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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908481/tissue-aging-the-integration-of-collective-and-variant-responses-of-cells-to-entropic-forces-over-time
#1
REVIEW
Michael E Todhunter, Rosalyn W Sayaman, Masaru Miyano, Mark A LaBarge
Aging is driven by unavoidable entropic forces, physicochemical in nature, that damage the raw materials that constitute biological systems. Single cells experience and respond to stochastic physicochemical insults that occur either to the cells themselves or to their microenvironment, in a dynamic and reciprocal manner, leading to increased age-related cell-to-cell variation. We will discuss the biological mechanisms that integrate cell-to-cell variation across tissues resulting in stereotypical phenotypes of age...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908080/genotypes-phenotypes-and-treatment-with-immunomodulators-in-the-rheumatic-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Ronald F van Vollenhoven
The autoimmune rheumatological diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are treated with conventional immunosuppressive agents and with modern biological immunomodulators. The latter group of medications have brought about a major change in our ability to control RA and SpA, with more modest results for SLE. The biologicals are very specific in their mechanisms of action, targeting one specific cytokine or one particular cellular marker. Because of this, their efficacy can readily be linked to a single immunomodulatory mechanism...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907738/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-is-associated-with-neural-response-during-selective-social-attention
#3
Meghan H Puglia, Jessica J Connelly, James P Morris
Aberrant attentional biases to social stimuli have been implicated in a number of disorders including autism and social anxiety disorder. Oxytocin, a naturally-occurring mammalian hormone and neuromodulator involved in regulating social behavior, has been proposed to impact basic biological systems that facilitate the detection of and orientation to social information. Here, we investigate a role for naturally-occurring variability in the endogenous oxytocinergic system in regulating neural response during attention to social information...
June 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904390/an-immortalized-genetic-mapping-population-for-perennial-ryegrass-a-resource-for-phenotyping-and-complex-trait-mapping
#4
Janaki Velmurugan, Dan Milbourne, Vincent Connolly, J S Heslop-Harrison, Ulrike C M Anhalt, M B Lynch, Susanne Barth
To address the lack of a truly portable, universal reference mapping population for perennial ryegrass, we have been developing a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population of perennial ryegrass derived via single seed descent from a well-characterized F2 mapping population based on genetically distinct inbred parents in which the natural self-incompatibility (SI) system of perennial ryegrass has been overcome. We examined whether it is possible to create a genotyping by sequencing (GBS) based genetic linkage map in a small population of the F6 generation of this population...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902595/cigarette-smoke-increases-pro-inflammatory-markers-and-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-in-experimental-exposure-model
#5
G N Cyprus, J W Overlin, K M Hotchkiss, S Kandalam, R Olivares-Navarrete
Tobacco smokers have slowed bone growth and regeneration and more frequent implant failures than non-smokers, but the effect of cigarette smoking on the host response to bone-dwelling biomaterials is poorly understood. Macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are essential in the healing response after implant placement. This study examined the effects of an experimental model of cigarette smoke exposure using cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on bone architecture in vivo and differentiation and inflammatory cytokine production on clinically relevant microstructured surfaces in vitro...
June 11, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899471/human-ipsc-based-models-highlight-defective-glial-and-neuronal-differentiation-from-neural-progenitor-cells-in-metachromatic-leukodystrophy
#6
Giacomo Frati, Marco Luciani, Vasco Meneghini, Silvia De Cicco, Marcus Ståhlman, Maria Blomqvist, Serena Grossi, Mirella Filocamo, Francesco Morena, Andrea Menegon, Sabata Martino, Angela Gritti
The pathological cascade leading from primary storage to neural cell dysfunction and death in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) has been poorly elucidated in human-derived neural cell systems. In the present study, we have modeled the progression of pathological events during the differentiation of patient-specific iPSCs to neuroepithelial progenitor cells (iPSC-NPCs) and mature neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes at the morphological, molecular, and biochemical level. We showed significant sulfatide accumulation and altered sulfatide composition during the differentiation of MLD iPSC-NPCs into neuronal and glial cells...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899301/metabolomics-in-plant-priming-research-the-way-forward
#7
REVIEW
Fidele Tugizimana, Msizi I Mhlongo, Lizelle A Piater, Ian A Dubery
A new era of plant biochemistry at the systems level is emerging, providing detailed descriptions of biochemical phenomena at the cellular and organismal level. This new era is marked by the advent of metabolomics—the qualitative and quantitative investigation of the entire metabolome (in a dynamic equilibrium) of a biological system. This field has developed as an indispensable methodological approach to study cellular biochemistry at a global level. For protection and survival in a constantly-changing environment, plants rely on a complex and multi-layered innate immune system...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899149/combinatorial-drug-discovery-in-nanoliter-droplets
