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community development

Ling Pan, Yi-Long Xi, Jing Gu, Shan Jiang, Han Zhu, Bing-Xing Zhang
Predation plays an important role in mediating the coexistence and the community structure of rotifera. In response to predation stresses, prey rotifers develop morphological defenses and change their life-history strategy for the reallocation of energy investment. Yet, how these changes respond to different total energy ingestion remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the life-table demographic, population growth and morphological parameters of Brachionus calyciflorus in response to various densities of Asplanchna sieboldi at two food levels (1...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Zheyu Shen, Jibin Song, Bryant C Yung, Zijian Zhou, Aiguo Wu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Ferroptosis, a new form of regulated cell death that is iron- and reactive oxygen species dependent, has attracted much attention in the research communities of biochemistry, oncology, and especially material sciences. Since the first demonstration in 2012, a series of strategies have been developed to induce ferroptosis of cancer cells, including the use of nanomaterials, clinical drugs, experimental compounds, and genes. A plethora of research work has outlined the blueprint of ferroptosis as a new option for cancer therapy...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ronit Amit, Susan K Jacobson
Reducing costs and increasing benefits for rural communities coexisting with large carnivores is necessary for conservation of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). To design acceptable incentives, stakeholders must be involved in the process. We conducted an innovative structured group communication process, based on a Delphi technique, as a template for identifying potential incentives. Community workshops with 133 members of 7 communities and iterative surveys with 25 multidisciplinary experts from government, NGOs and academia provided iterative data to design a plan of incentives through 4 rounds of discussion...
January 22, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Linda L Kusner, Manjistha Sengupta, Henry J Kaminski
Because of the failure of many promising therapeutics identified in preclinical evaluation, funding sources have established guidelines for increased rigor in animal evaluations. The myasthenia gravis (MG) community of scientists has developed guidelines for preclinical assessment for potential MG treatments. Here, we provide a focused summary of these recommendations and the role of complement in disease development in experimental models of MG.
January 21, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Elizabeth L Tung, Kathryn E Gunter, Nyahne Q Bergeron, Stacy Tessler Lindau, Marshall H Chin, Monica E Peek
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motivations of stakeholders from diverse sectors who engaged in cross-sector collaboration with an academic medical center. DATA SOURCE: Primary qualitative data (2014-2015) were collected from 22 organizations involved in a cross-sector diabetes intervention on the South Side of Chicago. STUDY DESIGN: In-depth, semistructured interviews; participants included leaders from all stakeholder organization types (e...
January 22, 2018: Health Services Research
Lauren J Hunt, Lorinda A Coombs, Caroline E Stephens
As part of the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease, reducing potentially avoidable emergency department (ED) use by individuals with dementia has been identified as a component of enhancing the quality and efficiency of care for this population. To help inform the development of interventions to achieve this goal, an integrative review was conducted to: (a) compare rates and reasons for ED visits by community-dwelling individuals with and without dementia, considering also the effect of dementia subtype and severity; and (b) identify other risk factors for increased ED use among community-dwelling individuals with dementia...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Amanda Sim, Mina Fazel, Lucy Bowes, Frances Gardner
Forcibly displaced children are at risk of a range of negative outcomes, yet little is known about how to support war-affected caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial resilience. The current study uses qualitative methods to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of war and displacement on parenting and child adjustment in order to inform intervention development. In April and November 2016, group and individual interviews were conducted with 39 Syrian parents and 15 children in partnership with a humanitarian organization in Lebanon...
January 10, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Di Zhao, Eliseo Guallar, Janice V Bowie, Bonnielin Swenor, Prateek Gajwani, Natasha Kanwar, David S Friedman
PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with attendance to follow-up ophthalmic care, and to assess the impact of strategies to improve follow-up. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This is an ongoing study to develop an eye screening paradigm, focusing on African Americans ≥50 years of age at multiple urban community sites in Baltimore, MD. Several strategies were employed aiming to increase follow-up attendance rates. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between demographic, medical and ocular factors with follow-up rate...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Y Liu, Z Ren, G Hwang, H Koo
Cariogenic biofilms are highly structured microbial communities embedded in an extracellular matrix, a multifunctional scaffold that is essential for the existence of the biofilm lifestyle and full expression of virulence. The extracellular matrix provides the physical and biological properties that enhance biofilm adhesion and cohesion, as well as create a diffusion-modulating milieu, protecting the resident microbes and facilitating the formation of localized acidic pH niches. These biochemical properties pose significant challenges for the development of effective antibiofilm therapeutics to control dental caries...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
M Fontana, G J Eckert, M A Keels, R Jackson, B Katz, B T Levy, S M Levy
Expanded partnership with the medical community is an important strategy for reducing dental caries disparities. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between fluoride (F) "in office" (drops/tablets and/or varnish), as prescribed or applied by a health care professional by age 1 y, and 1) caries development and 2) presence of other caries risk factors or mediators (e.g., socioeconomic status). Child-primary caregiver (PCG) pairs ( N = 1,325) were recruited in Indiana, Iowa, and North Carolina as part of a longitudinal cohort study to validate a caries risk tool for primary health care settings...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
R A Burne
Technological advances in DNA sequencing have provided unprecedented insights into the composition of the oral microbiome in health and disease, and RNA-sequencing and metabolomics-related technologies are beginning to yield information on the activities of these organisms. Importantly, progress in this area has brought the scientific community closer to an understanding of what constitutes a health-associated microbiome and is supporting the notion that the microbiota in healthy sites assumes an active role in promoting health and suppressing the acquisition, persistence, and activities of overt and opportunistic pathogens...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Maureen E Murray, Dalia Y Khoury, Elizabeth M Z Farmer, Barbara J Burns
It is extremely challenging to implement evidence-based interventions in community-based agencies with sufficient quality, fidelity, and intensity to produce desired changes in practice and outcomes. This is particularly difficult to do within the confines of existing service providers' time, personnel, and resource constraints. Over the past 15 years, Together Facing the Challenge (TFTC) has been developed, tested, and disseminated in an effort to address this set of issues to improve treatment foster care (TFC)...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Wai Kai Hou, George A Bonanno
Emotion mobilizes and demobilizes a social movement while the movement itself impacts people's emotions. An evidence base is needed for developing timely emotion-focused counseling services for affected populations worldwide. This experience sampling study investigated the impact of a social movement on everyday emotional reactivity, variability, instability, and persistence, and whether and how these predicted subsequent psychological distress and well-being among 108 community-dwelling adults. Fifty-four participants reported momentary events and emotions 5 times daily over 7 days during the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong...
