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immunology sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210072/the-parenteral-vitamin-c-improves-sepsis-and-sepsis-induced-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-via-preventing-cellular-immunosuppression
#1
Yu-Lei Gao, Bin Lu, Jian-Hua Zhai, Yan-Cun Liu, Hai-Xia Qi, Ying Yao, Yan-Fen Chai, Song-Tao Shou
Cellular immunosuppression appears to be involved in sepsis and sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recent evidence showed that parenteral vitamin C (Vit C) had the ability to attenuate sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS. Herein, we investigated the impact of parenteral Vit C on cellular immunosuppression and the therapeutic value in sepsis. Using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis was induced in WT and Gulo(-/-) mice followed with 200 mg/Kg parenteral Vit C administration. The immunologic functions of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, as well as the organ functions, were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203237/activation-of-the-wnt-pathway-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-wnt-wnt-situation
#2
REVIEW
Tomás Villaseñor, Edgardo Madrid-Paulino, Rafael Maldonado-Bravo, Antonio Urbán-Aragón, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an intracellular pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a major worldwide human infectious disease. The innate immune system is the first host defense against M. tuberculosis. The recognition of this pathogen is mediated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors expressed on the host innate immune cells, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors like Dectin-1, the Mannose receptor, and DC-SIGN...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202703/investigations-in-gabaa-receptor-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#3
Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro, Thaís Armangue, Fernanda J Castro, Maria I Barcelo Artigues, Maria R Julià Benique, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Ana Felipe, Ruben L Caparó Oblitas, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, β3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range 48...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163013/lepidopteran-species-have-a-variety-of-defence-strategies-against-bacterial-infections
#4
Lauri Mikonranta, Franziska Dickel, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
The insect immune system has versatile ways of coping with microbial insults. Currently, innate immune priming has been described in several invertebrates, and the first insights into its mechanistic basis have been described. Here we studied infections with two different strains of Serratia marcescens bacteria in two different Lepidopteran hosts. The results reveal fundamental differences between the two hosts, a well-known model organism Galleria mellonella and a non-model species Arctia plantaginis. They differ in their strategies for resisting oral infections; priming their defences against a recurring sepsis; and upregulating immunity related genes as a response to the specific pathogen strains...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119177/immunoparalysis-clinical-and-immunological-associations-in-sirs-and-severe-sepsis-patients
#5
Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Aikaterini Pistiki, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Theodora Christodoulopoulou, Georgia Damoraki, Dimitris Goukos, Efrossini Briassouli, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Apostolos Armaganidis, Serafim Nanas, George Briassoulis, Sotirios Tsiodras
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to identify changes in the monocytic membrane marker HLA-DR and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in relation to T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and other immunological marker changes in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis/septic shock. METHODS: Healthy volunteers, intensive care unit (ICU) patients with SIRS due to head injury and ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock were enrolled in the current study...
