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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452225/seminars-in-cell-and-developmental-biology-human-dendritic-cell-immunodeficiencies
#1
REVIEW
Venetia Bigley, Urszula Cytlak, Matthew Collin
The critical functions of dendritic cells (DCs) in immunity and tolerance have been demonstrated in many animal models but their non-redundant roles in humans are more difficult to probe. Human primary immunodeficiency (PID), resulting from single gene mutations, may result in DC deficiency or dysfunction. This relatively recent recognition illuminates the in vivo role of human DCs and the pathophysiology of the associated clinical syndromes. In this review, the development and function of DCs as established in murine models and human in vitro systems, is discussed...
February 13, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449881/a-copper-controlled-rna-interference-system-for-reversible-silencing-of-target-genes-in-trichoderma-reesei
#2
Lei Wang, Fanglin Zheng, Weixin Zhang, Yaohua Zhong, Guanjun Chen, Xiangfeng Meng, Weifeng Liu
Background: Trichoderma reesei is a primary lignocellulosic enzyme producer in industry. However, the mechanisms underlying cellulase synthesis as well as other physiological processes are insufficiently understood partly due to the sophisticated process for its genetic manipulation. Target gene knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for genetic research and biotechnology in eukaryotes including filamentous fungi. Previously reported RNAi system in T. reesei was either uncontrollable or only applicable in certain nutrition state...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447366/parent-of-origin-dependent-gene-expression-in-male-and-female-schistosome-parasites
#3
Julien Kincaid-Smith, Marion A L Picard, Céline Cosseau, Jérôme Boissier, Dany Severac, Christoph Grunau, Eve Toulza
Schistosomes are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a Neglected Tropical Disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Additionally to their major impact on human health, they are also models of choice in evolutionary biology. These parasitic flatworms are unique among the common hermaphroditic trematodes as they have separate sexes. This so-called « evolutionary scandal » displays a female heterogametic genetic sex-determination system (ZZ males and ZW females), as well as a pronounced adult sexual dimorphism...
February 12, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444804/partitioning-the-pleiotropy-between-coronary-artery-disease-and-body-mass-index-reveals-the-importance-of-low-frequency-variants-and-central-nervous-system-specific-functional-elements
#4
Majid Nikpay, Adam W Turner, Ruth McPherson
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to investigate the extent and nature of pleiotropy between coronary artery disease (CAD) and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We examined the contribution of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (minor allele frequency ≥0.01) to co-occurrence of CAD and BMI in a sample of genetically unrelated 8041 subjects (genetic resemblance ≤0.025) of European ancestry using mixed-linear-models. We further partitioned the estimated pleiotropy according to biological features to gain insight into the nature of pleiotropy between CAD and BMI...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444308/integration-of-multi-omics-techniques-and-physiological-phenotyping-within-a-holistic-phenomics-approach-to-study-senescence-in-model-and-crop-plants
#5
Dominik K Großkinsky, Syahnada Jaya Syaifullah, Thomas Roitsch
The study of senescence in plants is complicated by diverse levels of temporal and spatial dynamics as well as the impact of external biotic and abiotic factors and crop plant management. Whereas the molecular mechanisms involved in developmentally regulated leaf senescence are very well understood, in particular in the annual model plant species Arabidopsis, senescence of other organs such as the flower, fruit, and root is much less studied as well as senescence in perennials such as trees. This review addresses the need for the integration of multi-omics techniques and physiological phenotyping into holistic phenomics approaches to dissect the complex phenomenon of senescence...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440116/improving-interpretation-of-cardiac-phenotypes-and-enhancing-discovery-with-expanded-knowledge-in-the-gene-ontology
#6
Ruth C Lovering, Paola Roncaglia, Douglas G Howe, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Varsha K Khodiyar, Tanya Z Berardini, Susan Tweedie, Rebecca E Foulger, David Osumi-Sutherland, Nancy H Campbell, Rachael P Huntley, Philippa J Talmud, Judith A Blake, Ross Breckenridge, Paul R Riley, Pier D Lambiase, Perry M Elliott, Lucie Clapp, Andrew Tinker, David P Hill
BACKGROUND: A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433733/daf-16-foxo-in-the-context-of-c-elegans
#7
Heidi A Tissenbaum
In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is a single FOXO transcription factor homolog, encoded by the gene, daf-16. As a central regulator for multiple signaling pathways, DAF-16 integrates these signals which results in modulation of several biological processes including longevity, development, fat storage, stress resistance, innate immunity, and reproduction. Using C. elegans allows for studies of FOXO in the context of the whole animal. Therefore, manipulating levels or the activity of daf-16 results in phenotypic changes...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432810/characterization-of-the-role-of-global-regulator-flia-in-the-pathophysiology-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#8
Yi-Ling Lo, Chyi-Liang Chen, Lunda Shen, Ying-Ching Chen, Yi-Hsin Wang, Chung-Chan Lee, Lian-Chen Wang, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hwan-You Chang
FliA is known to be a sigma factor that regulates bacterial flagella gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that FliA is involved in bacterial behavior other than motility. To elucidate the contribution of FliA to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathophysiology, we analyzed the biological properties and gene expression profiles of a ΔfliA mutant. Transcriptome analysis results demonstrated that the expression levels of flagella biogenesis genes decreased dramatically in the mutant; consequently, the ΔfliA mutant failed to synthesize flagella and exhibited reduced motility...
