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Chlorine lungs reactivity

Ting Zhou, Wei-Feng Song, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao, Sadis Matalon
Objective: Exposure to halogens, such as chlorine or bromine, results in environmental and occupational hazard to the lung and other organs. Chlorine is highly toxic by inhalation, leading to dyspnea, hypoxemia, airway obstruction, pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although bromine is less reactive and oxidative than chlorine, inhalation also results in bronchospasm, airway hyperresponsiveness, ARDS, and even death. Both halogens have been shown to damage the systemic circulation and result in cardiac injury as well...
May 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Jing-Hua Sun, Wei Zhang, Dong-Yang Zhang, Jianliang Shen, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
A multimodal nanocarrier based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is developed to co-delivery photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox) for cancer combination therapy. Ce6 was covalently conjugated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles, which could increase the loading efficiency, and allowed for photodynamic therapy. Doxorubicin was loaded into the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to afford the dual drug delivery system Dox@MSNs-Ce6. These hybrid nanoparticles have an average diameter of about 100 nm and slightly negative charge of about -17 mV...
April 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Eleanor M Summerhill, Gary W Hoyle, Sven-Eric Jordt, Bronwen J Jugg, James G Martin, Sadis Matalon, Steven E Patterson, David J Prezant, Alfred M Sciuto, Erik R Svendsen, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
This report is based on the proceedings from the Inhalational Lung Injury Workshop jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program on May 21, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The CounterACT program facilitates research leading to the development of new and improved medical countermeasures for chemical threat agents. The workshop was initiated by the Terrorism and Inhalational Disasters Section of the Environmental, Occupational, and Population Health Assembly of the ATS...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Mia Johansson, Åsa Gustafsson, Gunnar Johanson, Mattias Öberg
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that asthmatics are more susceptible than healthy individuals to airborne irritating chemicals in general. However, there is limited human data available to support this hypothesis due to ethical and practical difficulties. We explored a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation to study susceptibility during acute exposure to chemicals with chlorine as a model substance. METHODS: Naïve and OVA sensitized female BALB/c mice were exposed to chlorine at four different concentrations (0, 5, 30 and 80 ppm) for 15 minutes with online recording of the respiratory function by plethysmography...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Wei Zhang, Jianliang Shen, Hua Su, Ge Mu, Jing-Hua Sun, Cai-Ping Tan, Xing-Jie Liang, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Combination therapy shows great promise in circumventing cisplatin resistance. We report herein the development of a novel nanoscale drug delivery system (nDDS) based nanotherapeutic that combines chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) into one single platform to achieve synergistic anticancer capacity to conquer cisplatin resistance. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSNs) was used as the drug delivery vector to conjugate cisplatin prodrug and to load photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) to afford the dual drug loaded delivery system MSNs/Ce6/Pt...
June 1, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gary W Hoyle, Jing Chen, Connie F Schlueter, Yiqun Mo, David M Humphrey, Greg Rawson, Joe A Niño, Kenneth H Carson
Chlorine is a commonly used, reactive compound to which humans can be exposed via accidental or intentional release resulting in acute lung injury. Formulations of rolipram (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), triptolide (a natural plant product with anti-inflammatory properties), and budesonide (a corticosteroid), either neat or in conjunction with poly(lactic:glycolic acid) (PLGA), were developed for treatment of chlorine-induced acute lung injury by intramuscular injection. Formulations were produced by spray-drying, which generated generally spherical microparticles that were suitable for intramuscular injection...
May 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Caixia Yue, Chunlei Zhang, Gabriel Alfranca, Yao Yang, Xinquan Jiang, Yuming Yang, Fei Pan, Jesús M de la Fuente, Daxiang Cui
Many drug controlled release methods have been integrated in multifunctional nanoparticles, such as pH-, redox-, temperature-, enzyme-, and light-responsive release. However, few report is associated with the ROS responsive drug controlled release. Herein, a thioketal linker-based ROS responsive drug (camptothecin conjugated with thioketal linker, abbreviated as TL-CPT) was prepared and the thioketal linker could be cleaved by ROS(reactive oxygen species). To achieve cancer simultaneous optical imaging, photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy, the photosensitizer Chlorin e6(Ce6), TL-CPT and carboxyl-mPEG were loaded on the upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), which were named as Ce6-CPT-UCNPs...