January 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
May Sudhinaraset, Patience Afulani, Nadia Diamond-Smith, Sanghita Bhattacharyya, France Donnay, Dominic Montagu
Background: Globally, substantial health inequities exist with regard to maternal, newborn and reproductive health. Lack of access to good quality care-across its many dimensions-is a key factor driving these inequities. Significant global efforts have been made towards improving the quality of care within facilities for maternal and reproductive health. However, one critically overlooked aspect of quality improvement activities is person-centered care. Main body: The objective of this paper is to review existing literature and theories related to person-centered reproductive health care to develop a framework for improving the quality of reproductive health, particularly in low and middle-income countries...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
Doriana Cristofalo, Chiara Bonetto, Mario Ballarin, Francesco Amaddeo, Mirella Ruggeri, Michela Nosè, Corrado Barbui
The present study was conducted to describe access to and use of psychiatric services by migrants resettled in a large and well-defined catchment area. The study was conducted in a catchment area of 459,536 inhabitants in Verona, a city located in the Northeast of Italy. Using a psychiatric case register, all native and migrant individuals with a first ever psychiatric contact from 2000 to 2015 were identified. Service use data during the 12 months following first contact were collected. During the study period a total of 2610 migrants and 28,860 natives had at least one psychiatric contact...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Jayaraman Narenkumar, Nachimuthu Ramesh, Aruliah Rajasekar
Abstract: Ten aerobic corrosive bacterial strains were isolated from a cooling tower water system (CWS) which were identified based on the biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Out of them, dominant corrosion-causing bacteria, namely, Bacillus thuringiensis EN2, Terribacillus aidingensis EN3, and Bacillus oleronius EN9, were selected for biocorrosion studies on mild steel 1010 (MS) in a CWS. The biocorrosion behaviour of EN2, EN3, and EN9 strains was studied using immersion test (weight loss method), electrochemical analysis, and surface analysis...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Bhavya Kachiprath, G Jayanath, Solly Solomon, Manomi Sarasan
A simple, reliable method for genomic DNA extraction from sediments with minimum contaminants was developed to address the risk of poor quality DNA in metagenomic studies. Nine DNA extraction methods using 20% cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) were performed and compared to develop an extraction protocol that can offer humic acid-free metagenomic DNA from marine and saltpan sediments. Community DNA extraction was executed via., Zhou et al. modified protocol using 20% CTAB treatment at different steps to compare the efficacy of humic acid removal...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Gabriel B Reedy, Mary Lavelle, Thomas Simpson, Janet E Anderson
Background: A central feature of clinical simulation training is human factors skills, providing staff with the social and cognitive skills to cope with demanding clinical situations. Although these skills are critical to safe patient care, assessing their learning is challenging. This study aimed to develop, pilot and evaluate a valid and reliable structured instrument to assess human factors skills, which can be used pre- and post-simulation training, and is relevant across a range of healthcare professions...
October 2017: BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn
Kate K Mulvaney, Caroline Gottschalk Druschke
As climate change continues to impact New England's coastal ecosystems and their related fisheries, the need for measuring, projecting, interpreting, and applying those impacts for adaptive management is expanding. In New England, different types of formal and informal research efforts that involve collaboration between the fishing community and traditional university and government researchers continue to develop to address some of this need. To better understand the opportunities and challenges that these collaborative research efforts face, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 members of the fishing and research communities who are engaged in advancing New England climate change and fisheries science...
November 15, 2017: Ocean & Coastal Management
Amanda K Gibson, Levi T Morran
Many of the outstanding questions in disease ecology and evolution call for combining observation of natural host-parasite populations with experimental dissection of interactions in the field and the laboratory. The "rewilding" of model systems holds great promise for this endeavor. Here, we highlight the potential for development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its close relatives as a model for the study of disease ecology and evolution. This powerful laboratory model was disassociated from its natural habitat in the 1960s...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
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