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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793209/effect-of-thermal-pretreatment-on-chemical-composition-physical-structure-and-biogas-production-kinetics-of-wheat-straw
#1
Asad Ayub Rajput, Zeshan, Chettiyappan Visvanathan
Hard lignocellulosic structure of wheat straw is the main hindrance in its anaerobic digestion. Thus, a laboratory scale batch experiment was conducted to study the effect of thermal pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of wheat straw. For this purpose, different thermal pretreatment temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 °C were studied and the results were compared with raw wheat straw. Significant differences in biogas production were observed at temperature higher than 160 °C. Highest biogas yield of 615 Nml/gVS and volatile solids reduction of 69% was observed from wheat straw pretreated at 180 °C...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793170/effective-size-selection-of-mos-2-nanosheets-by-a-novel-liquid-cascade-centrifugation-influences-of-the-flakes-dimensions-on-electrochemical-and-photoelectrochemical-applications
#2
Marzieh Kajbafvala, Mansoor Farbod
Although liquid phase exfoliation is a powerful method to produce MoS2 nanosheets in large scale, but its effectiveness is limited by the diversity of produced nanosheets sizes. Here a novel approach for separation of MoS2 flakes having various lateral sizes and thicknesses based on the cascaded centrifugation has been introduced. This method involves a pre-separation step which is performed through low-speed centrifugation to avoid the deposition of large area single and few-layers by the heavier particles...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793160/water-footprint-characteristic-of-less-developed-water-rich-regions-case-of-yunnan-china
#3
Yiying Qian, Huijuan Dong, Yong Geng, Shaozhuo Zhong, Xu Tian, Yanhong Yu, Yihui Chen, Dana Avery Moss
Rapid industrialization and urbanization pose pressure on water resources in China. Virtual water trade proves to be an increasingly useful tool in water stress alleviation for water-scarce regions, while bringing opportunities and challenges for less developed water-rich regions. In this study, Yunnan, a typical province in southwest China, was selected as the case study area to explore its potential in socio-economic development in the context of water sustainability. Both input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis on Yunnan's water footprint for the period of 2002-2012 were performed at not only an aggregated level but also a sectoral level...
March 30, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#4
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793120/socioeconomic-status-of-parents-with-children-participating-on-youth-club-sport-teams
#5
Eric G Post, Nicole E Green, Daniel A Schaefer, Stephanie M Trigsted, M Alison Brooks, Timothy A McGuine, Andrew M Watson, David R Bell
OBJECTIVES: To describe the socioeconomic status, measured by household income and educational attainment, of parents with children participating on youth club sport teams. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Local sport events. PARTICIPANTS: 949 parents (571 female) of youth athletes between 10 and 18 years old were recruited at club team events and practices to complete an anonymous questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SES variables included total household income (THI) and educational attainment...
May 17, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793119/bioaugmentation-potential-of-a-newly-isolated-strain-sphingomonas-sp-njust37-for-the-treatment-of-wastewater-containing-highly-toxic-and-recalcitrant-tricyclazole
#6
Haobo Wu, Jinyou Shen, Xinbai Jiang, Xiaodong Liu, Xiuyun Sun, Jiansheng Li, Weiqing Han, Yang Mu, Lianjun Wang
In order to develop an effective bioaugmentation strategy for the removal of highly toxic and recalcitrant tricyclazole from wastewater, a tricyclazole degrading strain was firstly successfully isolated and identified as Sphingomonas sp. NJUST37. In batch reactors, 100 mg L-1 tricyclazole could be completely removed within 102 h, which was accompanied by significant biomass increase, TOC and COD removal, as well as toxicity reduction. Chromatography analysis and density functional theory simulation indicated that monooxygenation occurred firstly, followed by triazole ring cleavage, decyanation reaction, hydration reaction, deamination, dihydroxylation and final mineralization reaction...
