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community development

Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Ganbold Lundeg, Amanda Baric, David C Pescod, Keith Pescod
Anesthesia in Mongolia has undergone a period of major development over the past 17 years, thanks to the work of the Mongolian Society of Anesthesiologists (MSA) and the support of the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and the Australian Society of Anaesthetists. The specialty has made major advances in training and in its standing among medical specialties in Mongolia. The MSA has produced members who are leaders in the development of anesthesia as well as emergency medicine and critical care...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Saikat Chowdhury, Noopur Sinha, Piyali Ganguli, Rupa Bhowmick, Vidhi Singh, Sutanu Nandi, Ram Rup Sarkar
BIOchemical PathwaY DataBase is developed as a manually curated, readily updatable, dynamic resource of human cell specific pathway information along with integrated computational platform to perform various pathway analyses. Presently, it comprises of 46 pathways, 3189 molecules, 5742 reactions and 6897 different types of diseases linked with pathway proteins, which are referred by 520 literatures and 17 other pathway databases. With its repertoire of biochemical pathway data, and computational tools for performing Topological, Logical and Dynamic analyses, BIOPYDB offers both the experimental and computational biologists to acquire a comprehensive understanding of signaling cascades in the cells...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Joe Dooley, Gareth Ryan, Lianne Gerber Finn, Megan Bollinger, Cai-Lei Matsumoto, Wilma M Hopman, Len Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Opioid use in pregnancy is increasing globally. In northwest Ontario, rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are alarmingly high. We sought to document the increasing rates of opioid exposure during pregnancy and associated cases of NAS over a 7-year period in northwest Ontario. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre catchment area (population 29 000) maternity program in northwest Ontario of mother-infant dyads of live births from Jan...
2018: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
David H Molyneux, Laura Dean, Oluwatosin Adekeye, J Russell Stothard, Sally Theobald
The drive to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has had many successes but to reach defined targets new approaches are required. Over the last decade, NTD control programmes have benefitted from increased resources, and from effective partnerships and long-term pharmaceutical donations. Although the NTD agenda is broader than those diseases of parasitic aetiology there has been a massive up-scaling of the delivery of medicines to some billion people annually. Recipients are often the poorest, with the aspiration that NTD programmes are key to universal health coverage as reflected within the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs)...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Cleverson Carlos Matiolli, Maeli Melotto
Yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) cDNA library screening is a valuable tool to uncover protein-protein interactions and represents a widely used method to investigate protein function. However, cDNA libraries with low transcript representation limits the depth of the screening. We have developed a Y2H library with cDNA made from Arabidopsis leaves exposed to several stressors as well as untreated leaves. The library was built using pooled mRNA extracted from plants challenged with plant and human bacterial pathogens, the flg22 elicitor, the phytotoxin coronatine, and several hormones associated with environmental stress responses...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
M Netravathi, Nitish Kamble, P Satishchandra, M Gourie-Devi, Pramod Kumar Pal
The Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, Karnataka has a long tradition of excellence in education, teaching, research, and patient care. Its exceptional alumni, as well as current and past faculty members, have made considerable contributions to the development of neurological services throughout the world. The six decades of its existence have seen a momentous growth in clinical, investigative, and community Neurology. As a result of the immense scientific individual as well as collaborative contributions of the faculty members in various departments, the Institute has had the honour of attaining the status of an autonomous 'Institute of National Importance' under the Ministry of Health, Government of India, through a novel concept of collaboration and partnership of central and state governments...
