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Elisabeth MacColl, Kris Vanesky, Jeremy A Buck, Benjamin M Dudek, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Julie A Heath, Garth Herring, Chris Vennum, Cynthia J Downs
An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Laura M E Blanken, Alena Dass, Gail Alvares, Jan van der Ende, Nikita K Schoemaker, Hanan El Marroun, Martha Hickey, Craig Pennell, Scott White, Murray T Maybery, Cheryl Dissanayake, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Will McIntosh, Tonya White, Andrew Whitehouse
Altered trajectories of brain growth are often reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), particularly during the first year of life. However, less is known about prenatal head growth trajectories, and no study has examined the relation with postnatal autistic symptom severity. The current study prospectively examined the association between fetal head growth and the spectrum of autistic symptom severity in two large population-based cohorts, including a sample of individuals with clinically diagnosed ASD...
January 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Lori-Ann R Sacrey, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Susan Bryson, Jessica Brian, Isabel M Smith, Wendy Roberts, Peter Szatmari, Tracy Vaillancourt, Caroline Roncadin, Nancy Garon
Parent and clinician agreement regarding early behavioral signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in children from a high-risk cohort (siblings of children diagnosed with ASD, n = 188) was examined. Infants were assessed prospectively at 12 and 18 months of age using the clinician administered Autism Observational Scale for Infants (AOSI) and the Autism Parent Screen for Infants (APSI) and underwent a blind independent diagnostic assessment for ASD at 36 months of age. Direct comparison of parent and clinician ratings showed poor agreement on all early behavioral signs, with parent-reported symptoms being better able to differentiate between children with and without ASD at both 12 and 18 months of age compared to clinician observations during a brief office visit...
January 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Bodil Ivarsson, Roger Hesselstrand, Göran Rådegran, Barbro Kjellström
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are rare diseases with a gradual decline in physical health. Adherence to treatment is crucial in these very symptomatic and life threatening diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe PAH and CTEPH patients experience of their self-reported medication adherence, beliefs about medicines and information about treatment. METHODS: A quantitative, descriptive, national cohort survey that included adult patients from all PAH-centres in Sweden...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Kun Feng, Matthew Li, Wenwen Liu, Ali Ghorbani Kashkooli, Xingcheng Xiao, Mei Cai, Zhongwei Chen
Silicon has been intensively studied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) because of its exceptionally high specific capacity. However, silicon-based anode materials usually suffer from large volume change during the charge and discharge process, leading to subsequent pulverization of silicon, loss of electric contact, and continuous side reactions. These transformations cause poor cycle life and hinder the wide commercialization of silicon for LIBs. The lithiation and delithiation behaviors, and the interphase reaction mechanisms, are progressively studied and understood...
January 22, 2018: Small
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Patricia A Terletzky, Todd C Atwood, Eric M Gese, Geoffrey D Smith, Sydney Greenfield, John Pettit, Susannah S French
Assessing the health and condition of animals in their natural environment can be problematic. Many physiological metrics, including immunity, are highly influenced by specific context and recent events to which researchers may be unaware. Thus, using a multifaceted physiological approach and a context-specific analysis encompassing multiple time scales can be highly informative. Ecoimmunological tools in particular can provide important indications to the health of animals in the wild. We collected blood and hair samples from free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea and examined the influence of sex, age, and reproductive status on metrics of immunity, stress, and body condition during 2013-2015...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Meena Srivastava, David Sullivan, B Ryan Phelps, Surbhi Modi, Laura N Broyles
INTRODUCTION: With the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the "Treat All" era, there has been increasing emphasis on using differentiated models of HIV service delivery. The gaps within the clinical cascade for mothers and their infants suggest that current service delivery models are not meeting families' needs and prompt re-consideration of how services are provided. This article will explore considerations for differentiated care and encourage the ongoing increase of ART coverage through innovative strategies while also addressing the unique needs of mothers and infants...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ju-Yeon Lee, Seon-Young Kim, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Jae-Min Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon, Sung-Wan Kim
INTRODUCTION: The number of Internet users is increasing dramatically due to high-speed Internet connections and the use of cellular Internet service among rural adolescents in Korea. This study examined the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) and factors associated with PIU among rural adolescents in Korea. METHODS: In total, 1168 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from a rural area in Korea participated in this cross-sectional school survey. Problematic Internet use was categorized with Young's Internet Addiction Test using a validated cutoff...
January 21, 2018: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Shir Reen Chia, Kit Wayne Chew, Pau Loke Show, Yee Jiun Yap, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Tau Chuan Ling, Jo-Shu Chang
Microalgae are considered promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and other bioactive compounds, yet there are still challenges on commercial applications of microalgae-based products. This review focuses on the economic analysis, environmental impact and industrial potential of biofuels production from microalgae. The cost of biofuels production remains higher compared to conventional fuel sources. However, integration of biorefinery pathways with biofuels production for the recovery of value-added products (such as antioxidants, natural dyes, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, polyunsaturated fatty acids and so forth) could substantially reduce the production costs...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Godfred O Boateng, Stephanie L Martin, Shalean M Collins, Barnabas K Natamba, Sera L Young
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years. Social support has been widely recognized to influence breastfeeding practices. However, existing scales do not measure exclusive breastfeeding social support (EBFSS), rather they assess social support for any breastfeeding. Further, they are tailored towards high-income settings. Therefore, our objectives were to develop and validate a tool to measure EBFSS in low-income settings...