May 19, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793117/metagenomic-insights-into-the-microbiota-profiles-and-bioaugmentation-mechanism-of-organics-removal-in-coal-gasification-wastewater-in-an-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic-system-by-methanol
#7
Weichao Xu, Yuxiu Zhang, Hongbin Cao, Yuxing Sheng, Haibo Li, Yuping Li, He Zhao, Xuefei Gui
Coal gasification wastewater is a typical high phenol-containing, toxic and refractory industrial wastewater. Here, lab-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic system was employed to treat real coal gasification wastewater, and methanol was added to oxic tank as the co-substrate to enhance the removal of refractory organic pollutants. The results showed that the average COD removal in oxic effluent increased from 24.9% to 36.0% by adding methanol, the total phenols concentration decreased from 54.4 to 44.9 mg/L. GC-MS analysis revealed that contents of phenolic components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were decreased compared to the control and their degradation intermediates were observed...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793079/shifts-in-wind-energy-potential-following-land-use-driven-vegetation-dynamics-in-complex-terrain
#8
Jiannong Fang, Alexander Peringer, Mihai-Sorin Stupariu, Ileana Pǎtru-Stupariu, Alexandre Buttler, Francois Golay, Fernando Porté-Agel
Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793067/performance-and-methane-fermentation-characteristics-of-a-pilot-scale-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-anmbr-for-treating-pharmaceutical-wastewater-containing-m-cresol-mc-and-iso-propyl-alcohol-ipa
#9
Zhaobo Chen, Xue Li, Dongxue Hu, Yubo Cui, Fuguang Gu, Fuquan Jia, Tingting Xiao, Haiyan Su, Jiao Xu, Haixu Wang, Pan Wu, Ying Zhang, Na Jiang
In this study, a pilot scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was operated for 80 days to treat pharmaceutical wastewater containing m-cresol (MC) and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA). The aim of the study is to investigate the performance and methane fermentation characteristics of AnMBR at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) (48, 36, 24, 18 and 12 h). The average total removal efficiencies of MC and IPA were 95%, 96% during the 80 days, which demonstrated that the AnMBR system performed well in the MC and IPA removal...
May 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793050/small-scale-managed-marine-areas-over-time-developments-and-challenges-in-a-local-fijian-reef-fishery
#10
Elodie Fache, Annette Breckwoldt
This paper investigates the Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) approach through looking at developments and challenges of community-based marine resource management over time, with a particular focus on Fiji in the South Pacific region. A diachronic perspective, based on two multi-method empirical studies, is used to exemplify the social complexities of the implementation of this LMMA approach in a specific island setting. This perspective connects local stakeholders' establishment and management of a LMMA covering their entire customary fishing rights area (iqoliqoli) with the national context articulated around the Fiji Locally Managed Marine Area (FLMMA) network, as well as with regional networking and international conservation dynamics...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793049/psychometric-validation-of-the-turkish-nine-item-internet-gaming-disorder-scale-short-form-igds9-sf
#11
Cuneyt Evren, Ercan Dalbudak, Merve Topcu, Nilay Kutlu, Bilge Evren, Halley M Pontes
The main aims of the current study were to test the factor structure, reliability and validity of the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF), a standardized measure to assess symptoms and prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). In the present study participants were assessed with the IGDS9-SF, nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS) and the Young's Internet Addiction Test-Short Form (YIAT-SF). Confirmatory factor analyzes demonstrated that the factor structure (i.e., the dimensional structure) of the IGDS9-SF was satisfactory...
May 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793009/evidence-on-the-measurement-properties-of-health-related-quality-of-life-instruments-is-largely-missing-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Alessandro Chiarotto, Caroline B Terwee, Steven J Kamper, Maarten Boers, Raymond W Ostelo
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the measurement properties of five health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments [Short Form 36 (SF-36), Short Form 12 (SF-12), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), PROMIS Global Health (PROMIS-GH-10)] in patients with low back pain (LBP). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, Google Scholar) were searched (July 2017). Studies assessing any measurement property in non-specific LBP patients were included...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793007/minimum-clinically-important-differences-in-chronic-pain-vary-considerable-by-baseline-pain-and-methodological-factors-systematic-review-of-empirical-studies
#13
REVIEW
Mette Frahm Olsen, Eik Bjerre, Maria Damkjær Hansen, Britta Tendal, Jørgen Hilden, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
BACKGROUND: The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is used to interpret the relevance of treatment effects, e.g. when developing clinical guidelines, evaluating trial results or planning sample sizes. There is currently no agreement on an appropriate MCID in chronic pain and little is known about which contextual factors cause variation. METHODS: Systematic review. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Eligible studies determined MCID for chronic pain based on a one-dimensional pain scale, a patient-reported transition scale of perceived improvement; and either a mean change analysis (mean difference in pain among minimally improved patients) or a threshold analysis (pain reduction associated with best sensitivity and specificity for identifying minimally improved patients)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792994/lumbar-spinal-stenosis-comparison-of-surgical-practice-variation-and-clinical-outcome-in-three-national-spine-registries