#8
Anthony Kulesa, Jared Kehe, Juan E Hurtado, Prianca Tawde, Paul C Blainey
Combinatorial drug treatment strategies perturb biological networks synergistically to achieve therapeutic effects and represent major opportunities to develop advanced treatments across a variety of human disease areas. However, the discovery of new combinatorial treatments is challenged by the sheer scale of combinatorial chemical space. Here, we report a high-throughput system for nanoliter-scale phenotypic screening that formulates a chemical library in nanoliter droplet emulsions and automates the construction of chemical combinations en masse using parallel droplet processing...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897904/traditional-and-systems-biology-based-drug-discovery-for-the-rare-tumor-syndrome-neurofibromatosis-type-2
#9
Robert Allaway, Steve P Angus, Roberta L Beauchamp, Jaishri O Blakeley, Marga Bott, Sarah S Burns, Annemarie Carlstedt, Long-Sheng Chang, Xin Chen, D Wade Clapp, Patrick A Desouza, Serkan Erdin, Cristina Fernandez-Valle, Justin Guinney, James F Gusella, Stephen J Haggarty, Gary L Johnson, Salvatore La Rosa, Helen Morrison, Alejandra M Petrilli, Scott R Plotkin, Abhishek Pratap, Vijaya Ramesh, Noah Sciaky, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Tim J Stuhlmiller, Michael E Talkowski, D Bradley Welling, Charles W Yates, Jon S Zawistowski, Wen-Ning Zhao
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a rare tumor suppressor syndrome that manifests with multiple schwannomas and meningiomas. There are no effective drug therapies for these benign tumors and conventional therapies have limited efficacy. Various model systems have been created and several drug targets have been implicated in NF2-driven tumorigenesis based on known effects of the absence of merlin, the product of the NF2 gene. We tested priority compounds based on known biology with traditional dose-concentration studies in meningioma and schwann cell systems...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895637/genomic-insight-into-symbiosis-induced-insect-color-change-by-a-facultative-bacterial-endosymbiont-candidatus-rickettsiella-viridis
#10
Naruo Nikoh, Tsutomu Tsuchida, Taro Maeda, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Ryuichi Koga, Takema Fukatsu
Members of the genus Rickettsiella are bacterial pathogens of insects and other arthropods. Recently, a novel facultative endosymbiont, " Candidatus Rickettsiella viridis," was described in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum , whose infection causes a striking host phenotype: red and green genetic color morphs exist in aphid populations, and upon infection with the symbiont, red aphids become green due to increased production of green polycyclic quinone pigments. Here we determined the complete genome sequence of the symbiont...
June 12, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892019/single-layer-graphene-modulates-neuronal-communication-and-augments-membrane-ion-currents
#11
Niccolò Paolo Pampaloni, Martin Lottner, Michele Giugliano, Alessia Matruglio, Francesco D'Amico, Maurizio Prato, Josè Antonio Garrido, Laura Ballerini, Denis Scaini
The use of graphene-based materials to engineer sophisticated biosensing interfaces that can adapt to the central nervous system requires a detailed understanding of how such materials behave in a biological context. Graphene's peculiar properties can cause various cellular changes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that single-layer graphene increases neuronal firing by altering membrane-associated functions in cultured cells. Graphene tunes the distribution of extracellular ions at the interface with neurons, a key regulator of neuronal excitability...
June 11, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889214/precise-automated-control-of-conditions-for-high-throughput-growth-of-yeast-and-bacteria-with-evolver
#12
Brandon G Wong, Christopher P Mancuso, Szilvia Kiriakov, Caleb J Bashor, Ahmad S Khalil
Precise control over microbial cell growth conditions could enable detection of minute phenotypic changes, which would improve our understanding of how genotypes are shaped by adaptive selection. Although automated cell-culture systems such as bioreactors offer strict control over liquid culture conditions, they often do not scale to high-throughput or require cumbersome redesign to alter growth conditions. We report the design and validation of eVOLVER, a scalable do-it-yourself (DIY) framework, which can be configured to carry out high-throughput growth experiments in molecular evolution, systems biology, and microbiology...
June 11, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888048/characterizing-drug-related-adverse-events-by-joint-analysis-of-biomedical-and-genomic-data-a-case-study-of-drug-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Alex Jiang, Anil G Jegga
Spontaneous reporting systems such as the FDA's adverse event reporting system (FAERS) present a great resource to mine for and analyze real-world medication usage. Our study is based on a central premise that FAERS captures unsuspected drug-related adverse events (AEs). Since drug-related AEs result for several reasons, no single approach will be able to predict the entire gamut of AEs. A fundamental premise of systems biology is that a full understanding of a biological process or phenotype (e.g., drug-related AE) requires that all the individual elements be studied in conjunction with one another...
