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transplant kidney pathology

Kiran Gajurel, Jack T Stapleton
Hepatitis viruses are named for their primary clinical illness, inflammation of the liver. Currently, six types of viruses are designated hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E, and G), although only five of these cause hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses are composed of RNA and DNA viruses from different families and with different virologic properties, some of which typically cause acute hepatitis while others cause acute and chronic hepatitis. In addition to their role in liver disease, members of this group of viruses may cause a variety of pathologic changes in the kidney and other organs, and chronic infection may lead to cirrhosis in addition to raising a variety of important issues in the management of kidney transplant recipients...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Akihiro Tsuchimoto, Toshiaki Nakano, Shoko Hasegawa, Kosuke Masutani, Yuta Matsukuma, Masahiro Eriguchi, Masaharu Nagata, Takehiro Nishiki, Hidehisa Kitada, Masao Tanaka, Takanari Kitazono, Kazuhiko Tsuruya
BACKGROUND: Lymphangiogenesis occurs in diseased native kidneys and kidney allografts, and correlates with histological injury; however, the clinical significance of lymphatic vessels in kidney allografts is unclear. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 63 kidney transplant patients who underwent protocol biopsies. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin, and were classified according to their location as perivascular or interstitial lymphatic vessels...
October 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Byung Ha Chung, Jeong Ho Kim, Bum Soon Choi, Cheol Whee Park, Ji-Il Kim, In Sung Moon, Yong-Soo Kim, Yeong Jin Choi, Eun-Jee Oh, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: This study investigated the clinical significance of detecting anti-human leukocyte antigen-donor specific antibody (HLA-DSA) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) requiring indication biopsy owing to allograft dysfunction. Methods: We analyzed the presence of HLA-DSA in 210 KTRs who took indication biopsy. We divided these cases into two groups, HLA-DSA (+) (n = 52) and HLA-DSA (-) (n = 158) group, and compared the clinical characteristics, pathological findings, and clinical outcomes of the two groups...
October 20, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Sentaro Imamura, Shintaro Narita, Ryuta Nishikomori, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Kazuyuki Numakura, Atsushi Maeno, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Nanjo, Toshio Heike, Shigeru Satoh, Tomonori Habuchi
BACKGROUND: Secondary bladder amyloidosis is an extremely rare disease, resulting from a chronic systematic inflammatory disorder associated with amyloid deposits. Although uncommon in Japan, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of fever of short duration and serositis and is frequently associated with systemic amyloidosis. Here, we present a case of a Japanese patient complaining of fever and macroscopic hematuria after a living donor renal transplantation...
October 19, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Mathijs van de Vrie, Jeroen K Deegens, Michael Eikmans, Johan van der Vlag, Luuk B Hilbrands
Urine represents a non-invasive source in which proteins and nucleic acids can be assessed. Such analytes may function as biomarkers to monitor kidney graft pathology at every desired frequency, thereby providing a time window to prevent graft damage by therapeutic intervention. Recently, several proteins have been measured in urine as markers of graft injury. However, the specificity is limited, and measuring urinary proteins generally lacks the potential to predict early kidney graft damage. Currently, urinary mRNA and microRNA are being investigated to evaluate the prognostic value of changes in gene expression during the initial stages of graft damage...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Diana Karpman, Sebastian Loos, Ramesh Tati, Ida Arvidsson
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the simultaneous occurrence of nonimmune haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. This leads to the pathological lesion termed thrombotic microangiopathy, which mainly affects the kidney, as well as other organs. HUS is associated with endothelial cell injury and platelet activation, although the underlying cause may differ. Most cases of HUS are associated with gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Anna Julie Peired, Alessandro Sisti, Paola Romagnani
Mesenchymal stem cells form a population of self-renewing, multipotent cells that can be isolated from several tissues. Multiple preclinical studies have demonstrated that the administration of exogenous MSC could prevent renal injury and could promote renal recovery through a series of complex mechanisms, in particular via immunomodulation of the immune system and release of paracrine factors and microvesicles. Due to their therapeutic potentials, MSC are being evaluated as a possible player in treatment of human kidney disease, and an increasing number of clinical trials to assess the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of MSC-based therapy in various kidney diseases have been proposed...
