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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922802/succession-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-along-a-52-year-agricultural-recultivation-chronosequence
#1
Julien Roy, Rüdiger Reichel, Nicolas Brüggemann, Stefan Hempel, Matthias C Rillig
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide a range of functions in natural and managed ecosystems. However, the trajectory of AM fungal diversity after land degradation is poorly known. We studied the succession of AM fungi along an agricultural recultivation chronosequence after open-cast mining near Cologne, Germany. We used high-throughput sequencing of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the soil AM fungal communities of 10 agricultural fields spanning 52 years of recultivation. During three years, soils are recultivated with a legume, and then converted to agriculture to be later returned to local farmers implementing conventional agriculture...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922742/glytoucan-an-accessible-glycan-structure-repository
#2
Michael Tiemeyer, Kazuhiro Aoki, James Paulson, Richard D Cummings, William S York, Niclas G Karlsson, Frederique Lisacek, Nicolle H Packer, Matthew P Campbell, Nobuyuki P Aoki, Akihiro Fujita, Masaaki Matsubara, Daisuke Shinmachi, Shinichiro Tsuchiya, Issaku Yamada, Michael Pierce, René Ranzinger, Hisashi Narimatsu, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita
Rapid and continued growth in the generation of glycomic data has revealed the need for enhanced development of basic infrastructure for presenting and interpreting these datasets in a manner that engages the broader biomedical research community. Early in their growth, the genomic and proteomic fields implemented mechanisms for assigning unique gene and protein identifiers that were essential for organizing data presentation and for enhancing bioinformatic approaches to extracting knowledge. Similar unique identifiers are currently absent from glycomic data...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#3
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922559/quarantine-isolation-and-the-duty-of-easy-rescue-in-public
#4
Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, Julian Savulescu
We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue that a stronger justification is provided by a principle of State Enforced Easy Rescue: a state may permissibly compel individuals to engage in activities that entail a small cost to them but a large benefit to others, because individuals have a moral duty of easy rescue to engage in those activities...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922481/photo-induced-assembly-of-a-luminescent-tetraruthenium-square
#5
Baptiste Laramée-Milette, Francesco Nastasi, Fausto Puntoriero, Sebastiano Campagna, Garry S Hanan
Self-assembly is a powerful synthetic tool that has led to the development of one-, two- and three-dimensional architectures. From MOFs to molecular flasks, self-assembled materials have proven to be of great interest to the scientific community. Here we describe a strategy for the construction and de-construction of a supramolecular structure through unprecedented photo-induced assembly and dis-assembly. The combination of two approaches, a [n×1]-directional bonding strategy and a ligand photo-dissociation strategy, allows the photo-induced assembly of a polypyridyl Ru(II) precursor into a discrete molecular square...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922381/the-operation-of-a-research-and-development-r-d-program-and-its-significance-for-practice-change-in-community-pharmacy
#6
Andi Hermansyah, Erica Sainsbury, Ines Krass
BACKGROUND: Community pharmacy practice in Australia is changing and Research and Development (R&D) in community pharmacy plays an important role in contributing to the changes. A range of Cognitive Pharmacy Services (CPS) were developed from R&D programs, yet their implementation has been minimal indicating slow practice change within community pharmacy. Given the vital role of R&D, little is known about the operation and the extent to which it has been effective in supporting practice change in community pharmacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922239/cleft-lip-and-palate-an-experience-of-a-developing-center-in-egypt
#7
Tarek A Abulezz
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and palate is the most common congenital anomaly in the head and neck region. These clefts are not just a distortion of the normal appearance, but they may impose a major influence on the whole patient's life, both functionally and psychologically. Clefts affect feeding, teething, hearing, speech, and social communication. The incidence of cleft lip and palate is variable in different countries and different communities. The surgical correction of cleft lip and palate went through many evolutions, but still there is no single universal protocol of repair; however, many European countries have adopted national protocols and have established cleft centers for the management and follow up of affected population...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922101/this-is-who-we-are-building-community-for-hiv-prevention-with-young-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-beirut-lebanon
#8
Matt G Mutchler, Bryce Way McDavitt, Tu N Tran, Cynthia El Khoury, Ellie Ballan, Johnny Tohme, Susan M Kegeles, Glenn Wagner
