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immunology sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878656/mille-modis-morimur-we-die-in-a-thousand-ways
#1
Gaspar Banfalvi
Dying cells subjected to apoptotic programs are engulfed by neighboring cells or by professional phagocytes, without inflammation or immunological reactions in the tissue where apoptosis takes place. Apoptotic cells release danger-associated project signals to their neighbours, through different molecular patterns, stimulate antigen production and immune responses. Microenvironmental effects with several functional consequences indicate that cell death is a complex process and may take place in several ways...
November 23, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861595/tlr4-cd14-variants-related-serologic-and-immunologic-dys-regulations-predict-severe-sepsis-in-febrile-de-compensated-cirrhotic-patients
#2
Wen-Chien Fan, Chih-Wei Liu, Shuo-Ming Ou, Chia-Chang Huang, Tzu-Hao Li, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Shiang-Fen Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Genetic variants and dysfunctional monocyte had been reported to be associated with infection susceptibility in advanced cirrhotic patients. This study aims to explore genetic predictive markers and relevant immune dysfunction that contributed to severe sepsis in febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patents. Polymorphism analysis of candidate genes was undergone in 108 febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients and 121 healthy volunteers. Various plasma inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, proportion of classical (CD 16-, phagocytic) and non-classical (CD16+, inflammatory) monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and intracellular/extracellular cytokines on cultured non-classical monocytes, mCD14/HLA-DR expression and phagocytosis of classical monocytes were measured...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812767/apoptosis-induced-lymphopenia-in-sepsis-and-other-severe-injuries
#3
REVIEW
Thibaut Girardot, Thomas Rimmelé, Fabienne Venet, Guillaume Monneret
Sepsis and other acute injuries such as severe trauma, extensive burns, or major surgeries, are usually followed by a period of marked immunosuppression. In particular, while lymphocytes play a pivotal role in immune response, their functions and numbers are profoundly altered after severe injuries. Apoptosis plays a central role in this process by affecting immune response at various levels. Indeed, apoptosis-induced lymphopenia duration and depth have been associated with higher risk of infection and mortality in various clinical settings...
November 3, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796667/lymphocyte-integrin-expression-differences-between-sirs-and-sepsis-patients
#4
D S Heffernan, S F Monaghan, Alfred Ayala
BACKGROUND: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories...
October 31, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789087/adipose-tissue-at-the-nexus-of-systemic-and-cellular-immunometabolism
#5
REVIEW
Ayano C Kohlgruber, Nelson M LaMarche, Lydia Lynch
At the simplest interpretation of the word, Immunometabolism describes the intersection of the fields of immunology and metabolism. With rapidly growing interest in this field, the term has expanded, and now encompasses a variety of concepts and definitions shaped by an individual's scientific area of expertise, cell-type and tissue of interest, and biological approach. One scientist may be interested in investigating the intrinsic metabolic checkpoints that drive a M1 versus M2 macrophage response, while another may be interested in how macrophages affect systemic metabolism during obesity...
October 24, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765072/bioavailable-estradiol-concentrations-are-elevated-and-predict-mortality-in-septic-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Greg Tsang, Michael B Insel, Justin M Weis, Mary Anne M Morgan, Michael S Gough, Lauren M Frasier, Cynthia M Mack, Kathleen P Doolin, Brian T Graves, Michael J Apostolakos, Anthony P Pietropaoli
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies demonstrate beneficial immunological and hemodynamic effects of estradiol in animal models of sepsis. This raises the question whether estradiol contributes to sex differences in the incidence and outcomes of sepsis in humans. Yet, total estradiol levels are elevated in sepsis patients, particularly nonsurvivors. Bioavailable estradiol concentrations have not previously been reported in septic patients. The bioavailable estradiol concentration accounts for aberrations in estradiol carrier protein concentrations that could produce discrepancies between total and bioavailable estradiol levels...
October 21, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760554/comparison-of-monocyte-human-leukocyte-antigen-dr-expression-and-stimulated-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-production-as-outcome-predictors-in-severe-sepsis-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Anne M Drewry, Enyo A Ablordeppey, Ellen T Murray, Evan R Beiter, Andrew H Walton, Mark W Hall, Richard S Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: Identifying patients in the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis is essential for development of immunomodulatory therapies. Little data exists comparing the ability of the two most well-studied markers of sepsis-induced immunosuppression, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-ɑ) production, to predict mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare HLA-DR expression and LPS-induced TNF-ɑ production as predictors of 28-day mortality and acquisition of secondary infections in adult septic patients...
October 20, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747689/recurrent-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-syndrome-a-report-of-two-cases
#8
Claudia Reynoso-von Drateln, Noemí Gómez-Hernández, Norma Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos Torres-Lozano
An 81-year-old male and a 47-year-old female experienced recurrent severe bullous dermatosis secondary to an intake of drugs and alternative medicines indicated for arthralgias. The first patient had previously presented with Stevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) overlap syndrome in 2007 secondary to ingestion of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole indicated for a urinary tract infection; 6 years later, he presented with the same syndrome 2 days after ingestion of oral naproxen tablets 250 mg twice daily...
