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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544755/a-gene-based-review-of-rgs4-as-a-putative-risk-gene-for-psychiatric-illness
#1
REVIEW
Emanuel Schwarz
Considerable efforts have been made to characterize RGS4 as a potential candidate gene for schizophrenia. Investigations span across numerous modalities and include explorations of genetic risk associations, mRNA and protein levels in the brain, and functionally relevant interactions with other candidate genes as well as links to schizophrenia relevant neural phenotypes. While these lines of investigations have yielded partially inconsistent findings, they provide a perspective on RGS4 as an important part of a larger biological system contributing to schizophrenia risk...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544603/metabolic-reprogramming-of-macrophages-exposed-to-silk-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-and-silica-nanoparticles
#2
Raquel Saborano, Thidarat Wongpinyochit, John D Totten, Blair F Johnston, F Philipp Seib, Iola F Duarte
Monitoring macrophage metabolism in response to nanoparticle exposure provides new insights into biological outcomes, such as inflammation or toxicity, and supports the design of tailored nanomedicines. This paper describes the metabolic signature of macrophages exposed to nanoparticles ranging in diameter from 100 to 125 nm and made from silk, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or silica. Nanoparticles of this size and type are currently at various stages of preclinical and clinical development for drug delivery applications...
May 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544095/phenotypic-assays-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#3
Ok-Ryul Song, Nathalie Deboosere, Vincent Delorme, Christophe J Queval, Gaspard Deloison, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Raffaella Iantomasi, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542524/ectopically-expressed-slc34a2a-sense-antisense-transcripts-cause-a-cerebellar-phenotype-in-zebrafish-embryos-depending-on-rna-complementarity-and-dicer
#4
Monica J Piatek, Victoria Henderson, Amy Fearn, Bill Chaudhry, Andreas Werner
Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are complementary to protein coding genes and potentially regulate their expression. Despite widespread occurrence of NATs in the genomes of higher eukaryotes, their biological role and mechanism of action is poorly understood. Zebrafish embryos offer a unique model system to study sense-antisense transcript interplay at whole organism level. Here, we investigate putative antisense transcript-mediated mechanisms by ectopically co-expressing the complementary transcripts during early zebrafish development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536537/-gestaltomics-systems-biology-schemes-for-the-study-of-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Nora A Gutierrez Najera, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Humberto Nicolini
The integration of different sources of biological information about what defines a behavioral phenotype is difficult to unify in an entity that reflects the arithmetic sum of its individual parts. In this sense, the challenge of Systems Biology for understanding the "psychiatric phenotype" is to provide an improved vision of the shape of the phenotype as it is visualized by "Gestalt" psychology, whose fundamental axiom is that the observed phenotype (behavior or mental disorder) will be the result of the integrative composition of every part...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535292/adaptive-radiation-of-p-fluorescens-sbw25-in-experimental-microcosms-provides-an-understanding-of-the-evolutionary-ecology-and-molecular-biology-of-a-l-interface-biofilm-formation
#6
Anna Koza, Anna Kusmierska, Kimberley McLaughlin, Olena Moshynets, Andrew J Spiers
Combined experimental evolutionary and molecular biology approaches have been used to investigate the adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in static microcosms leading to the colonisation of the air-liquid interface by biofilm-forming mutants such as the Wrinkly Spreader. In these microcosms, the ecosystem engineering of the early wild-type colonists establish the niche space for subsequent WS evolution and colonisation. Random WS mutations occurring in the developing population that de-regulate diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP homeostasis result in cellulose-based biofilms at the air-liquid interface...
May 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533455/coevolution-of-coloration-and-colour-vision
#7
Olle Lind, Miriam J Henze, Almut Kelber, Daniel Osorio
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#8
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528284/biomarkers-in-epilepsy-a-modelling-perspective
#9
Sven C van Dijkman, Rob A Voskuyl, Elizabeth C de Lange
Biomarkers can be categorised from type 0 (genotype or phenotype), through 6 (clinical scales), each level representing a part of the processes involved in the biological system and drug treatment. This classification facilitates the identification and connection of information required to fully (mathematically) model a disease and its treatment using integrated information from biomarkers. Two recent reviews thoroughly discussed the current status and development of biomarkers for epilepsy, but a path towards the integration of such biomarkers for the personalisation of anti-epileptic drug treatment is lacking...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525791/determination-of-thiopurine-s-methyltransferase-activity-by-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-hyphenated-with-mass-spectrometry
#10
Daniel Pecher, Svetlana Dokupilová, Zuzana Zelinková, Maikel Peppelenbosch, Veronika Mikušová, Peter Mikuš
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) plays an important role in the metabolism of thiopurines used in the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this work a new progressive method for the determination of TPMT activity in red blood cells lysates was developed. Analysis was carried out by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) hyphenated with mass spectrometry (MS). In comparison with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), that has been typically applied in determination of TPMT activity, the HILIC significantly improved the analytical signal provided by MS, shortened analysis time, and improved chromatographic resolution...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525535/sexual-dimorphism-and-aging-differentially-regulate-adaptive-homeostasis
#11
Laura C D Pomatto, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
External and internal stimuli cause modifications to gene and biochemical pathways. In turn, demonstrating that biological systems continuously make short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of "normal" capacity, due to mild conditional changes, or to subtoxic, nondamaging levels of chemical agents. This is termed as "Adaptive Homeostasis," defined with the following: "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, nondamaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events...
