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Spinal cord injuries AND Driving

Marie-Pascale Côté, Marion Murray, Michel A Lemay
Body-weight supported locomotor training (BWST) promotes recovery of load-bearing stepping in lower mammals, but its efficacy in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is limited and highly dependent on injury severity. While animal models with complete spinal transections recover stepping with step-training, motor complete SCI individuals do not, despite similarly intensive training. In this review, we examine the significant differences between humans and animal models that may explain this discrepancy in the results obtained with BWST...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, Lauren Murphy, Sandra M Garraway, James W Grau
Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Mohammad A Anwar, Ali H Eid
Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kristiina M Hormigo, Lyandysha V Zholudeva, Victoria M Spruance, Vitaliy Marchenko, Marie-Pascale Cote, Stephane Vinit, Simon Giszter, Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane
Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent life-altering sensorimotor deficits, among which impaired breathing is one of the most devastating and life-threatening. While clinical and experimental research has revealed that some spontaneous respiratory improvement (functional plasticity) can occur post-SCI, the extent of the recovery is limited and significant deficits persist. Thus, increasing effort is being made to develop therapies that harness and enhance this neuroplastic potential to optimize long-term recovery of breathing in injured individuals...
August 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Anne Kastner, Valéry Matarazzo
High cervical spinal cord injuries interrupt the bulbospinal respiratory pathways projecting to the cervical phrenic motoneurons resulting in important respiratory defects. In the case of a lateralized injury that maintains the respiratory drive on the opposite side, a partial recovery of the ipsilateral respiratory function occurs spontaneously over time, as observed in animal models. The rodent respiratory system is therefore a relevant model to investigate the neuroplastic and neuroprotective mechanisms that will trigger such phrenic motoneurons reactivation by supraspinal pathways...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Theeradej Thaweerattanasinp, Charles J Heckman, Vicki M Tysseling
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Isaac Francos-Quijorna, Jesús Amo-Aparicio, Anna Martinez-Muriana, Rubèn López-Vales
Macrophages and microglia play a key role in the maintenance of nervous system homeostasis. However, upon different challenges, they can adopt several phenotypes, which may lead to divergent effects on tissue repair. After spinal cord injury (SCI), microglia and macrophages show predominantly pro-inflammatory activation and contribute to tissue damage. However, the factors that hamper their conversion to an anti-inflammatory state after SCI, or to other protective phenotypes, are poorly understood. Here, we show that IL-4 protein levels are undetectable in the spinal cord after contusion injury, which likely favors microglia and macrophages to remain in a pro-inflammatory state...
July 29, 2016: Glia
K M Braegelmann, K A Streeter, D P Fields, T L Baker
For most individuals, the respiratory control system produces a remarkably stable and coordinated motor output-recognizable as a breath-from birth until death. Very little is understood regarding the processes by which the respiratory control system maintains network stability in the presence of changing physiological demands and network properties that occur throughout life. An emerging principle of neuroscience is that neural activity is sensed and adjusted locally to assure that neurons continue to operate in an optimal range, yet to date, it is unknown whether such homeostatic plasticity is a feature of the neurons controlling breathing...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Adeline Zbrzeski, Yannick Bornat, Brian Hillen, Ricardo Siu, James Abbas, Ranu Jung, Sylvie Renaud
Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Gino S Panza, Jeffrey E Herrick, Jared M Gollie, Donal Murray, John Collins, Andrew A Guccione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bin Chang Ke, Xia Xiao Huang, Yang Li, Li Ya Li, Qin Xue Xu, Yan Gao, Yingju Liu, Jie Luo
Recent studies suggest that peripheral nerve injury converts resting spinal cord astroglial cells into an activated state, which is required for the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms of how resting astrocytes are activated after nerve injury remain largely unknown. Astroglial cell proliferation and activation could be affected by endogenous factors including chemokines, growth factors, and neurotropic factor. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (Ccl7) is essential in facilitating the development of neuropathic pain; however, the mechanism is unknown...