December 2016: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712928/colistin-enhances-therapeutic-efficacy-of-daptomycin-or-teicoplanin-in-a-murine-model-of-multiresistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-sepsis
#9
Oscar Cirioni, Oriana Simonetti, Elisa Pierpaoli, Alessandra Barucca, Roberto Ghiselli, Fiorenza Orlando, Maria Pelloni, Maria Michela Cappelletti Trombettoni, Mario Guerrieri, Annamaria Offidani, Andrea Giacometti, Mauro Provinciali
We investigated the efficacy of colistin combined with teicoplanin or daptomycin in an experimental mouse model of multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Animal received intraperitoneally 1ml saline containing 2×10(10)CFU of A. baumannii. Colistin, daptomycin, teicoplanin, and colistin plus daptomycin or teicoplanin were given by intraperitoneal administration 2h after bacterial challenge. A control group received sodium chloride solution. In the in vitro study A. baumannii showed to be susceptible only to colistin with MIC of 2mg/l...
September 17, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692090/comparison-of-cytokine-responses-between-dogs-with-sepsis-and-dogs-with-immune-mediated-hemolytic-anemia
#10
Valerie Johnson, Brandy Burgess, Paul Morley, Ryan Bragg, Anne Avery, Steven Dow
Cytokine abnormalities have been described previously in dogs with varied immune mediated and inflammatory conditions such as IMHA and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to establish references ranges for cytokine levels in dogs and to compare cytokine levels in normal dogs and dogs with two common inflammatory diseases (sepsis and IMHA). We hypothesized that cytokine response profiles in dogs with sepsis would be significantly different from those in dogs with IMHA due to the very different etiologies of the two diseases...
November 1, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637985/ibrutinib-for-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-with-17p-deletion-resonate-17-a-phase-2-open-label-multicentre-study
#11
Susan O'Brien, Jeffrey A Jones, Steven E Coutre, Anthony R Mato, Peter Hillmen, Constantine Tam, Anders Österborg, Tanya Siddiqi, Michael J Thirman, Richard R Furman, Osman Ilhan, Michael J Keating, Timothy G Call, Jennifer R Brown, Michelle Stevens-Brogan, Yunfeng Li, Fong Clow, Danelle F James, Alvina D Chu, Michael Hallek, Stephan Stilgenbauer
BACKGROUND: The TP53 gene, encoding tumour suppressor protein p53, is located on the short arm of chromosome 17 (17p). Patients with 17p deletion (del17p) chronic lymphocytic leukaemia have poor responses and survival after chemoimmunotherapy. We assessed the activity and safety of ibrutinib, an oral covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, in relapsed or refractory patients with del17p chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma. METHODS: We did a multicentre, international, open-label, single-arm study at 40 sites in the USA, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand...
October 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633969/the-efficacy-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-1-as-immunomodulatory-treatment-for-sepsis-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Fang Liu, Hong-Mei Wang, Tiansheng Wang, Ya-Mei Zhang, Xi Zhu
BACKGROUND: Thymosin α1 (Tα1) as immunomodulatory treatment is supposed to be beneficial for the sepsis patients by regulating T cell subsets and inflammatory mediators. However, limited by the small sample size and the poor study design, the persuasive power of the single clinical studies is weak. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the impact of Tα1 on the sepsis patients. METHODS: We searched for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, VIP, CNKI, WANFANG, Igaku Chuo Zasshi (ICHUSHI) and Korean literature databases reporting the effects of Tα1 on outcomes in sepsis patients...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630733/immunomodulatory-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-babassu-mesocarp-improves-the-survival-in-lethal-sepsis
#13
Elizabeth S B Barroqueiro, Dayanna S Prado, Priscila S Barcellos, Tonicley A Silva, Wanderson S Pereira, Lucilene A Silva, Márcia C G Maciel, Rodrigo B Barroqueiro, Flávia R F Nascimento, Azizedite G Gonçalves, Rosane N M Guerra
Attalea speciosa syn Orbignya phalerata Mart. (babassu) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Aim of the study. To investigate the antimicrobial and immunological activity of babassu mesocarp extract (EE). Material and Methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay and by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630218/interleukin-7-immunotherapy-improves-host-immunity-and-survival-in-a-two-hit-model-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#14
Yuichiro Shindo, Anja G Fuchs, Christopher G Davis, Tim Eitas, Jacqueline Unsinger, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Jonathan M Green, Michel Morre, Grant V Bochicchio, Richard S Hotchkiss
Patients with protracted sepsis develop impaired immunity, which predisposes them to acquiring secondary infections. One of the most common and lethal secondary infections is Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Immunoadjuvant therapy is a promising approach to reverse sepsis-induced immunosuppression and improve morbidity and mortality from secondary infections. Interleukin-7 is an immunoadjuvant that improves survival in clinically relevant animal models of polymicrobial peritonitis and in fungal sepsis. This study investigated the effect of recombinant human interleukin-7 (rhIL-7) on survival in a 2-hit model of sublethal cecal ligation and puncture followed by P...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600821/comparison-of-bone-marrow-tissue-and-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-sepsis-in-a-murine-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-sepsis
#15
Hao Ou, Shangping Zhao, Yue Peng, Xuefei Xiao, Qianlu Wang, Huaizeng Liu, Xianzhong Xiao, Mingshi Yang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to regulate the systemic inflammatory response and sepsis-induced immunologic injury pre-clinically. However, whether MSCs from different sources elicit identical effects remains to be elucidated. The present study compared the effect of bone marrow‑derived MSCs (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced sepsis. SPF BALB/c mice were induced with an injection of LPS (10 mg/kg; 1 mg/ml) via the tail vein...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598286/-ecthyma-gangrenosum-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Alejandra Jaque, Catherina Moll-Manzur, María Teresa Dossi, Daniela Berroeta-Mauriziano, Esteban Araos-Baeriswyl, Ximena Monsalve
Ecthyma gangrenosum is an uncommon necrotizing vasculitis, in most cases secondary to sepsis by Pseudo-mona aeruginosa in immunocompromised patients. However, there have been several reports of ecthyma gangre-nosum caused by other infectious etiologies. We report an unusual case of ecthyma gangrenosum associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in a patient without the classic immunological risk factors described in the literature.
