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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736179/venous-thromboembolism-in-burn-patients-is-not-prevented-by-chemoprophylaxis
#1
Sheena Sikora, Anthony Papp
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolisms (VTE) including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are serious complications following burn trauma. There are inconsistencies in the literature regarding thromboembolic prevention strategies and data suggests that complications occur despite chemoprophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of deep venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism in burn patients who are actively being treated with VTE prophylaxis and to determine factors that help predict which anti-coagulated patients are at risk for VTE and may benefit from further treatment...
July 20, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723881/correlation-between-pao2-fio2-and-peripheral-capillary-oxygenation-fio2-in-burned-children-with-smoke-inhalation-injury
#2
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Charles D Voigt, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Omar Nunez-Lopez, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Michaela Sljivich, Linda E Sousse, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman, Michael P Kinsky, Ronald P Mlcak
OBJECTIVES: Determine whether the peripheral capillary oxygenation/FIO2 ratio correlates with the PaO2/FIO2 ratio in burned children with smoke inhalation injury, with the goal of understanding if the peripheral capillary oxygenation/FIO2 ratio can serve as a surrogate for the PaO2/FIO2 ratio for the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Shriners Hospitals for Children-Galveston. PATIENTS: All burned children with smoke inhalation injury who were admitted from 1996 to 2014 and had simultaneously obtained peripheral capillary oxygenation, FIO2 and PaO2 measurements...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716263/exogenous-acrolein-intensifies-sensory-hypersensitivity-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#3
Breanne Butler, Glen Acosta, Riyi Shi
Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde associated with oxidative stress, is also a major toxic component of tobacco cigarette smoke, which has been reported in the clinic to coincide with the exacerbation of neuropathic pain after SCI. Previous reports have shown that acrolein involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI) is crucial to the development and persistence of neuropathic pain. Through the activation and upregulation of the transient receptor protein ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) cation channel, acrolein is capable of sensitizing the central nervous system in the acute and chronic stages of SCI...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714748/no-adverse-lung-effects-of-7-and-28-day-inhalation-exposure-of-rats-to-emissions-from-petrodiesel-fuel-containing-20-rapeseed-methyl-esters-b20-with-and-without-particulate-filter-the-fuelhealth-project
#4
Pål Magnusson, Michał Oczkowski, Johan Øvrevik, Malgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Jacek Biedrzycki, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska, Dariusz Kamola, Tomasz Królikowski, Marcin Kruszewski, Anna Lankoff, Remigiusz Mruk, Gunnar Brunborg, Christine Instanes, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Oddvar Myhre
Increased use of biofuels raises concerns about health effects of new emissions. We analyzed relative lung health effects, on Fisher 344 rats, of diesel engine exhausts emissions (DEE) from a Euro 5-classified diesel engine running on petrodiesel fuel containing 20% rapeseed methyl esters (B20) with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). One group of animals was exposed to DEE for 7 days (6 h/day), and another group for 28 days (6 h/day, 5 days/week), both with and without DPF. The animals (n = 7/treatment) were exposed in whole body exposure chambers...
July 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708712/extended-second-window-of-protection-of-sevoflurane-induced-preconditioning
#5
Friederike Behmenburg, Yvonne Boekholt, Patrick van Caster, Marianne Dorsch, André Heinen, Markus W Hollmann, Ragnar Huhn
Late preconditioning (LPC) can be induced by volatile anesthetics and initiates cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury for three to four days. We investigated the possibility to extend the time window of sevoflurane-induced LPC by repeated sevoflurane administration. An in vivo rat model of regional myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was used. Myocardial infarct size was determined by TTC staining at the end of the experiment. In the first series of experiments, male Wistar rats were randomized to five groups (each n=8)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704919/the-role-of-radiation-induced-injury-on-lung-cancer
#6
Stephanie Puukila, Christopher Thome, Antone L Brooks, Gayle Woloschak, Douglas R Boreham
This manuscript evaluates the role of cell killing, tissue disorganization, and tissue damage on the induction of lung cancer following low dose rate radiation exposures from internally deposited radioactive materials. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to (90)Y, (91)Y, (144)Ce, or (90)Sr in fused clay particles. Dogs lived out their life span with complete pathology conducted at the time of death. The radiation dose per cell turnover was characterized and related to the cause of death for each animal. Large doses per cell turnover resulted in acute death from lung damage with extensive cell killing, tissue disorganization, chronic inflammatory disease, fibrosis, and pneumonitis...