March 2018: Neurology India
Sherry Hamby, Zach Blount, Alli Smith, Lisa Jones, Kimberly Mitchell, Elizabeth Taylor
Many forms of victimization, including bullying and property crime, are increasingly moving online, but most studies of poly-victimization still primarily focus on in-person crime and violence. Few studies have examined the importance of incorporating technology-based victimizations for assessing the true burden of violence. The purpose of this study is to explore whether digital poly-victimization contributes to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms after controlling for in-person poly-victimization...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Mirjana Miskovic, Dragan Ravanic, Dragic Bankovic, Nera Zivlak-Radulovic, Visnja Banjac, Tatjana Dragisic
INTRODUCTION: Cloninger's psychological model of temperament and character confirms that the personality development is influenced by biological and psychological processes. The aim of this study is to examine personality dimensions and to determine which variable separates the healthy from the ill in the best way and could be a possible psychological marker for the presence of the illness. METHODS: This research included 152 subjects, 76 patients with schizophrenia and 76 healthy controls, selected on the basis of medical interviews, random population sampling model from a wider social community using the independent T-Tests...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Julia Twichell, Richard Pollnac, Patrick Christie
International interest in increasing marine protected area (MPA) coverage reflects broad recognition of the MPA as a key tool for marine ecosystems and fisheries management. Nevertheless, effective management remains a significant challenge. The present study contributes to enriching an understanding of best practices for MPA management through analysis of archived community survey data collected in the Philippines by the Learning Project (LP), a collaboration with United States Coral Triangle Initiative (USCTI), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and partners...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Management
Xin Li, Di Wang, Chun Yang, Qi Zhou, Suo-Lang Zhuoga, Li-Qiang Wang, Han-Xin Yao, Qin Zhang, Qing Ai, Chen-Xi Yang, Jian-Cheng Xu
BACKGROUND: The development and growth of children influence values of liver function tests. This study aims to establish age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals of liver function among Han children in Changchun, China. METHODS: A total of 1394 healthy Han children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from communities and schools with informed parental consent in Changchun. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were measured on Hitachi 7600-210 automatic biochemical analyzer...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Alberto Pilotto, Raffaella Boi, Jean Petermans
Recently, the interest of industry, government agencies and healthcare professionals in technology for aging people has increased. The challenge is whether technology may play a role in enhancing independence and quality of life and in reducing individual and societal costs of caring. Information and communication technologies, i.e. tools aimed at communicating and informing, assistive technologies designed to maintain older peoples' independence and increasing safety, and human-computer interaction technologies for supporting older people with motility and cognitive impairments as humanoid robots, exoskeletons, rehabilitation robots, service robots and companion-type are interdisciplinary topics both in research and in clinical practice...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Janya McCalman, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Brown, Komla Tsey, Adele Clarke
Introduction: Spreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program-the Family Wellbeing (FWB) program-to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Nathan H Schumaker, Allen Brookes
Context: Simulation models are increasingly used in both theoretical and applied studies to explore system responses to natural and anthropogenic forcing functions, develop defensible predictions of future conditions, challenge simplifying assumptions that facilitated past research, and to train students in scientific concepts and technology. Researcher's increased use of simulation models has created a demand for new platforms that balance performance, utility, and flexibility. Objectives: We describe HexSim, a powerful new spatially-explicit, individual-based modeling framework that will have applications spanning diverse landscape settings, species, stressors, and disciplines (e...
February 1, 2018: Landscape Ecology
Richard Potts, Anna K Behrensmeyer, J Tyler Faith, Christian A Tryon, Alison S Brooks, John E Yellen, Alan L Deino, Rahab Kinyanjui, Jennifer B Clark, Catherine Haradon, Naomi E Levin, Hanneke J M Meijer, Elizabeth G Veatch, R Bernhart Owen, Robin W Renaut
Development of the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) before 300 thousand years ago (ka) raises the question of how environmental change influenced the evolution of behaviors characteristic of early Homo sapiens We use temporally well-constrained sedimentological and paleoenvironmental data to investigate environmental dynamics before and after the appearance of the early MSA in the Olorgesailie Basin, Kenya. In contrast to the Acheulean archeological record in the same basin, MSA sites are associated with a dramatically different faunal community, more pronounced erosion-deposition cycles, tectonic activity, and enhanced wet-dry variability...
March 15, 2018: Science
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Eli Gibson, Wenqi Li, Carole Sudre, Lucas Fidon, Dzhoshkun I Shakir, Guotai Wang, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Robert Gray, Tom Doel, Yipeng Hu, Tom Whyntie, Parashkev Nachev, Marc Modat, Dean C Barratt, Sébastien Ourselin, M Jorge Cardoso, Tom Vercauteren
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical image analysis and computer-assisted intervention problems are increasingly being addressed with deep-learning-based solutions. Established deep-learning platforms are flexible but do not provide specific functionality for medical image analysis and adapting them for this domain of application requires substantial implementation effort. Consequently, there has been substantial duplication of effort and incompatible infrastructure developed across many research groups...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Mathieu Goyette, Jorge Flores-Aranda, Karine Bertrand, Frédérick Pronovost, Valérie Aubut, Roberto Ortiz, Marianne Saint-Jacques
Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have distinctive substance use (SU), which is more often linked to a sexual context than it is for their heterosexual peers. Screening of MSM's SU, its sexual contexts and the associated risks, is of clinical and public health concern. This paper aims to describe the preliminary development of a screening tool for health-risk sexual behaviours related to SU and to make recommendations for its potential use. Methods: Community-based participatory research and transdisciplinary approaches guided the development process...
March 16, 2018: Sexual Health
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