-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#9
Julie Bernhardt, Erin Godecke, Liam Johnson, Peter Langhorne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early rehabilitation is recommended in many guidelines, with limited evidence to guide practice. Brain neurobiology suggests that early training, at the right dose, will aid recovery. In this review, we highlight recent trials of early mobilization, aphasia, dysphagia and upper limb treatment in which intervention is commenced within 7 days of stroke and discuss future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Trials in this early time window are few...
November 10, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833527/intrinsic-axonal-growth-and-the-drive-for-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Kevin J O'Donovan
Following damage to the adult nervous system in conditions like stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury, many neurons die and most of the remaining spared neurons fail to regenerate. Injured neurons fail to regrow both because of the inhibitory milieu in which they reside as well as a loss of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons. If we are to develop effective therapeutic interventions that promote functional recovery for the devastating injuries described above, we must not only better understand the molecular mechanisms of developmental axonal growth in hopes of re-activating these pathways in the adult, but at the same time be aware that re-activation of adult axonal growth may proceed via distinct mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803109/do-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke-mortality-vary-by-distance-to-hospitals-in-switzerland-results-from-the-swiss-national-cohort-study
#11
Claudia Berlin, Radoslaw Panczak, Rebecca Hasler, Marcel Zwahlen
OBJECTIVE: Switzerland has mountains and valleys complicating the access to a hospital and critical care in case of emergencies. Treatment success for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke depends on timely treatment. We examined the relationship between distance to different hospital types and mortality from AMI or stroke in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) Study. DESIGN AND SETTING: The SNC is a longitudinal mortality study of the census 2000 population of Switzerland...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799456/impact-of-stroke-education-on-middle-school-students-and-their-parents-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#12
João Pedro Marto, Cláudia Borbinha, Rita Filipe, Sofia Calado, Miguel Viana-Baptista
BACKGROUND: School students are an attractive target for stroke education due to the potential impact on stroke prevention and recognition. Additionally, these students can drive behavioral changes in their families. AIM: To evaluate the impact of stroke education on school students, in terms of students' and parents' acquired stroke knowledge. METHODS: A structured questionnaire on knowledge of stroke was filled out by eighth-grade students and one of their parents in seven public schools...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793608/introduction-to-special-issue-neurovascular-aging-a-driving-force-for-neurological-dysfunction-in-stroke-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
EDITORIAL
Steven H Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793517/a-multi-institutional-outcome-analysis-of-patients-undergoing-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-stratified-by-sex-and-race
#14
Justin van Meeteren, Simon Maltais, Shannon M Dunlay, Nicholas A Haglund, Mary Beth Davis, Jennifer Cowger, Palak Shah, Keith D Aaronson, Francis D Pagani, John M Stulak
BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have demonstrated disparities in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation when stratified according to sex and race. Because very few data exist from large investigations, we reviewed data from the registry of the Mechanical Circulatory Support Research Network. METHODS: Between May 2004 and September 2014, 734 patients underwent primary LVAD implantation at our institutions. Median age at implant was 57 (range 18 to 82) years and there were 577 males (80%)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790612/muscle-synergies-facilitate-computational-prediction-of-subject-specific-walking-motions
#15
Andrew J Meyer, Ilan Eskinazi, Jennifer N Jackson, Anil V Rao, Carolynn Patten, Benjamin J Fregly
Researchers have explored a variety of neurorehabilitation approaches to restore normal walking function following a stroke. However, there is currently no objective means for prescribing and implementing treatments that are likely to maximize recovery of walking function for any particular patient. As a first step toward optimizing neurorehabilitation effectiveness, this study develops and evaluates a patient-specific synergy-controlled neuromusculoskeletal simulation framework that can predict walking motions for an individual post-stroke...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778395/complement-c3-on-microglial-clusters-in-multiple-sclerosis-occur-in-chronic-but-not-acute-disease-implication-for-disease-pathogenesis
#16
Iliana Michailidou, Daphne M P Naessens, Simon Hametner, Willemijn Guldenaar, Evert-Jan Kooi, Jeroen J G Geurts, Frank Baas, Hans Lassmann, Valeria Ramaglia
Microglial clusters with C3d deposits are observed in the periplaque of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains and were proposed as early stage of lesion formation. As such they should appear in the brain of MS donors with acute disease but thus far this has not been shown. Using postmortem brain tissue from acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 15) MS cases we investigated whether C3d+ microglial clusters are part of an acute attack against myelinated axons, which could have implications for disease pathogenesis...
October 25, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768148/optical-vs-chemical-driving-for-molecular-machines
#17
R D Astumian
Molecular machines use external energy to drive transport, to do mechanical, osmotic, or electrical work on the environment, and to form structure. In this paper the fundamental difference between the design principles necessary for a molecular machine to use light or external modulation of thermodynamic parameters as an energy source vs. the design principle for using an exergonic chemical reaction as a fuel will be explored. The key difference is that for catalytically-driven motors microscopic reversibility must hold arbitrarily far from equilibrium...
October 21, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766055/platelets-and-platelet-adhesion-molecules-novel-mechanisms-of-thrombosis-and-anti-thrombotic-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Xiaohong Ruby Xu, Naadiya Carrim, Miguel Antonio Dias Neves, Thomas McKeown, Tyler W Stratton, Rodrigo Matos Pinto Coelho, Xi Lei, Pingguo Chen, Jianhua Xu, Xiangrong Dai, Benjamin Xiaoyi Li, Heyu Ni
Platelets are central mediators of thrombosis and hemostasis. At the site of vascular injury, platelet accumulation (i.e. adhesion and aggregation) constitutes the first wave of hemostasis. Blood coagulation, initiated by the coagulation cascades, is the second wave of thrombin generation and enhance phosphatidylserine exposure, can markedly potentiate cell-based thrombin generation and enhance blood coagulation. Recently, deposition of plasma fibronectin and other proteins onto the injured vessel wall has been identified as a new "protein wave of hemostasis" that occurs prior to platelet accumulation (i...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753828/sy-03-1-genetic-basis-of-blood-pressure-and-hypertension
#19
Anna Dominiczak
Human primary or essential hypertension is a complex, polygenic trait with some 50% contribution from genes and environment. Richard Lifton and colleagues provided elegant dissection of several rare Mendelian forms of hypertension, exemplified by the glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism and Liddle's syndrome. These discoveries illustrate that a single gene mutation can explain the entire pathogenesis of severe, early onset hypertension as well as dictating the best treatment.The dissection of the much more common polygenic hypertension has proven much more difficult...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724968/cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia-selectively-disrupts-tight-junctions-complexes-in-stem-cell-derived-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Shyanne Page, Alli Munsell, Abraham J Al-Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) is an important stress factor involved in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following stroke injury, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the human BBB responds to such injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of the human BBB to chemical and environmental H/I in vitro. METHODS: In this study, we used immortalized hCMEC/D3 and IMR90 stem-cell derived human brain microvascular endothelial cell lines (IMR90-derived BMECs)...
October 11, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
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