July 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700752/role-of-a-novel-immune-modulating-ddr2-expressing-population-in-silica-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
Lindsay T McDonald, Sara D Johnson, Dayvia L Russell, M Rita I Young, Amanda C LaRue
Micro-injuries associated with chronic inhaled particle exposures are linked with activation of the immune response and are thought to contribute to progression of fibrotic disease. In the pulmonary environment, we have previously demonstrated a heterogeneous population of circulating fibroblast precursors (CFPs), which are defined by expression of the pan-leukocyte marker CD45 and the collagen receptor, discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2). This population is derived from the hematopoietic stem cell, expresses collagen, and has a fibroblastic morphology in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700107/cigarette-smoke-induces-rat-testicular-injury-via-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#8
He Lijuan, You Shuping, Gong Haiyan, Zhang Jing, Wang Li, Zhang Chen, Huang Yunfei, Zhong Chunxue, Zou Ying
An understanding of the causative mechanisms of the harmful effects of cigarette smoke on the male reproductive system remains incomplete. Here, we investigated three different inhaled cigarette smoke doses over five different exposure durations to identify how the testis is affected. The effects of cigarette smoke exposure on testicular germ cells were characterized by morphological changes and a significant elevation in the number of apoptotic cells. Caspase 3 activation increased dramatically after cigarette smoke exposure, accompanied by significant time-dependent expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak (B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 [Bcl-2] homologous antagonist killer), Bcl2l11 (a BH3 domain-only protein related to Bcl-2), Apaf1 (Apoptotic protease-activating factor-1), and Caspase 9...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697050/transfusion-requirement-in-burn-care-evaluation-tribe-a-multicenter-randomized-prospective-trial-of-blood-transfusion-in-major-burn-injury
#9
Tina L Palmieri, James H Holmes, Brett Arnoldo, Michael Peck, Bruce Potenza, Amalia Cochran, Booker T King, William Dominic, Robert Cartotto, Dhaval Bhavsar, Nathan Kemalyan, Edward Tredget, Francois Stapelberg, David Mozingo, Bruce Friedman, David G Greenhalgh, Sandra L Taylor, Brad H Pollock
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare outcomes of a restrictive to a liberal red cell transfusion strategy in 20% or more total body surface area (TBSA) burn patients. We hypothesized that the restrictive group would have less blood stream infection (BSI), organ dysfunction, and mortality. BACKGROUND: Patients with major burns have major (>1 blood volume) transfusion requirements. Studies suggest that a restrictive blood transfusion strategy is equivalent to a liberal strategy...
July 10, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697018/the-renaissance-man-of-burn-surgery-basil-a-pruitt-jr
#10
Karel D Capek, Guillermo Foncerrada, R Patrick Clayton, Michaela Sljivich, Charles D Voigt, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Craig Porter, Ashley Guillory, David N Herndon
Dr. Basil A. Pruitt Jr., a consummate clinical and translational surgeon-scientist, has been spent over half a century at the forefront of an advancing standard of burn care. Commanding the US Army Institute for Surgical Research in San Antonio, he trained generations of leading burn clinicians and allied scientists. At his direction, there were forged discoveries in resuscitation from shock, treatment of inhalation injury, control of burn-related infections, prevention of iatrogenic complications, and understanding the sympathetic, endocrine, and immune responses to burn injury...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697015/the-p50-research-center-in-perioperative-sciences-how-the-investment-by-the-national-institute-of-general-medical-sciences-in-team-science-has-reduced-post-burn-mortality
#11
Celeste C Finnerty, Karel Capek, Charles Voigt, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Craig Porter, Linda E Sousse, Amina El Ayadi, Ramon Zapata-Sirvent, Ashley Guillory, Oscar E Suman, David N Herndon
Since the inception of the P50 Research Center in Peri-Operative Sciences (RCIPS) funding mechanism, the National Institute for General Medical Sciences has supported a team approach to science. Many advances in critical care, particularly burns, have been driven by RCIPS teams. In fact, burns that were fatal in the early 1970s, prior to the inception of the P50 RCIPS program, are now routinely survived as a result of the P50-funded research. The advances in clinical care that led to the reduction in post-burn death were made by optimizing resuscitation, incorporating early excision and grafting, bolstering acute care including support for inhalation injury, modulating the hypermetabolic response, augmenting the immune response, incorporating aerobic exercise, and developing anti-scarring strategies...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690173/immediate-and-delayed-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-a-neuroprotective-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#12
Renana Baratz-Goldstein, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen, Aviya Elpaz, Vardit Rubovitch, Chaim G Pick
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of death or chronic disability among people under-35-years-old. There is no effective pharmacological treatment currently existing for TBI. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is defined as the inhalation of pure oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized higher than 1atm. HBOT offers physiological and mechanical effects by inducing a state of increased pressure and hyperoxia. HBOT has been proposed as an effective treatment for moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI), yet the exact therapeutic window and mechanism that underlies this effect is not completely understood...
July 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677920/the-genetic-heterogeneity-among-different-mouse-strains-impacts-the-lung-injury-potential-of-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes
#13
Xiang Wang, Yu-Pei Liao, Donatello Telesca, Chong Hyun Chang, Tian Xia, André E Nel
Genetic variation constitutes an important variable impacting the susceptibility to inhalable toxic substances and air pollutants, as reflected by epidemiological studies in humans and differences among animal strains. While multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are capable of causing lung fibrosis in rodents, it is unclear to what extent the genetic variation in different mouse strains influence the outcome. Four inbred mouse strains, including C57Bl/6, Balb/c, NOD/ShiLtJ, and A/J, to test the pro-fibrogenic effects of a library of MWCNTs in vitro and in vivo are chosen...