February 9, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432239/neurocutaneous-disorders
#9
Tena Rosser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents an up-to-date summary of the genetic etiology, diagnostic criteria, clinical features, and current management recommendations for the most common neurocutaneous disorders encountered in clinical adult and pediatric neurology practices. RECENT FINDINGS: The phakomatoses are a phenotypically and genetically diverse group of multisystem disorders that primarily affect the skin and central nervous system. A greater understanding of the genetic and biological underpinnings of numerous neurocutaneous disorders has led to better clinical characterization, more refined diagnostic criteria, and improved treatments in neurofibromatosis type 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 2, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and incontinentia pigmenti...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430919/photo-responsive-hydrogels-with-photoswitchable-mechanical-properties-allow-time-resolved-analysis-of-cellular-responses-to-matrix-stiffening
#10
I-Ning Lee, Oana Dobre, David Richards, Christoph Ballestrem, Judith Curran, John A Hunt, Stephen M Richardson, Joe Swift, Lu Shin Wong
As cell function and phenotype can be directed by the mechanical characteristics of the surrounding matrix, hydrogels have become important platforms for cell culture systems, with properties that can be tuned by external stimuli such as divalent cations, enzymatic treatment and pH. However, many of these stimuli can directly affect cell behaviour, making it difficult to distinguish purely mechanical signalling events. This study reports on the development of a hydrogel that incorporates photoswitchable crosslinkers, which can reversibly alter their stiffness upon irradiation with the appropriate wavelength of light...
February 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427989/diagnosis-and-management-of-severe-asthma
#11
Kian Fan Chung
Severe therapy-resistant asthma has been defined as "asthma which requires treatment with high dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus a second controller (and/or systemic corticosteroids) to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy". Patients who usually present with 'difficult-to-treat asthma' should first be assessed to determine whether he/she has asthma with the exclusion of other diagnoses and if so, whether the asthma can be classified as severe therapy-resistant...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427795/cellular-senescence-immunosurveillance-and-future-immunotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Dominick G A Burton, Alexandra Stolzing
In response to persistent DNA damage, induction into cell senescence promotes an immunogenic program which facilitates immune clearance of these damaged cells. Under physiological conditions, senescent cells can activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, functioning to maintain tissue homeostasis. In addition, emerging findings suggest that programmed induction of cell senescence may be important for regulating reproductive processes, partly facilitated by immune clearance. However, likely owing to ageing of the immune system, a failure to eliminate senescent cells can contribute to their persistence in tissues, leading to the development and progression of age-related diseases...
February 7, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417741/how-can-omic-science-be-improved
#13
Kai Simons
One of the promises of multiomic analysis was to transform the clinical diagnostics to deliver much more exact phenotyping of disease states. However, despite enormous investments, the transformation of clinical routine has not taken place. There are many reasons for this lack of success but one is the failure to deliver quantitative and reproducible data. This failure is not only impeding progress in clinical phenotyping but also in the application of omic science in systems biology. The focus in this Viewpoint will be on lipidomics but the lessons learned are generally applicable...
February 8, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417220/ubiquitin-like-activating-enzymes-bcatg3-and-bcatg7-participate-in-development-and-pathogenesis-of-botrytis-cinerea
#14
Weichao Ren, Chengwei Sang, Dongya Shi, Xiushi Song, Mingguo Zhou, Changjun Chen
In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein-activating enzymes play a crucial role in autophagy process, however, it is poorly characterized in filamentous fungi. Here, we investigated the functions of two UBL activating enzymes, BcAtg3 (E2) and BcAtg7 (E1) in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The physical interaction of BcAtg3 with BcAtg7 was demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid system. Subcellular localization assays showed that BcAtg3 diffused in cytoplasm, and BcAtg7 localized in cytoplasm as pre-autophagosomal structures (PAS)...