2016: Theranostics
Noelia Negreira, Jorge Regueiro, Miren López de Alda, Damià Barceló
Erlotinib is a highly potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of the most common type of lung cancer. Due to its recent introduction, very scarce information is available on its occurrence, environmental fate and toxicological effects on aquatic organisms. During chlorination processes normally carried out in wastewater treatment plants and in the pretreatment of hospital effluents, chlorinated transformation products can be formed with an enhanced toxicity relative to the parent compound. Thus, the reactivity of the cytostatic drug erlotinib in free chlorine-containing water was investigated for the first time in the present work...
November 15, 2015: Water Research
Weifeng Song, Zhihong Yu, Stephen F Doran, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Chad Steele, Stavros Garantziotis, Sadis Matalon
Exposure to chlorine (Cl2) damages airway and alveolar epithelia resulting in acute lung injury and reactive airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. However, little is known about the effect of preexisting respiratory disease on Cl2-induced lung injury. By using a murine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection model, we found that preexisting RSV infection increases Cl2 (187 ppm for 30 min)-induced lung inflammation and airway AHR at 24 h after exposure (5 days after infection). RSV infection and Cl2 exposure synergistically induced oxygen desaturation and neutrophil infiltration and increased MCP-1, MIP-1β, IL-10, IFN-γ, and RANTES concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Ahmed Lazrak, Judy Creighton, Zhihong Yu, Svetlana Komarova, Stephen F Doran, Saurabh Aggarwal, Charles W Emala, Vandy P Stober, Carol S Trempus, Stavros Garantziotis, Sadis Matalon
Chlorine (Cl2) inhalation induces severe oxidative lung injury and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) that lead to asthmalike symptoms. When inhaled, Cl2 reacts with epithelial lining fluid, forming by-products that damage hyaluronan, a constituent of the extracellular matrix, causing the release of low-molecular-weight fragments (L-HA, <300 kDa), which initiate a series of proinflammatory events. Cl2 (400 ppm, 30 min) exposure to mice caused an increase of L-HA and its binding partner, inter-α-trypsin-inhibitor (IαI), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
May 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Pan Wang, Caifeng Li, Xiaobing Wang, Wenli Xiong, Xiaolan Feng, Quanhong Liu, Albert Wingnang Leung, Chuanshan Xu
Sono-Photodynamic therapy (SPDT), a new modality for cancer treatment, is aimed at enhancing anticancer effects by the combination of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect and possible mechanisms of Chlorin e6 (Ce6) mediated SPDT (Ce6-SPDT) on breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay revealed that the combined therapy markedly enhanced cell viability loss of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and 4T1) compared with SDT and PDT alone...
March 2015: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sotirios G Zarogiannis, Brant M Wagener, Susanna Basappa, Stephen Doran, Cilina A Rodriguez, Asta Jurkuvenaite, Jean Francois Pittet, Sadis Matalon
Chlorine (Cl2) is a highly reactive oxidant gas that, when inhaled, may cause acute lung injury culminating in death from respiratory failure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure of mice to Cl2 causes intra-alveolar and systemic activation of the coagulation cascade that plays an important role in development of lung injury. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to Cl2 (400 for 30 min or 600 ppm for 45 min) in environmental chambers and then returned to room air for 1 or 6 h. Native coagulation (NATEM) parameters such as blood clotting time and clot formation time were measured in whole blood by the viscoelastic technique...
September 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Shrilatha Balakrishna, Weifeng Song, Satyanarayana Achanta, Stephen F Doran, Boyi Liu, Melanie M Kaelberer, Zhihong Yu, Aiwei Sui, Mui Cheung, Emma Leishman, Hilary S Eidam, Guosen Ye, Robert N Willette, Kevin S Thorneloe, Heather B Bradshaw, Sadis Matalon, Sven-Eric Jordt
The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents...