Young gay men in Beirut are at significantly elevated risk of HIV infection compared with the general Lebanese population. Despite nascent HIV prevention efforts in the region, there is a need for effective community-level HIV prevention interventions tailored for young gay men. This qualitative study examined internal dynamics within Beirut's gay community as a basis for developing community-level interventions. Peer ethnographers were trained to collect field notes on conversations between young gay men in public spaces in Beirut, and conducted follow-up focus groups with young gay men...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922071/implementing-electronic-data-capture-at-a-well-established-health-and-demographic-surveillance-site-in-rural-northern-malawi
#9
Estelle McLean, Albert Dube, Jacky Saul, Keith Branson, Mabvuto Luhanga, Oddie Mwiba, Fredrick Kalobekamo, Steffen Geis, Amelia C Crampin
This article aims to assess multiple issues of resources, staffing, local opinion, data quality, cost, and security while transitioning to electronic data collection (EDC) at a long-running community research site in northern Malawi. Levels of missing and error fields, delay from data collection to availability, and average number of interviews per day were compared between EDC and paper in a complex, repeated annual household survey. Three focus groups with field and data staff with experience using both methods, and in-depth interviews with participants were carried out...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922024/the-implementation-of-multiple-interprofessional-integrated-modules-by-health-sciences-faculty-in-chile
#10
Silvana Castillo-Parra, Sandra Oyarzo Torres, Mónica Espinoza Barrios, Ana María Rojas-Serey, Juan Diego Maya, Valeria Sabaj Diez, Verónica Aliaga Castillo, Manuel Castillo Niño, Luis Romero Romero, Jennifer Foster, Gustavo Hawes Barrios
Multiple interprofessional integrated modules (MIIM) 1 and 2 are two required, cross-curricular courses developed by a team of health professions faculty, as well as experts in education, within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile. MIIM 1 focused on virtual cases requiring team decision-making in real time. MIIM 2 focused on a team-based community project. The evaluation of MIIM included student, teacher, and coordinator perspectives. To explore the perceptions of this interprofessional experience quantitative data in the form of standardised course evaluations regarding teaching methodology, interpersonal relations and the course organisation and logistics were gathered...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921637/to-serve-or-not-to-serve-ethical-and-policy-implications
#11
Leonard A Jason
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is one of the nation's more influential health-related non-profit organizations. It plays a large role in shaping health policy by commissioning panels to develop "white papers" describing research and recommendations on a variety of health topics. These white paper publications are often used to help make policy decisions at the legislative and executive levels. Such a prominent institution might seem like a natural ally for policy-related collaborative efforts. As community psychologists, we strongly endorse efforts to positively influence public policy at the national level...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921621/-but-we-want-to-work-the-movement-of-child-workers-in-peru-and-the-actions-for-reducing-child-labor
#12
Isidro Maya Jariego
The program Edúcame Primero (Educate Me First) is an evidence-based practice for eradicating child labor that has been applied with positive results in Colombia, Peru, and several Central American countries. In this article, we describe the difficulties of implementing the program in two poor areas of Lima (Peru) between 2014 and 2016. Specifically, we discuss three ethical challenges faced during the implementation of the program: (a) the existence of a movement of working children that defends the right of children to work; (b) the polarization of some community-based associations and government institutions on how to deal with the problems of working children; and (c) the use of network indicators in the evaluation of the community's level of cohesion...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921556/dating-and-sexual-violence-research-in-the-schools-balancing-protection-of-confidentiality-with-supporting-the-welfare-of-survivors
#13
Jill D Sharkey, Lauren A Reed, Erika D Felix
Rigorous research and program evaluation are needed to understand the experience of dating and sexual violence among youth and the impact of prevention and intervention efforts. Our dilemma in doing this work occurred when youth disclosed dating and sexual violence on a research survey. What responsibility do researchers have to protect survivors' confidentiality as a research participant versus taking steps to ensure the student has the opportunity to access help? In our evaluation of a pilot dating violence prevention program, our protocols employed widely used procedures for providing resources to participants upon their completion of the survey and de-identifying survey data...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920515/quality-of-life-in-women-of-reproductive-age-a-comparative-study-of-infertile-and-fertile-women-in-a-nigerian-tertiary-centre
#14
Olusola Peter Aduloju, Oluwole Dominic Olaogun, Tolulope Aduloju