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596946/macrophage-polarization-and-mrsa-infection-in-burned-mice
#17
Tomoki Nishiguchi, Ichiaki Ito, Jong O Lee, Sumihiro Suzuki, Fujio Suzuki, Makiko Kobayashi
Mortality associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection remains high during the sub-acute phase of burn injury. In this study, we aimed to improve antibacterial resistance of sub-acutely burned mice through macrophage polarization. Sepsis did not develop in mice at the sub-acute phase of 5% total body surface area (TBSA) burn after being infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and M1 macrophages [IL-10(-)IL-12(+) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)(+) Mφ] were isolated from these mice. In contrast, predominantly M2b macrophages (CCL1(+)IL-10(+)IL-12(-) Mφ) were isolated from mice with>15% TBSA burn, and all of these mice died after the same MRSA infection...
September 6, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596606/regulation-of-circulating-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells-in-preterm-infants-with-septicemia
#18
Kam Tong Leung, Hugh Simon Lam, Kathy Yuen Yee Chan, Tony Sit, Raymond Pui On Wong, Jasmine Wai Sum Yu, Karen Li, Pak Cheung Ng
Preterm infants are at high risk of developing severe sepsis. Circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs; CD45(+)CD34(+)) have been suggested to play a vital role in the host immunological defense against invading pathogens. The objectives were to investigate the regulation of circulating HSPCs in preterm infants during infection episodes, and to assess the relationship of CD45(+)CD34(+) cells with immunological mediators and differential leukocyte populations. First, we conducted a cross-sectional case-control study comparing these parameters among infected infants (n = 23), gestational and postnatal age-matched noninfected infants (n = 46), and "healthy" control (CTL) infants (n = 12)...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581435/small-volume-adenosine-lidocaine-and-mg2-4-hour-infusion-leads-to-88-survival-after-6-days-of-experimental-sepsis-in-the-rat-without-antibiotics
#19
Maddison Jade Griffin, Hayley Louise Letson, Geoffrey Phillip Dobson
Innovative host-directed drug therapies are urgently required to treat sepsis. We tested the effect of a small-volume 0.9% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine, and Mg(2+) (ALM) bolus and a 4-h intravenous infusion on survivability in the rat model of polymicrobial sepsis over 6 days. ALM treatment led to a significant increase in survivability (88%) compared to that of controls (25%). Four controls died on day 2 to 3, and two died on day 5. Early death was associated with elevated plasma and lung inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-1β, C-reactive protein), reduced white blood cell (WBC) count, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and elevated lactate, whereas late death was associated with a massive cytokine storm, a neutrophil-dominated WBC rebound/overshoot, increased lung oxidant injury, edema, and persistent ischemia...
November 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574993/mice-survival-and-plasmatic-cytokine-secretion-in-a-two-hit-model-of-sepsis-depend-on-intratracheal-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacterial-load
#20
Damien Restagno, Fabienne Venet, Christian Paquet, Ludovic Freyburger, Bernard Allaouchiche, Guillaume Monneret, Jeanne-Marie Bonnet, Vanessa Louzier
Sepsis is characterized by pro- and anti-inflammatory responses following infection. While inflammation is responsible for widespread organ damage, anti-inflammatory mediators lead to immunoparalysis increasing susceptibility to secondary infections (nosocomial pneumonia). We aimed to investigate the impact of bacterial load on survival and cytokine release in a two-hit murine (C57BL/6J) model of CLP followed by P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Plasmatic TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, sTNFr I and II were quantified until 13 days...
2016: PloS One
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