February 7, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415651/integrative-analysis-of-micrornas-and-mrnas-revealed-regulation-of-composition-and-metabolism-in-nelore-cattle
#15
Gabriella B Oliveira, Luciana C A Regitano, Aline S M Cesar, James M Reecy, Karina Y Degaki, Mirele D Poleti, Andrezza M Felício, James E Koltes, Luiz L Coutinho
BACKGROUND: The amount of intramuscular fat can influence the sensory characteristics and nutritional value of beef, thus the selection of animals with adequate fat deposition is important to the consumer. There is growing knowledge about the genes and pathways that control the biological processes involved in fat deposition in muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a well-conserved class of non-coding small RNAs that modulate gene expression across a range of biological functions in animal development and physiology...
February 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412690/platelet-procoagulant-phenotype-is-modulated-by-a-p38-mk2-axis-regulating-rtn4-nogo-proximal-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-utility-of-pathway-analysis
#16
Özgün Babur, Anh T P Ngo, Rachel A Rigg, Jiaqing Pang, Zhoe T Rub, Ariana E Buchanan, Annachiara Mitrugno, Larry L David, Owen J T McCarty, Emek Demir, Joseph E Aslan
Upon encountering physiological cues associated with damaged or inflamed endothelium, blood platelets set forth intracellular responses to ultimately support hemostatic plug formation and vascular repair. To gain insights into the molecular events underlying platelet function, we used a combination of interactome, pathway analysis and other systems biology tools to analyze associations amongst proteins functionally modified by reversible phosphorylation upon platelet activation. While an interaction analysis mapped out a relative organization of intracellular mediators in platelet signaling, pathway analysis revealed directional signaling relations around protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) associated with platelet cytoskeletal dynamics, inflammatory responses and hemostatic function...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395738/th17%C3%A2-cells-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-their-interplay-in-eae-and-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Aoife M McGinley, Sarah C Edwards, Mathilde Raverdeau, Kingston H G Mills
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) that shares many features with the human disease. This review will focus on the role of IL-17-secreting CD4 and γδ T cells in EAE and MS, the plasticity of Th17 cells in vivo and the application of these findings to the understating of the pathogenesis and the development of new treatments for MS. There is convincing evidence that IL-17-secreting CD4 T cells (Th17 cells) and IL-17-secreting γδ T cells play a critical pathogenic role in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in EAE and MS...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387177/management-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-recent-developments-and-new-classification-criteria
#18
REVIEW
Nicoletta Del Papa, Claudio Vitali
For many years primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) has been considered an orphan disease, since no specific therapies were recognized as being capable of contrasting the development and progression of this disorder. The treatment of oral and ocular features, as well as of the systemic organ involvement, has been entrusted to the joint management of different subspecialty physicians, like ophthalmologists, otolaryngologists, dentists and rheumatologists. These latter subspecialty doctors are usually more involved in the treatment of systemic extraglandular involvement and, to do it, they have long been using the conventional therapies borrowed by the treatment schedules adopted in other systemic autoimmune diseases...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385710/a-review-of-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-human-manganese-superoxide-dismutase
#19
REVIEW
Jahaun Azadmanesh, Gloria E O Borgstahl
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are necessary antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased levels of SODs or mutations that affect their catalytic activity have serious phenotypic consequences. SODs perform their bio-protective role by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by cyclic oxidation and reduction reactions with the active site metal. Mutations of SODs can cause cancer of the lung, colon, and lymphatic system, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
January 30, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383444/the-role-of-macrophages-during-acute-kidney-injury-destruction-and-repair
#20
REVIEW
Hwa I Han, Lauren B Skvarca, Eugenel B Espiritu, Alan J Davidson, Neil A Hukriede
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined by a rapid decline in renal function. Regardless of the initial cause of injury, the influx of immune cells is a common theme during AKI. While an inflammatory response is critical for the initial control of injury, a prolonged response can negatively affect tissue repair. In this review, we focus on the role of macrophages, from early inflammation to resolution, during AKI. These cells serve as the innate defense system by phagocytosing cellular debris and pathogenic molecules and bridge communication with the adaptive immune system by acting as antigen-presenting cells and secreting cytokines...
January 30, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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