January 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Kana Takahashi, Koki Takada, Kazuki Hirao
AIM: We developed a motion picture-reproducing smartphone application (app) designed to improve self-confidence in individuals with subthreshold depression (StD) and examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an app intervention for individuals with StD. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, single-arm pre-post study of 22 young adults with StD. Our intervention involved app usage for at least 70 min/wk for 5 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the adherence rate...
January 22, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Dimas Suarez, Natalia Díaz, Angel Martín Pendás, Evelio Francisco
The interacting quantum atoms (IQA) method can assess, systematically and in great detail, the strength and physics of both covalent and noncovalent interactions. The lack of a pair density in density functional theory (DFT), which precludes the direct IQA decomposition of the characteristic exchange-correlation energy, has been recently overcome by means of a scaling technique, what can largely expand the applicability of the method. To better assess the utility of the augmented IQA methodology in order to derive quantum chemical decompositions at the atomic and molecular levels, we report the results of HF and DFT calculations on the complexes included in the S66 and the ionic H-bond databases of benchmark geometry and binding energies...
January 22, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
M C Keeman, C A W Bolman, I Mesters, R A Willems, I M Kanera, L Lechner
Information and support needs increase emotional distress and can impede cancer survivors' adjustment. To investigate the information and support needs of Dutch cancer survivors, the Cancer Survivors' Unmet Needs measure (CaSUN) was translated into Dutch and applied in two Dutch studies with cancer survivors (N = 255; N = 467). The CaSUN-NL entailed the original five CaSUN scales, extended with respectively a returning to work and lifestyle scale. This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the CaSUN-NL...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
Lorrany C Silva, Túlio E Nogueira, Laís F Rios, Martin Schimmel, Cláudio R Leles
The aim of this study was to test the reliability of a method to measure the masticatory performance of complete denture wearers employing a colour-mixing ability test and assessment by visual and electronic colourimetric analysis. A sample of 75 subjects was selected from patients who received new conventional complete dentures. Masticatory tests were performed using a two-colour chewing gum that was masticated for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing cycles, performed in a random order. The mixing level of the two colours of the chewed gum was assessed visually by two independent raters based on a 5-point ordinal scale...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
D Kerr, C Axelrod, C Hoppe, D C Klonoff
The ability of an individual living with diabetes to have human-to-human contact with their healthcare provider is not keeping pace with the number of people developing diabetes. From a futurist perspective, however, this dichotomy of diabetes care represents an opportunity for digital healthcare. The focus of technological innovation is unlikely to be the replacement of the multidisciplinary diabetes team but rather the provision of meaningful individual and family support between clinic visits and, on a larger scale, the facilitation of population health management for diabetes...
January 22, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Susumu Ichiyama, Michiko Ito, Yoko Funasaka, Masatoshi Abe, Emi Nishida, Shinnosuke Muramatsu, Haruna Nishihara, Hiroshi Kato, Akimichi Morita, Shinichi Imafuku, Hidehisa Saeki
Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory keratotic skin disease. To elucidate the medication adherence and treatment satisfaction, we performed a questionnaire survey using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and nine-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9) of 163 psoriatic patients who regularly visited hospitals or clinics. To assess the relationship between the MMAS-8/TSQM-9 outcomes and severity of psoriasis, two different clinical severity indices were used: the Psoriasis Area and the Severity Index (PASI) for disease severity and the Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI) for quality of life (QOL) impairment...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Enhua Xu, Seiichiro L Ten-No
Partially linearized external models to active-space coupled-cluster through hextuple excitations, for example, CC{SDtqph}L , CCSD{tqph}L , and CCSD{tqph}hyb, are implemented and compared with the full active-space CCSDtqph. The computational scaling of CCSDtqph coincides with that for the standard coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), yet with a much large prefactor. The approximate schemes to linearize the external excitations higher than doubles are significantly cheaper than the full CCSDtqph model...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Brendan T Johns, Randall K Jamieson
The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience...
January 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
Anish Mitra, Marcus E Raichle
Directed signaling among and within the large-scale networks of the human brain is functionally critical. Recent advances in our understanding of spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI BOLD signal have provided strategies to study the spatial-temporal properties of directed signaling at infra-slow frequencies. Herein we explore the relationship between two canonical systems of the human brain, the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) whose anti-correlated relationship is well known but poorly understood...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Pauline A Swiger, Lori A Loan, Dheeraj Raju, Sara T Breckenridge-Sproat, Rebecca S Miltner, Patricia A Patrician
Favorable nursing practice environments have been associated with lower patient mortality, failure to rescue, nurse-administered medication errors, infections, patient complaints, and patient falls. Favorable environments have also been associated with higher nurse-reported care quality and patient satisfaction in civilian hospitals. However, limited information exists on the relationship between favorable nursing practice environments and positive outcomes in military facilities. Using 4 years of secondary data collected from 45 units in 10 Army hospitals, generalized estimating equations were used to test the associations between nurses' scores on the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) and patient outcomes of falls with and without injury, medication administration errors with and without harm, and patient experience...
January 22, 2018: Research in Nursing & Health
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