July 5, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674181/lung-epithelial-cell-derived-microvesicles-regulate-macrophage-migration-via-microrna-17-221-induced-integrin-%C3%AE-1-recycling
#14
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Jingxuan Wu, Leo E Otterbein, Yang Jin
Robust lung inflammation is one of the prominent features in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Macrophage migration and recruitment are often seen at the early stage of lung inflammatory responses to noxious stimuli. Using an acid inhalation-induced lung injury model, we explored the mechanisms by which acid exposure initiates macrophage recruitment and migration during development of ALI. The lung epithelium comprises a large surface area and functions as a first-line defense against noxious insults...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670397/combined-administration-of-a-sedative-dose-sevoflurane-and-60-oxygen-reduces-inflammatory-responses-to-sepsis-in-animals-and-in-human-pmbcs
#15
Er-Fei Zhang, Zuo-Xu Hou, Tian Shao, Wan-Wan Yang, Bin Hu, Xiao-Xia Wang, Ze-Xin Zhang, Yi Huang, Li-Ze Xiong, Li-Chao Hou
Our study aims to investigate the effects of the inhalation of subanesthestic doses of sevoflurane combined with oxygen on sepsis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats or Male ICR/Km mice underwent caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysccharide (LPS) to induce sepsis, while sham rats were used as control. Then, rats were treated with the inhalation of sevoflurane in oxygen; and air or 100% oxygen was used as control. Seven-day survival, lung injury and inflammatory factors were assessed...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669353/possible-gasoline-induced-chronic-liver-injury-due-to-occupational-malpractice-in-a-motor-mechanic-a-case-report
#16
Mahesh Lakmal Gunathilaka, Madunil Anuk Niriella, Nathasha Vihangi Luke, Chathura Lakmal Piyarathna, Rohan Chaminda Siriwardena, Arjuna Priyadarshin De Silva, Hithanadura Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a well-known clinical entity among petroleum industry workers. There are many types of hydrocarbon exposure, with inhalation being the most common. Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a rarely suspected and commonly missed etiological agent for liver injury. We report a case of a non-petroleum industry worker with chronic liver disease secondary to hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury caused by chronic low-grade hydrocarbon ingestion due to occupational malpractice...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665528/trauma-hazards-in-children-an-update-for-the-busy-clinician
#17
REVIEW
Andrew Ja Holland, Soundappan Sv Soundappan
Trauma and injury continue to be common in children and remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Legislation mandating the use of helmets for all cyclists appears to have been effective in reducing the incidence and severity of head and facial injuries, with no clear evidence of a reduction in cycling usage or activity. Straddle injuries, whilst uncommon and generally minor, require careful clinical assessment as they may be associated with urethral trauma. Quad bikes remain highly dangerous with continuing reports of deaths in child riders due to their inherent lack of stability: a ban on their use by children would seem the most effective solution...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663766/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-hemorheology-status-in-hypoxemic-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-after-pci
#18
Xi-Fu Wang, Ming Ye, Dong Yan, Hui-Min Zhang, Ping Jia, Xue-Jun Ren, Yu-Jie Zeng
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia sometimes occurs in the emergency room in the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), even in those with administration of conventional high-flow oxygen inhalation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in improving blood oxygen content and hemorheology in patients with AMI and hypoxemia. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 50 consecutive eligible patients with AMI (aged 72...
April 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661978/prone-positioning-of-the-burn-patient-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-practical-considerations
#19
Brandon Oto, Rowena I Orosco, Elizabeth Panter, Rama Velamuri, A Reema Kar, Julie Caffrey
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common sequela of severe burns and inhalation injury. The massive inflammatory reaction that follows deep burn injury, compounded by episodes of sepsis and organ dysfunction, predisposes patients to the development of ARDS. Prone positioning as a means of improving gas exchange has shown benefit in refractory cases of ARDS, but it is not well described in the burn population. We present a case report of a patient with severe ARDS who underwent prone positioning, review the relevant literature, and provide a discussion of practical concerns...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661975/interleukin-6-serum-levels-correlate-with-severity-of-burn-injury-but-not-with-gender
#20
Stephan Hager, Ann Christina Foldenauer, Hans-Oliver Rennekampff, Robert Deisz, Ruedger Kopp, Mayer Tenenhaus, Marx Gernot, Norbert Pallua
Gender-specific differences in the outcome of patients with burn injury have been recognized in the past with female patients being at a higher risk of mortality. We hypothesized that early post-burn interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine levels may contribute to the different gender-specific outcome. We retrospectively examined 94 burned patients who were treated in the Burn Intensive Care Unit at the University Hospital Aachen. Age, gender, presence of inhalation injury, depth, TBSA, and clinical outcome were documented...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
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