2016: Stem Cells International
Shinji Yamamoto, Maria Nelander
INTRODUCTION: We present a case report of ectopic pregnancy (EP) after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SKPTx). PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 33-year-old female status post SKPTx suddenly got abdominal pain in the lower level. She had high human chorionic Gonadotropin test. Ultrasonography revealed that there was no fetus in the uterus but a dilated right fallopian tube, which strongly suggested ectopic pregnancy. An emergency operation was performed and a dilated right side uterine tube was found with adhesions to her transplant...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Mareen Matz, Christine Lorkowski, Katharina Fabritius, Kaiyin Wu, Birgit Rudolph, Stefan Frischbutter, Susanne Brakemeier, Jens Gaedeke, Hans-H Neumayer, Mir-Farzin Mashreghi, Klemens Budde
Cellular and antibody-mediated rejection processes and also interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) lead to allograft dysfunction and loss. The search for accurate, specific and non-invasive diagnostic tools is still ongoing and essential for successful treatment of renal transplanted patients. Molecular markers in blood cells and serum may serve as diagnostic tools but studies with high patient numbers and differential groups are rare. We validated the potential value of several markers on mRNA level in blood cells and serum protein level in 166 samples from kidney transplanted patients under standard immunosuppressive therapy (steroids±mycophenolic acid±calcineurin inhibitor) with stable graft function, urinary tract infection (UTI), IFTA, antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), and T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) applying RT-PCR and ELISA...
September 29, 2016: Transplant Immunology
Michael Rudnicki, Johannes A Mayr, Johannes Zschocke, Herwig Antretter, Heinz Regele, René G Feichtinger, Martin Windpessl, Gert Mayer, Gerhard Pölzl
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS syndrome) represents one of the most frequent mitochondrial disorders. The majority of MELAS cases are caused by m.3243A>G mutation in the mitochondrial MT-TL1 gene, which encodes the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)). Kidney involvement usually manifests as Fanconi syndrome or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We describe a patient with MELAS mutation, cardiomyopathy, and chronic kidney disease without Fanconi syndrome, proteinuria, or hematuria...
September 24, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Ágnes Haris, Szilveszter Dolgos, Kálmán Polner
This paper reviews the recently published scientific information regarding ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), aiming to highlight the most important data from the clinical nephrologists' perspective. The classification, pathomechanism, recent achievements of the treatment, short-term and long-term outcomes of the disease, and the difficulties nephrologists face when taking care for patients with AAV are summarized. There has been significant progress in the understanding of the genetic and pathologic background of the disease in the last years, and results of histological studies guide us to predict long-term renal function...
September 26, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Katja Hueper, Marcel Gutberlet, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Mi-Sun Jang, Anja Thorenz, Rongjun Chen, Barbara Hertel, Amelie Barrmeyer, Martina Schmidbauer, Martin Meier, Sibylle von Vietinghoff, Abedalrazag Khalifa, Dagmar Hartung, Hermann Haller, Frank Wacker, Song Rong, Faikah Gueler
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation (ktx) in mice is used to learn about rejection and to develop new treatment strategies. Past studies have mainly been based on histological or molecular biological methods. Imaging techniques to monitor allograft pathology have rarely been used. METHODS: Here we investigated mice after isogenic and allogenic ktx over time with functional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and mapping of T2-relaxation time (T2-mapping) to assess graft inflammation and edema formation...