2018: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887862/emerging-functions-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-tissue-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Amit Sharma, Dipayan Rudra
CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are a unique subset of helper T-cells, which regulate immune response and establish peripheral tolerance. Tregs not only maintain the tone and tenor of an immune response by dominant tolerance but, in recent years, have also been identified as key players in resolving tissue inflammation and as mediators of tissue healing. Apart from being diverse in their origin (thymic and peripheral) and location (lymphoid and tissue resident), Tregs are also phenotypically heterogeneous as per the orientation of ongoing immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887374/tcr-transgenic-mice-reveal-stepwise-multi-site-acquisition-of-the-distinctive-fat-treg-phenotype
#15
Chaoran Li, Joanna R DiSpirito, David Zemmour, Raul German Spallanzani, Wilson Kuswanto, Christophe Benoist, Diane Mathis
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) hosts a population of regulatory T (Treg) cells, with a unique phenotype, that controls local and systemic inflammation and metabolism. Generation of a T cell receptor transgenic mouse line, wherein VAT Tregs are highly enriched, facilitated study of their provenance, dependencies, and activities. We definitively established a role for T cell receptor specificity, uncovered an unexpected function for the primordial Treg transcription-factor, Foxp3, evidenced a cell-intrinsic role for interleukin-33 receptor, and ordered these dependencies within a coherent scenario...
May 24, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886783/hsp90-inhibitors-as-senolytic-drugs-to-extend-healthy-aging
#16
Heike Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Laura J Niedernhofer, Paul D Robbins
Aging is characterized by progressive decay of biological systems and although it is not considered a disease, it is one of the main risk factors for chronic diseases and many types of cancers. The accumulation of senescent cells in various tissues is thought to be a major factor contributing to aging and age-related diseases. Removal of senescent cells during aging by either genetic or therapeutic methods have led to an improvement of several age related disease in mice. In this preview, we highlight the significance of developing senotherapeutic approaches to specifically kill senescent cells (senolytics) or suppress the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that drives sterile inflammation (senomorphics) associated with aging to extend healthspan and potentially lifespan...
June 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885411/alternative-assembly-processes-from-trait-mediated-co-evolution-in-mutualistic-communities
#17
Henintsoa O Minoarivelo, Cang Hui
Ecological and evolutionary dynamics observed in mutualistic communities can be shaped by several mechanisms, including ecological interactions and their co-evolutionary consequences. Here we explore how intra and interspecific competition, together with mutualistic interactions, can affect community assembly through their effects on adaptive diversification and the emergence of biodiversity. To capture both ecological and evolutionary processes simultaneously, we used the adaptive dynamics approach based on a Lotka-Volterra framework and simulated the ecological dynamics of populations as well as the evolutionary dynamics of involved phenotypic traits...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884970/gba-associated-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-synucleinopathies
#18
REVIEW
Ziv Gan-Or, Christopher Liong, Roy N Alcalay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: GBA mutations are the most common known genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Its biological pathway may be important in idiopathic PD, since activity of the enzyme encoded by GBA, glucocerebrosidase, is reduced even among PD patients without GBA mutations. This article describes the structure and function of GBA, reviews recent literature on the clinical phenotype of GBA PD, and suggests future directions for research, counseling, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Several longitudinal studies have shown that GBA PD has faster motor and cognitive progression than idiopathic PD and that this effect is dose dependent...
June 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881946/neuronal-and-glial-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-is-regulated-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-app-levels
#19
Raquel Coronel, María Lachgar, Adela Bernabeu-Zornoza, Charlotte Palmer, Marta Domínguez-Alvaro, Ana Revilla, Inmaculada Ocaña, Andrés Fernández, Alberto Martínez-Serrano, Eva Cano, Isabel Liste
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is implicated in neural development as well as in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, its biological function still remains unclear. It has been reported that APP stimulates the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs), while other studies suggest an important effect enhancing gliogenesis in NSCs. As expected, APP protein/mRNA is detected in hNS1 cells, a model cell line of human NSCs, both under proliferation and throughout the differentiation period...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881817/metastasis-associated-lung-adenocarcinoma-transcript-1-as-a-common-molecular-driver-in-the-pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-chronic-immune-mediated-liver-damage
#20
Silvia Sookoian, Diego Flichman, Martin E Garaycoechea, Julio San Martino, Gustavo O Castaño, Carlos J Pirola
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional molecules that orchestrate gene expression. To identify lncRNAs involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) severity, we performed a multiscale study that included: (a) systems biology modeling that indicated metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 ( MALAT1 ) as a candidate lncRNA for exploring disease-related associations, (b) translational exploration in the clinical setting, and (c) mechanistic modeling. MALAT1 liver profiling was performed in three consecutive phases, including an exploratory stage (liver samples from patients with NAFLD who were morbidly obese [n = 47] and from 13 individuals with normal liver histology); a replication stage (patients with NAFLD and metabolic syndrome [n =49]); and a hypothesis-driven stage (patients with chronic hepatitis C and autoimmune liver diseases, [n = 65])...
June 2018: Hepatology Communications
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