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Spinal cord injuries AND Driving

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873553/real-time-control-of-an-exoskeleton-hand-robot-with-myoelectric-pattern-recognition
#1
Zhiyuan Lu, Xiang Chen, Xu Zhang, Kay-Yu Tong, Ping Zhou
Robot-assisted training provides an effective approach to neurological injury rehabilitation. To meet the challenge of hand rehabilitation after neurological injuries, this study presents an advanced myoelectric pattern recognition scheme for real-time intention-driven control of a hand exoskeleton. The developed scheme detects and recognizes user's intention of six different hand motions using four channels of surface electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the forearm and hand muscles, and then drives the exoskeleton to assist the user accomplish the intended motion...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869313/the-role-of-the-mir-17-92-cluster-in-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-adults
#2
REVIEW
Ping Yang, Linghu Cai, Guan Zhang, Zhiqun Bian, Gaofeng Han
It is well known that neurogenesis is not the only concern for the fully functional recovery after brain or spinal cord injury, as it has been shed light on the critical role of angiogenesis in improving neurological functional recovery. Angiogenesis and neurogenesis coordinately interact with each other in the developing and adult brain, during which they may respond to similar mediators and receptors, in which they share a common posttranscriptional regulator: the miR-17-92 cluster. The miR-17-92 cluster was initially described as an oncogene and was later demonstrated to drive key physiological and pathological responses during development and diseases respectively...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833527/intrinsic-axonal-growth-and-the-drive-for-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Kevin J O'Donovan
Following damage to the adult nervous system in conditions like stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury, many neurons die and most of the remaining spared neurons fail to regenerate. Injured neurons fail to regrow both because of the inhibitory milieu in which they reside as well as a loss of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons. If we are to develop effective therapeutic interventions that promote functional recovery for the devastating injuries described above, we must not only better understand the molecular mechanisms of developmental axonal growth in hopes of re-activating these pathways in the adult, but at the same time be aware that re-activation of adult axonal growth may proceed via distinct mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832610/diaphragm-electromyographic-activity-following-unilateral-mid-cervical-contusion-injury-in-rats
#4
Sabhya Rana, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Contusion type injuries to the spinal cord are characterized by tissue loss and disruption of spinal pathways. Mid-cervical spinal cord injuries impair the function of respiratory muscles and may contribute to significant respiratory complications. This study systematically assessed the impact of a 100-kDy unilateral C4 contusion injury on diaphragm muscle activity across a range of motor behaviors in rats. Chronic diaphragm EMG was recorded prior to injury, and at 1 and 7 days post injury. Histological analyses assessed the extent of perineuronal net formation, white matter sparing and phrenic motoneuron loss...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832605/bdnf-effects-on-functional-recovery-across-motor-behaviors-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Vivian Hernandez-Torres, Heather M Gransee, Carlos B Mantilla, Yao Wang, Wen-Zhi Zhan, Gary C Sieck
Unilateral C2 cervical spinal cord hemisection (SH) disrupts descending excitatory drive to phrenic motor neurons, thereby paralyzing the ipsilateral diaphragm muscle (DIAm) during ventilatory behaviors. Recovery of rhythmic DIAm activity ipsilateral to injury occurs over time, consistent with neuroplasticity and strengthening of spared synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons. Localized intrathecal delivery of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to phrenic motor neurons after SH enhances recovery of eupneic DIAm activity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798422/epidural-and-transcutaneous-spinal-electrical-stimulation-for-restoration-of-movement-after-incomplete-and-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Winfried Mayr, Matthias Krenn, Milan R Dimitrijevic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Purpose of this review is to outline and explain the therapeutic use of electrical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for modification of spinal motor output. Central functional stimulation provides afferent input to posterior root neurons and is applied to improve volitional movements, posture and their endurance, control spasticity, and improve bladder function or perfusion in the lower limbs. Clinical accomplishments strongly depend on each individual's physiological state and specific methodical adaptation to that physiological state...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793571/nociceptor-sensory-neuron-immune-interactions-in-pain-and-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Waldiceu A Verri, Isaac M Chiu
Nociceptor sensory neurons protect organisms from danger by eliciting pain and driving avoidance. Pain also accompanies many types of inflammation and injury. It is increasingly clear that active crosstalk occurs between nociceptor neurons and the immune system to regulate pain, host defense, and inflammatory diseases. Immune cells at peripheral nerve terminals and within the spinal cord release mediators that modulate mechanical and thermal sensitivity. In turn, nociceptor neurons release neuropeptides and neurotransmitters from nerve terminals that regulate vascular, innate, and adaptive immune cell responses...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781082/contemporary-views-on-inflammatory-pain-mechanisms-trping-over-innate-and-microglial-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Zhonghui Guan, Judith Hellman, Mark Schumacher
Tissue injury, whether by trauma, surgical intervention, metabolic dysfunction, ischemia, or infection, evokes a complex cellular response (inflammation) that is associated with painful hyperalgesic states. Although in the acute stages it is necessary for protective reflexes and wound healing, inflammation may persist well beyond the need for tissue repair or survival. Prolonged inflammation may well represent the greatest challenge mammalian organisms face, as it can lead to chronic painful conditions, organ dysfunction, morbidity, and death...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762657/rehabilitation-strategies-after-spinal-cord-injury-inquiry-into-the-mechanisms-of-success-and-failure
#9
Marie-Pascale Côté, Marion Murray, Michel A Lemay
Body-weight supported locomotor training (BWST) promotes recovery of load-bearing stepping in lower mammals, but its efficacy in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited and highly dependent on injury severity. While animal models with complete spinal transections recover stepping with step-training, motor complete SCI individuals do not, despite similarly intensive training. In this review, we examine the significant differences between humans and animal models that may explain this discrepancy in the results obtained with BWST...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760818/descending-propriospinal-neurons-mediate-restoration-of-locomotor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639636/acute-spinal-cord-injury-sci-transforms-how-gaba-affects-nociceptive-sensitization
#11
Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, Lauren Murphy, Sandra M Garraway, James W Grau
Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604741/determination-of-vascular-reactivity-of-middle-cerebral-arteries-from-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury-animal-models-using-pressure-myography
#12
Mohammad A Anwar, Ali H Eid
Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582085/enhancing-neural-activity-to-drive-respiratory-plasticity-following-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#13
REVIEW
Kristiina M Hormigo, Lyandysha V Zholudeva, Victoria M Spruance, Vitaliy Marchenko, Marie-Pascale Cote, Stephane Vinit, Simon Giszter, Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane
Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent life-altering sensorimotor deficits, among which impaired breathing is one of the most devastating and life-threatening. While clinical and experimental research has revealed that some spontaneous respiratory improvement (functional plasticity) can occur post-SCI, the extent of the recovery is limited and significant deficits persist. Thus, increasing effort is being made to develop therapies that harness and enhance this neuroplastic potential to optimize long-term recovery of breathing in injured individuals...