May 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524181/common-pitfalls-in-preclinical-cancer-target-validation
#12
REVIEW
William G Kaelin
An alarming number of papers from laboratories nominating new cancer drug targets contain findings that cannot be reproduced by others or are simply not robust enough to justify drug discovery efforts. This problem probably has many causes, including an underappreciation of the danger of being misled by off-target effects when using pharmacological or genetic perturbants in complex biological assays. This danger is particularly acute when, as is often the case in cancer pharmacology, the biological phenotype being measured is a 'down' readout (such as decreased proliferation, decreased viability or decreased tumour growth) that could simply reflect a nonspecific loss of cellular fitness...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520765/an-integrative-analysis-of-tissue-specific-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-responses-to-short-term-dietary-methionine-restriction-in-mice
#13
Sujoy Ghosh, Laura A Forney, Desiree Wanders, Kirsten P Stone, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces a coordinated series of transcriptional responses in peripheral tissues that limit fat accretion, remodel lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue, and improve overall insulin sensitivity. Hepatic sensing of reduced methionine leads to induction and release of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which acts centrally to increase sympathetic tone and activate thermogenesis in adipose tissue. FGF21 also has direct effects in adipose to enhance glucose uptake and oxidation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518057/on-the-mechanistic-nature-of-epistasis-in-a-canonical-cis-regulatory-element
#14
Mato Lagator, Tiago Paixao, Nick Barton, Jonathan P Bollback, Călin C Guet
Understanding the relation between genotype and phenotype remains a major challenge. The difficulty of predicting individual mutation effects, and particularly the interactions between them, has prevented the development of a comprehensive theory that links genotypic changes to their phenotypic effects. We show that a general thermodynamic framework for gene regulation, based on a biophysical understanding of protein-DNA binding, accurately predicts the sign of epistasis in a canonical cis-regulatory element consisting of overlapping RNA polymerase and repressor binding sites...
May 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515706/research-priorities-in-limb-and-task-specific-dystonias
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Pirio Richardson, Eckart Altenmüller, Katharine Alter, Ron L Alterman, Robert Chen, Steven Frucht, Shinichi Furuya, Joseph Jankovic, H A Jinnah, Teresa J Kimberley, Codrin Lungu, Joel S Perlmutter, Cecília N Prudente, Mark Hallett
Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer's cramp, runner's dystonia, or musician's dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512742/differing-intrinsic-biological-properties-between-forebrain-and-spinal-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells
#16
Makoto Horiuchi, Yoko Suzuki-Horiuchi, Tasuku Akiyama, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Earl Carstens, Takayuki Itoh
Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512090/the-vibrio-cholerae-vexgh-rnd-efflux-system-maintains-cellular-homeostasis-by-effluxing-vibriobactin
#17
Dillon E Kunkle, X Renee Bina, James E Bina
Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily efflux systems have been widely studied for their role in antibiotic resistance, but their native biological functions remain poorly understood. We previously showed that loss of RND-mediated efflux in Vibrio cholerae resulted in activation of the Cpx two-component regulatory system, which mediates adaptation to stress resulting from misfolded membrane proteins. Here, we investigated the mechanism linking RND-mediated efflux to the Cpx response. We performed transposon mutagenesis screening of RND-deficient V...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510271/application-of-combination-high-throughput-phenotypic-screening-and-target-identification-methods-for-the-discovery-of-natural-product-based-combination-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Monica Isgut, Mukkavilli Rao, Chunhua Yang, Vangala Subrahmanyam, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
Modern drug discovery efforts have had mediocre success rates with increasing developmental costs, and this has encouraged pharmaceutical scientists to seek innovative approaches. Recently with the rise of the fields of systems biology and metabolomics, network pharmacology (NP) has begun to emerge as a new paradigm in drug discovery, with a focus on multiple targets and drug combinations for treating disease. Studies on the benefits of drug combinations lay the groundwork for a renewed focus on natural products in drug discovery...
May 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509389/a-revised-sociogenomic-model-of-personality-traits
#19
Brent W Roberts
In this paper, I seek to update the sociogenomic model of personality traits (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). Specifically, I seek to outline a broader and more comprehensive theoretical perspective on personality traits than offered in the original version of the sociogenomic model of personality traits. First, I review the major points of our 2008 paper. Second, I update our earlier model mostly with insights derived from a deeper reading of evolutionary theoretical systems, such as those found in life-history theory and ecological-evolutionary-developmental biology...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508360/genome-to-phenome-a-systems-biology-approach-to-ptsd-using-an-animal-model
#20
Nabarun Chakraborty, James Meyerhoff, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating illness that imposes significant emotional and financial burdens on military families. The understanding of PTSD etiology remains elusive; nonetheless, it is clear that PTSD is manifested by a cluster of symptoms including hyperarousal, reexperiencing of traumatic events, and avoidance of trauma reminders. With these characteristics in mind, several rodent models have been developed eliciting PTSD-like features. Animal models with social dimensions are of particular interest, since the social context plays a major role in the development and manifestation of PTSD...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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