July 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Weile Yan, Hsing-Lung Lien, Bruce E Koel, Wei-xian Zhang
Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is one of the most extensively applied nanomaterials for groundwater and hazardous waste treatment. In the past fifteen years, progress made in several key areas has deepened our understanding of the merits and uncertainties of nZVI-based remediation applications. These areas include the materials chemistry of nZVI in its simple and modified forms, the nZVI reactivity with a wide spectrum of contaminants in addition to the well-documented chlorinated solvents, methods to enhance the colloidal stability and transport properties of nZVI in porous media, and the effects of nZVI amendment on the biogeochemical environment...
January 2013: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Melissa A Gessner, Stephen F Doran, Zhihong Yu, Chad W Dunaway, Sadis Matalon, Chad Steele
Chlorine (Cl₂) is a highly irritating and reactive gas with potential occupational and environmental hazards. Acute exposure to Cl₂ induces severe epithelial damage, airway hyperreactivity, impaired alveolar fluid clearance, and pulmonary edema in the presence of heightened inflammation and significant neutrophil accumulation in the lungs. Herein, we investigated whether Cl₂ exposure affected the lung antimicrobial immune response leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Mice exposed to Cl₂ and challenged intratracheally 24 h thereafter with the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus demonstrated an >500-fold increase in A...
June 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Thomas Büch, Eva Schäfer, Dirk Steinritz, Alexander Dietrich, Thomas Gudermann
Acute toxic lung injury by reactive inhalational compounds is an important and still unresolved medical problem. Hazardous gases or vapors, e. g. chlorine, phosgene, sulfur mustard or methyl isocyanate, are released during occupational accidents or combustion processes and also represent a potential threat in terroristic scenarios. According to their broad-range chemical reactivity, the mechanism of lung injury evoked by these agents has long been described as rather unspecific. Consequently, therapeutic options are still restricted to symptomatic treatment...
2013: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Yiqun Mo, Jing Chen, Connie F Schlueter, Gary W Hoyle
Chlorine is a reactive gas that is considered a chemical threat agent. Humans who develop acute lung injury from chlorine inhalation typically recover normal lung function; however, a subset can experience chronic airway disease. To examine pathological changes following chlorine-induced lung injury, mice were exposed to a single high dose of chlorine, and repair of the lung was analyzed at multiple times after exposure. In FVB/NJ mice, chlorine inhalation caused pronounced fibrosis of larger airways that developed by day 7 after exposure and was associated with airway hyperreactivity...
January 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Sofia Jonasson, Bo Koch, Anders Bucht
Chlorine is highly irritating when inhaled, and is a common toxic industrial gas causing tissue damage in the airways followed by an acute inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which chlorine exposure may cause reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) and we examined the dose-dependency of the development of symptoms. Mice were exposed to 50 or 200 ppm Cl(2) during a single 15 min exposure in a nose-only container. The experiment terminated 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 7, 14, 28 and 90 days post exposure...
January 7, 2013: Toxicology
Andrey A Samal, Jaideep Honavar, Angela Brandon, Kelley M Bradley, Stephen Doran, Yanping Liu, Chad Dunaway, Chad Steele, Edward M Postlethwait, Giuseppe L Squadrito, Michelle V Fanucchi, Sadis Matalon, Rakesh P Patel
Cl(2) gas toxicity is complex and occurs during and after exposure, leading to acute lung injury (ALI) and reactive airway syndrome (RAS). Moreover, Cl(2) exposure can occur in diverse situations encompassing mass casualty scenarios, highlighting the need for postexposure therapies that are efficacious and amenable to rapid and easy administration. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a single dose of nitrite (1 mg/kg) to decrease ALI when administered to rats via intraperitoneal (ip) or intramuscular (im) injection 30 min after Cl(2) exposure...
October 1, 2012: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Anastasija V Efremenko, Anastasija A Ignatova, Alena A Borsheva, Mikhail A Grin, Vladimir I Bregadze, Igor B Sivaev, Andrey F Mironov, Alexey V Feofanov
Conjugation of boron nanoparticles with porphyrins is an attractive way to create dual agents for anticancer boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Properties of chlorin e(6) conjugated with two cobalt bis(dicarbollide) nanoparticles (1) or with a closo-dodecaborate nanoparticle (2) are reported. Fluorescent dianionic conjugates 1 and 2 penetrate in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells, stain cytoplasm diffusely and accumulate highly in lysosomes but are not toxic themselves for cells...
April 2012: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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