#14
Greger Lønne, Peter Fritzell, Olle Hägg, Dennis Nordvall, Paul Gerdhem, Tobias Lagerbäck, Mikkel Andersen, Søren Eiskjaer, Martin Gehrchen, Wilco Jacobs, Miranda L van Hooff, Tore K Solberg
BACKGROUND: Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common spinal procedure in the elderly. To avoid persisting low back pain, adding arthrodesis has been recommended, especially if there is a coexisting degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, this strategy remains controversial, resulting in practice-based variation. PURPOSE: To evaluate in a pragmatic study if surgical selection criteria and variation in use of arthrodesis in three Scandinavian countries can be linked to variation in treatment effectiveness...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792992/frailty-status-as-a-predictor-of-three-month-cognitive-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-surgery-a-prospective-pilot-study
#15
Robert J Rothrock, Jeremy M Steinberger, Henry Badgery, Andrew C Hecht, Samuel K Cho, John M Caridi, Stacie Deiner
Background Context As increasing numbers of elderly Americans undergo spinal surgery, it is important to identify which patients are at highest risk for poor cognitive and functional recovery. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome which has been closely linked to poor outcomes, and short form screening may be a helpful tool for preoperative identification of at risk patients. Purpose To conduct a pilot study on the usefulness of a short-form screening tool to identify elderly patients at increased risk for prolonged cognitive and functional recovery following elective spine surgery...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792988/towards-quantitative-prediction-of-the-performance-of-dry-powder-inhalers-by-multi-scale-simulations-and-experiments
#16
Duy Nguyen, Johan Remmelgas, Ingela Niklasson Björn, Berend van Wachem, Kyrre Thalberg
This work demonstrates the use of multi-scale simulations coupled with experiments to build a quantitative prediction tool for the performance of adhesive mixtures in a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Using discrete element model (DEM), the behaviour of fine-carrier particle assemblies upon different mechanisms encountered during dose entrainment and dispersion can be described at the individual particle level. Combining these results with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, the complete dosing event from a DPI can be captured and key performance measures can be extracted...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792941/in-situ-analysis-of-grain-rotation-and-lattice-strain-within-a-magnesium-polycrystal-based-on-synchrotron-polychromatic-x-ray-diffraction-technique-i-prior-to-twin
#17
Li Li, Yuanzhi Wu, Jie Wu
Hexagonal-close-packed structure aggregates exhibit complicated deformation behaviors, involving different slips and twinning. Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction (micro-XRD) was utilized to study in situ an extruded Mg-3Al-1Zn strip subjected to uniaxial tension. The evolution of grain rotation and lattice strain was analyzed under the load levels from 12 to 73 MPa. The micro-XRD data was used to map an area of 396 × 200 μm within the region of interest. The experimental set-up and X-ray diffraction microscopy in two dimensions allow the morphology, orientation and strain of the target grain to be determined at the submicron size...
May 17, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792931/engineering-the-production-of-dipicolinic-acid-in-e-coli
#18
Maria K McClintock, Grant W Fahnhorst, Thomas R Hoye, Kechun Zhang
Dicarboxylic acids, such as the phthalic acids and their derivatives, are monomeric components in several important polyesters and polyamides. In most cases, these compounds are derived from fossil fuels and are not easily biodegradable. Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is a biologically derived aromatic di-acid that has a similar structure to isophthalic acid. Furthermore, DPA has been shown to make polyesters, is readily biodegradable, and is non-toxic. DPA is naturally produced by Bacillus and Clostridium species during sporulation and can comprise up to 15% of the dry weight...
May 21, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792930/functional-genomics-for-the-oleaginous-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica
#19
Kurt Patterson, James Yu, Jenny Landberg, Ivan Chang, Farbod Shavarebi, Virginia Bilanchone, Suzanne Sandmeyer
Oleaginous yeasts are valuable systems for biosustainable production of hydrocarbon-based chemicals. Yarrowia lipolytica is one of the best characterized of these yeast with respect to genome annotation and flux analysis of metabolic processes. Nonetheless, progress is hampered by a dearth of genome-wide tools enabling functional genomics. In order to remedy this deficiency, we developed a library of Y. lipolytica insertion mutants via transposon mutagenesis. The Hermes DNA transposon was expressed to achieve saturation mutagenesis of the genome...
May 21, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792839/patient-choice-of-adjunctive-non-pharmacologic-pain-management-during-first-trimester-abortion-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Mary Tschann, Jennifer Salcedo, Reni Soon, Bliss Kaneshiro
OBJECTIVE: To determine if offering patients a choice of adjunctive non-pharmacologic pain management during first-trimester aspiration abortion results in lower pain scores than seen without offering these additional measures. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled women receiving first-trimester aspiration abortion at the University of Hawai'i. We randomized patients to standard care (control), or standard care plus a choice of non-pharmacologic pain management options (intervention)...
May 21, 2018: Contraception
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