2016: PloS One
R I Khabazov, A V Chupin, R V Kolosov, S V Deriabin
Endovascular repair of the abdominal aorta is a method of choice in pronounced concomitant pathology and high risk of open surgical treatment. The article deals with a clinical case report of successful surgical management of a patient with an infrarenal aortic aneurysm, transplanted kidney, chronic renal insufficiency, secondary diabetes mellitus, multifocal atherosclerosis with predominant involvement of coronary arteries and lower-limb arteries, in whom open surgical treatment was associated with high risk...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Masaaki Yanishi, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Nguyen Thanh Huan, Yuya Koito, Hisanori Taniguchi, Kenji Yoshida, Takao Mishima, Motohiko Sugi, Hidefumi Kinoshita, Tadashi Matsuda
AIM: Optimizing nephron supply to recipient demand is a non-immunologic determinant of renal allograft outcome. Nephron reduction is usually caused by physical donor-recipient mismatch, but its pathologic relevance remains to be determined. METHODS: Thirty-one recipients of living donor renal transplants were divided into three subgroups: those who received transplants from the same gender (n = 6, Group 1) and those who underwent male-to-female (n = 8, Group 2) and female-to-male (n = 17, Group 3) transplants...
August 30, 2016: Nephrology
Isabel Roberti, Shefali Vyas
IMN contribute to ESRD in 13% children with renal transplant (txp). Recurrent or de novo IMN can cause graft dysfunction and/or failure, but the details regarding incidence, therapy, and outcome remain poorly understood. Retrospective single-center study of all pediatric kidney txp was carried out since 1998. Clinical presentation, pathology, therapy, and graft outcomes of children with recurrent or de novo IMN were reviewed. IMN was the primary etiology of ESRD in 28 of the 149 txp recipients. Eleven children had biopsy-proven post-txp IMN-six were recurrent and five had de novo...
August 25, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Guang-Ping Ruan, Xiang Yao, Ju-Fen Liu, Jie He, Zi-An Li, Jian-Yong Yang, Rong-Qing Pang, Xing-Hua Pan
BACKGROUND: The establishment of a tree shrew model for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) provides a new method to evaluate the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. METHODS: Eighty tree shrews were randomly divided into four groups receiving either an intraperitoneal injection of pristane, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or pristane and LPS, or no injection. Three weeks after injection, the SLE model tree shrews were divided into the model group and the treatment group...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
S Huet, A Tardieu, M Filloux, M Essig, N Pichon, J F Therme, P Piver, Y Aubard, J M Ayoubi, O Garbin, P Collinet, A Agostini, V Lavoue, A Piccardo, T Gauthier
OBJECTIVE: Uterine infertility (UI), which can be caused by a variety of congenital or acquired factors, affects several thousand women in Europe. Uterus transplantation (UTx), at the current stage of research, offers hope for these women to be both the biological mother and the carrier of their child. However, the indications of UTx still need to be defined. The main aim of the study was to describe the different etiologies of UI and other data as marital and parental status from women requesting UTx who contacted us in the framework of a UTx clinical trial...
October 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Paola Savoia, Giovanni Cavaliere, Elisa Zavattaro, Federica Veronese, Paolo Fava
Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Punit Yadav, Mark Cook, Paul Cockwell
BACKGROUND: Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication of multiple myeloma (MM). Around 50% of patients with MM have RI at presentation, and up to 5% require dialysis treatment. Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) as a cause of RI is a particular challenge as historically the survival of patients who sustain this complication and require dialysis is very poor. However, in this current period, survival is improving and the focus is on optimum use of novel chemotherapies and the evaluation of extra-corporeal therapies for removal of serum immunoglobulin light chains...
March 2016: Kidney Diseases
Fernanda Ortiz, Rosana Gelpi, Ilkka Helanterä, Edoardo Melilli, Eero Honkanen, Oriol Bestard, Josep M Grinyo, Josep M Cruzado
INTRODUCTION: The pros and cons for implementing protocol biopsies (PB) after kidney transplantation are still a matter of debate. We aimed to address the frequency of pathological findings in PB, to analyze their impact on long-term graft survival (GS) and to analyze the risk factors predicting an abnormal histology. METHODS: We analyzed 946 kidney PB obtained at a median time of 6.5 (±2.9) months after transplantation. Statistics included comparison between groups, Kaplan-Meier and multinomial logistic regression analysis...
2016: PloS One
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