January 21, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079790/ecthyma-gangrenosum-a-skin-manifestation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sepsis-in-a-previously-healthy-child-a-case-report
#6
Stephanie Biscaye, Diane Demonchy, Mickael Afanetti, Audrey Dupont, Herve Haas, Antoine Tran
RATIONALE: Ecthyma gangrenosum (Eg) is a necrotic lesion that is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. It reflects a severe sepsis, possibly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa). PATIENT CONCERNS: A healthy 3-year-old girl admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department presented a sepsis-associated purpura with neurological and respiratory distress. INTERVENTIONS: An empiric antibiotherapy (anti-meningococcal) was prescribed. DIAGNOSES: Forty-eight hours after admission, blood and wound cultures were positive for Pa...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075032/-microbiological-findings-and-antibacterial-therapy-in-stevens-johnson-syndrome-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-patients-from-a-swedish-burn-center
#7
Ilaria Tocco-Tussardi, Fredrik Huss, Benjamin Presman
BACKGROUND: Superimposed infections/sepsis are the major cause of morbidity/mortality in Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN). It is a delicate balance between avoiding new pharmaceuticals and prophylactically treat an incipient infection. The objective of this study was to investigate the rates and types of infection-microbials and antibiotics involved in SJS/TEN patients. METHODS: Microbiology and clinical data were collected for SJS/TEN patients admitted to our Burn Centre from January 2010 through January 2016...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058672/neuroprotective-effects-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-are-mediated-through-inhibition-of-complement-activation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#8
Figen Esen, Gunseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Evren Senturk, Melike Kucukerden, Murat Giris, Ugur Akcan, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits and increase survival in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. The animals were divided into five groups: sham, control, CLP + saline, CLP + immunoglobulin G (IgG) (250 mg/kg, iv), and CLP + immunoglobulins enriched with immunoglobulin M (IgGAM) (250 mg/kg, iv)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051160/lipopolysaccharide-induced-neutrophil-dysfunction-following-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-stent-shunt-tipss-insertion-is-associated-with-organ-failure-and-mortality
#9
Jane Macnaughtan, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Rajiv Jalan
Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in increasing mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis but the underlying mechanisms are not well characterised. The objective of this study was to characterise neutrophil function, LPS and cytokine concentrations within the splanchnic circulation of alcoholic cirrhotic patients undergoing TIPSS insertion for variceal haemorrhage and correlate this with outcome. 26 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and variceal haemorrhage were studied prior to and 1-hour after TIPSS insertion...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044385/current-concepts-in-maternal-fetal-immunology-recognition-and-response-to-microbial-pathogens-by-decidual-stromal-cells
#10
REVIEW
Anjali P Anders, Jennifer A Gaddy, Ryan S Doster, David M Aronoff
Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammation of the gestational (extraplacental) membranes, most commonly caused by ascending microbial infection. It is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and cerebral palsy. The decidua is the outermost layer of the gestational membranes and is likely an important initial site of contact with microbes during ascending infection. However, little is known about how decidual stromal cells (DSCs) respond to microbial threat. Defining the contributions of individual cell types to the complex medley of inflammatory signals during chorioamnionitis could lead to improved interventions aimed at halting this disease...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029485/shenfu-injection-for-improving-cellular-immunity-and-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-sepsis-or-septic-shock
#11
Ning Zhang, Jianhua Liu, Zeliang Qiu, Yiping Ye, Jian Zhang, Tianzheng Lou
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of Shenfu injection (SFI) for enhancing cellular immunity and improving the clinical outcomes of patients with septic shock. METHODS: Patients with sepsis were randomly assigned to receive either SFI at a dose of 100mL every 24hours for 7 consecutive days or a placebo in addition to conventional therapy. The immunologic parameters were collected on days 1, 3, and 7 after the above treatments, and the clinical outcomes were updated for 28days...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982130/lipidomic-analysis-enables-prediction-of-clinical-outcomes-in-burn-patients
#13
Peter Qi, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Mile Stanojcic, David Patsouris, Marc G Jeschke
Recent discoveries have highlighted the novel metabolic functions of adipose tissue in enhancing hypermetabolism after trauma. As the exact function and expression profiles of serum lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) are essentially unknown, we determined the lipidomic expression profile after burn in correlation to clinical outcomes to identify important lipid mediators affecting post-burn outcomes. We conducted a prospective cohort study with 46 adult burn patients and 5 healthy controls at the Ross Tilley Burn Center in Toronto, Canada...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966555/reversal-of-trem-1-ectodomain-shedding-and-improved-bacterial-clearance-by-intranasal-metalloproteinase-inhibitors
#14
G Weiss, C Lai, M E Fife, A M Grabiec, B Tildy, R J Snelgrove, G Xin, C M Lloyd, T Hussell
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is expressed on neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages and amplifies Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammation during infection. TREM-1 also exists in an antagonistic soluble form (sTREM-1) that has been used as a peripheral biomarker in sepsis, though the mechanisms of its release are not entirely clear. The requirement of TREM-1 in single microbial infections is controversial, with some studies showing a protective role and others a contribution to immunopathology...