August 3, 2016: Neuroreport
Naveen Jayaprakash, Zimei Wang, Brian Hoeynck, Nicholas Krueger, Audra Kramer, Eric Balle, Daniel S Wheeler, Robert A Wheeler, Murray G Blackmore
UNLABELLED: To restore function after injury to the CNS, axons must be stimulated to extend into denervated territory and, critically, must form functional synapses with appropriate targets. We showed previously that forced overexpression of the transcription factor Sox11 increases axon growth by corticospinal tract (CST) neurons after spinal injury. However, behavioral outcomes were not improved, raising the question of whether the newly sprouted axons are able to form functional synapses...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Christopher N Hansen, Diana M Norden, Timothy D Faw, Rochelle Deibert, Eric S Wohleb, John F Sheridan, Jonathan P Godbout, D Michele Basso
Spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes inflammation along the neuroaxis that jeopardizes plasticity, intrinsic repair and recovery. While inflammation at the injury site is well-established, less is known within remote spinal networks. The presence of bone marrow-derived immune (myeloid) cells in these areas may further impede functional recovery. Previously, high levels of the gelatinase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) occurred within the lumbar enlargement after thoracic SCI and impeded activity-dependent recovery...
August 2016: Experimental Neurology
Eric Nickel, Andrew Hansen, Jonathan Pearlman, Gary Goldish
Current manual standing wheelchairs are not mobile in the standing position. The addition of standing mobility may lead to improved health and function for the user and may increase utilization of standing wheelchairs. In this project, a chain drive system was fitted to a manual standing wheelchair, adding mobility in the standing position. The hand rims are accessible from both seated and standing positions. The prototype uses 16-inch drive wheels in front with casters in the rear. Additional anterior casters are elevated when seated for navigating obstacles and then descend when standing to create a six-wheeled base with extended anterior support...
May 16, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
M Akhtar Anwar, Tuqa S Al Shehabi, Ali H Eid
Spinal cord injury (SCI) and spinal infarction lead to neurological complications and eventually to paraplegia or quadriplegia. These extremely debilitating conditions are major contributors to morbidity. Our understanding of SCI has certainly increased during the last decade, but remains far from clear. SCI consists of two defined phases: the initial impact causes primary injury, which is followed by a prolonged secondary injury consisting of evolving sub-phases that may last for years. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms driving this condition are complex...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
W A Bauman, M F La Fountaine, C M Cirnigliaro, S C Kirshblum, A M Spungen
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. OBJECTIVE: To determine the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in healthy men with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Thirty healthy men with chronic SCI (37±10 years) and thirty-eight able-bodied (AB) controls (36±10 years) participated. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 100 μg IV) was administered to determine gonadotropin release, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 4000 IU IM) was administered to determine testosterone (T) secretion...
April 26, 2016: Spinal Cord
Sara J Mulroy, Patricia E Hatchett, Valerie J Eberly, Lisa Lighthall Haubert, Sandy Conners, JoAnne Gronley, Eric Garshick, Philip S Requejo
OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between objective and self-reported measures of physical activity (PA) and relationships with depression and satisfaction with life (SWL) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of objectively measured wheelchair propulsion (WCP) from 2 studies in which an odometer was attached to participants' wheelchairs to record daily speed and distance. Self-reported data were collected in a separate study examining dyspnea, PA, mood, and SWL...
October 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Chad E Bouton, Ammar Shaikhouni, Nicholas V Annetta, Marcia A Bockbrader, David A Friedenberg, Dylan M Nielson, Gaurav Sharma, Per B Sederberg, Bradley C Glenn, W Jerry Mysiw, Austin G Morgan, Milind Deogaonkar, Ali R Rezai
Millions of people worldwide suffer from diseases that lead to paralysis through disruption of signal pathways between the brain and the muscles. Neuroprosthetic devices are designed to restore lost function and could be used to form an electronic 'neural bypass' to circumvent disconnected pathways in the nervous system. It has previously been shown that intracortically recorded signals can be decoded to extract information related to motion, allowing non-human primates and paralysed humans to control computers and robotic arms through imagined movements...
April 13, 2016: Nature
Piergiorgio Tozzi, Etienne Pralong, Fabrizio Gronchi, Giuseppe Siniscalchi
Acute spinal cord ischemia during thoracoabdominal aorta replacement is a dreadful complication. Existing tools (motor evoked potential [MEP] and somatosensory evoked potential [SSEP]) do not allow differentiating between central and peripheral paraplegia. Therefore, the surgeon often performs unnecessary reimplantation of intercostal arteries: this is time consuming, and significantly increases bleeding complications. We present a simple technique combining MEP and peripheral compound muscle action potential induced by posterior tibialis nerve stimulation, enabling the surgeon to quickly discriminate between central and peripheral neurologic injury...
April 6, 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
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