The study examined the quality of life in women of reproductive age and the aim was to evaluate and compare the quality of life (QoL) scores among fertile and infertile women. A cross-sectional study was carried out among women attending the Gynaecology and Postnatal Clinics of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital comparing their QoL using the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. The age of fertile women was significantly higher than the age of infertile women (p < ...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920138/study-on-the-sediment-characteristics-of-the-snow-in-a-typical-residential-community-and-its-integrated-biological-treatment-pattern-in-harbin
#15
Bin-Xia Xue, Tong-Yu Li, Chun-Ying Li, Li Wei, Xiao-He Hou
Winter cities have severe shortages of water resources. The effective classification and recycling of urban water resources that are available here are therefore significant for the sustainable utilization of water in winter cities, and snow is a potential water resource. In this research, the water quality of the snow and the pollutant composition in the vehicle roads of a typical residential community of Harbin are analyzed. It is concluded that there is a large amount of suspended substances, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), salt, ammonia, and oil in this snow...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919944/network-analysis-on-attitudes-a-brief-tutorial
#16
Jonas Dalege, Denny Borsboom, Frenk van Harreveld, Han L J van der Maas
In this article, we provide a brief tutorial on the estimation, analysis, and simulation on attitude networks using the programming language R. We first discuss what a network is and subsequently show how one can estimate a regularized network on typical attitude data. For this, we use open-access data on the attitudes toward Barack Obama during the 2012 American presidential election. Second, we show how one can calculate standard network measures such as community structure, centrality, and connectivity on this estimated attitude network...
July 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919943/-identification-of-positive-youth-development-interventions
#17
Lili M Sardiñas, Viviana Padilla, Mari Aponte, Ana Morales Boscio, Coralee Pérez Pedrogo, Betzaida Santiago, Ángela Pérez Morales, Paloma Torres Dávila, Marizaida Sánchez Cesáreo
There are more people in the world in the youth stage of development than in any other stage of development. The youth in Puerto Rico faces many situations that affect their development and readiness for adulthood. Therefore, it's imperative to identify evidence-based positive youth development interventions to develop practices that help young people prevent adverse situations, promote positive experiences and encourage children and young people to be involved and committed. One hundred and forty seven interventions were identified through a traditional scientific literature review...
January 2017: Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919824/strengthening-participation-by-young-women-sex-workers-in-hiv-programs-reflections-on-a-study-from-bangkok-thailand
#18
Cath Conn, Kristel Modderman, Shoba Nayar
BACKGROUND: Participation is an accepted means of increasing the effectiveness of public health programs, and as such, it is considered an important component of HIV interventions targeting at-risk youth. The situation of young women sex workers in Thailand is alarming on many fronts, including that of HIV risk. As a result, HIV programs in Thailand are the key interventions undertaken in relation to young women sex workers' health. A small-scale study used semistructured interviews to explore the participation reports of five young women sex workers, as well as the related views of two community support workers, who lived and worked in Bangkok, Thailand...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919728/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-mild-airflow-limitation-current-knowledge-and-proposal-for-future-research-a-consensus-document-from-six-scientific-societies
#19
REVIEW
Andrea Rossi, Bojana Butorac-Petanjek, Marco Chilosi, Borja G Cosío, Matjaz Flezar, Nikolaos Koulouris, José Marin, Neven Miculinic, Guido Polese, Miroslav Samaržija, Sabina Skrgat, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Andrea Vukić-Dugac, Spyridon Zakynthinos, Marc Miravitlles
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with high and growing prevalence. Its underdiagnosis and hence under-treatment is a general feature across all countries. This is particularly true for the mild or early stages of the disease, when symptoms do not yet interfere with daily living activities and both patients and doctors are likely to underestimate the presence of the disease. A diagnosis of COPD requires spirometry in subjects with a history of exposure to known risk factors and symptoms...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919485/the-pathogenesis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-autoimmune-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Mir Naser Seyyed Mousavi, Bahareh Mehramuz, Javid Sadeghi, Naser Alizadeh, Mahin Ahangar Oskouee, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Autoimmune disease are defined as the attacks on host tissue by the immune system. Several factors, e.g. genetic and environmental triggers (in particular, viruses, bacteria, and other infectious pathogens) play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Bacterial infections are related to several autoimmune diseases, e.g. chronic inflammations and demyelination. Nowadays, an estimated 20-30% of the general human population carry Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). This organism can asymptomatically colonize healthy individuals...
September 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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