December 14, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878656/mille-modis-morimur-we-die-in-a-thousand-ways
#15
Gaspar Banfalvi
Dying cells subjected to apoptotic programs are engulfed by neighboring cells or by professional phagocytes, without inflammation or immunological reactions in the tissue where apoptosis takes place. Apoptotic cells release danger-associated project signals to their neighbours, through different molecular patterns, stimulate antigen production and immune responses. Microenvironmental effects with several functional consequences indicate that cell death is a complex process and may take place in several ways...
November 23, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861595/tlr4-cd14-variants-related-serologic-and-immunologic-dys-regulations-predict-severe-sepsis-in-febrile-de-compensated-cirrhotic-patients
#16
Wen-Chien Fan, Chih-Wei Liu, Shuo-Ming Ou, Chia-Chang Huang, Tzu-Hao Li, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Shiang-Fen Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Genetic variants and dysfunctional monocyte had been reported to be associated with infection susceptibility in advanced cirrhotic patients. This study aims to explore genetic predictive markers and relevant immune dysfunction that contributed to severe sepsis in febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patents. Polymorphism analysis of candidate genes was undergone in 108 febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients and 121 healthy volunteers. Various plasma inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, proportion of classical (CD 16-, phagocytic) and non-classical (CD16+, inflammatory) monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and intracellular/extracellular cytokines on cultured non-classical monocytes, mCD14/HLA-DR expression and phagocytosis of classical monocytes were measured...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812767/apoptosis-induced-lymphopenia-in-sepsis-and-other-severe-injuries
#17
REVIEW
Thibaut Girardot, Thomas Rimmelé, Fabienne Venet, Guillaume Monneret
Sepsis and other acute injuries such as severe trauma, extensive burns, or major surgeries, are usually followed by a period of marked immunosuppression. In particular, while lymphocytes play a pivotal role in immune response, their functions and numbers are profoundly altered after severe injuries. Apoptosis plays a central role in this process by affecting immune response at various levels. Indeed, apoptosis-induced lymphopenia duration and depth have been associated with higher risk of infection and mortality in various clinical settings...
November 3, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796667/lymphocyte-integrin-expression-differences-between-sirs-and-sepsis-patients
#18
D S Heffernan, S F Monaghan, Alfred Ayala
BACKGROUND: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories...
October 31, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789087/adipose-tissue-at-the-nexus-of-systemic-and-cellular-immunometabolism
#19
REVIEW
Ayano C Kohlgruber, Nelson M LaMarche, Lydia Lynch
At the simplest interpretation of the word, Immunometabolism describes the intersection of the fields of immunology and metabolism. With rapidly growing interest in this field, the term has expanded, and now encompasses a variety of concepts and definitions shaped by an individual's scientific area of expertise, cell-type and tissue of interest, and biological approach. One scientist may be interested in investigating the intrinsic metabolic checkpoints that drive a M1 versus M2 macrophage response, while another may be interested in how macrophages affect systemic metabolism during obesity...
October 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765072/bioavailable-estradiol-concentrations-are-elevated-and-predict-mortality-in-septic-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Greg Tsang, Michael B Insel, Justin M Weis, Mary Anne M Morgan, Michael S Gough, Lauren M Frasier, Cynthia M Mack, Kathleen P Doolin, Brian T Graves, Michael J Apostolakos, Anthony P Pietropaoli
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies demonstrate beneficial immunological and hemodynamic effects of estradiol in animal models of sepsis. This raises the question whether estradiol contributes to sex differences in the incidence and outcomes of sepsis in humans. Yet, total estradiol levels are elevated in sepsis patients, particularly nonsurvivors. Bioavailable estradiol concentrations have not previously been reported in septic patients. The bioavailable estradiol concentration accounts for aberrations in estradiol carrier protein concentrations that could produce discrepancies between total and bioavailable estradiol levels...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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