January 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563469/neuroprotective-and-neurorestorative-processes-after-spinal-cord-injury-the-case-of-the-bulbospinal-respiratory-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Anne Kastner, Valéry Matarazzo
High cervical spinal cord injuries interrupt the bulbospinal respiratory pathways projecting to the cervical phrenic motoneurons resulting in important respiratory defects. In the case of a lateralized injury that maintains the respiratory drive on the opposite side, a partial recovery of the ipsilateral respiratory function occurs spontaneously over time, as observed in animal models. The rodent respiratory system is therefore a relevant model to investigate the neuroplastic and neuroprotective mechanisms that will trigger such phrenic motoneurons reactivation by supraspinal pathways...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486104/firing-characteristics-of-deep-dorsal-horn-neurons-after-acute-spinal-transection-during-administration-of-agonists-for-5-ht1b-1d-and-nmda-receptors
#15
Theeradej Thaweerattanasinp, Charles J Heckman, Vicki M Tysseling
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470986/il-4-drives-microglia-and-macrophages-toward-a-phenotype-conducive-for-tissue-repair-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Isaac Francos-Quijorna, Jesús Amo-Aparicio, Anna Martinez-Muriana, Rubèn López-Vales
Macrophages and microglia play a key role in the maintenance of nervous system homeostasis. However, upon different challenges, they can adopt several phenotypes, which may lead to divergent effects on tissue repair. After spinal cord injury (SCI), microglia and macrophages show predominantly pro-inflammatory activation and contribute to tissue damage. However, the factors that hamper their conversion to an anti-inflammatory state after SCI, or to other protective phenotypes, are poorly understood. Here, we show that IL-4 protein levels are undetectable in the spinal cord after contusion injury, which likely favors microglia and macrophages to remain in a pro-inflammatory state...
July 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456270/plasticity-in-respiratory-motor-neurons-in-response-to-reduced-synaptic-inputs-a-form-of-homeostatic-plasticity-in-respiratory-control
#17
K M Braegelmann, K A Streeter, D P Fields, T L Baker
For most individuals, the respiratory control system produces a remarkably stable and coordinated motor output-recognizable as a breath-from birth until death. Very little is understood regarding the processes by which the respiratory control system maintains network stability in the presence of changing physiological demands and network properties that occur throughout life. An emerging principle of neuroscience is that neural activity is sensed and adjusted locally to assure that neurons continue to operate in an optimal range, yet to date, it is unknown whether such homeostatic plasticity is a feature of the neurons controlling breathing...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378844/bio-inspired-controller-on-an-fpga-applied-to-closed-loop-diaphragmatic-stimulation
#18
Adeline Zbrzeski, Yannick Bornat, Brian Hillen, Ricardo Siu, James Abbas, Ranu Jung, Sylvie Renaud
Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360559/task-specific-locomotor-training-effects-on-ventilatory-drive-in-men-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-1640-board-293-june-2-9-00-am-10-30-am
#19
Gino S Panza, Jeffrey E Herrick, Jared M Gollie, Donal Murray, John Collins, Andrew A Guccione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295026/neuronal-derived-ccl7-drives-neuropathic-pain-by-promoting-astrocyte-proliferation
#20
Bin Chang Ke, Xia Xiao Huang, Yang Li, Li Ya Li, Qin Xue Xu, Yan Gao, Yingju Liu, Jie Luo
Recent studies suggest that peripheral nerve injury converts resting spinal cord astroglial cells into an activated state, which is required for the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms of how resting astrocytes are activated after nerve injury remain largely unknown. Astroglial cell proliferation and activation could be affected by endogenous factors including chemokines, growth factors, and neurotropic factor. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (Ccl7) is essential in facilitating the development of neuropathic pain; however, the mechanism is unknown...
August 3, 2016: Neuroreport
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