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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512017/a-case-of-autoimmune-severe-acquired-von-willebrand-syndrome-type-3-like
#1
Chakri Gavva, Prapti Patel, Yu-Min Shen, Eugene Frenkel, Ravi Sarode
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common congenital bleeding disorder and is due to quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Acquired defects of VWF, termed acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS), are due to a host of different mechanisms. Autoantibody-mediated AVWS may be associated with lymphoproliferative or immunological disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A large majority of AVWS cases are type 1 or type 2A-like and patients tend to have a mild to moderate bleeding tendency...
April 27, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482922/therapeutic-effect-of-schistosoma-japonicum-cystatin-on-bacterial-sepsis-in-mice
#2
Huihui Li, Shushu Wang, Bin Zhan, Wenxin He, Liang Chu, Dapeng Qiu, Nan Li, Yongkun Wan, Hui Zhang, Xingzhi Chen, Qiang Fang, Jilong Shen, Xiaodi Yang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening complication of an infection and remains one of the leading causes of mortality in surgical patients. Bacteremia induces excessive inflammatory responses that result in multiple organ damage. Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived materials have been found to immunomodulate host immune system to reduce inflammation against some allergic or inflammatory diseases. Schistosoma japonicum cystatin (Sj-Cys) is a cysteine protease inhibitor that induces regulatory T-cells and a potential immunomodulatory...
May 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459433/s100-alarmin-induced-innate-immune-programming-protects-newborn-infants-from-sepsis
#3
Thomas Ulas, Sabine Pirr, Beate Fehlhaber, Marie S Bickes, Torsten G Loof, Thomas Vogl, Lara Mellinger, Anna S Heinemann, Johanna Burgmann, Jennifer Schöning, Sabine Schreek, Sandra Pfeifer, Friederike Reuner, Lena Völlger, Martin Stanulla, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Shirin Glander, Katarzyna Barczyk-Kahlert, Constantin S von Kaisenberg, Judith Friesenhagen, Lena Fischer-Riepe, Stefanie Zenker, Joachim L Schultze, Johannes Roth, Dorothee Viemann
The high risk of neonatal death from sepsis is thought to result from impaired responses by innate immune cells; however, the clinical observation of hyperinflammatory courses of neonatal sepsis contradicts this concept. Using transcriptomic, epigenetic and immunological approaches, we demonstrated that high amounts of the perinatal alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 specifically altered MyD88-dependent proinflammatory gene programs. S100 programming prevented hyperinflammatory responses without impairing pathogen defense...
May 1, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444409/diagnostic-work-up-and-specific-causes-of-acute-kidney-injury
#4
REVIEW
Michael Darmon, Marlies Ostermann, Jorge Cerda, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Lui Forni, Eric Hoste, Matthieu Legrand, Nicolas Lerolle, Eric Rondeau, Antoine Schneider, Bertrand Souweine, Miet Schetz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and associated with grim short- and long-term outcome. Although in the vast majority of cases AKI is multifactorial, with sepsis, shock and nephrotoxicity accounting for most episodes, specific causes of AKI are not uncommon. Despite remaining uncertainties regarding their prevalence in the ICU, prompt recognition of specific aetiologies of AKI is likely to ensure timely management, limit worsening of renal dysfunction, and ultimately limit renal and systemic consequences of AKI...
April 25, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434651/neonatal-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Andi L Shane, Pablo J Sánchez, Barbara J Stoll
Neonatal sepsis is the cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. Precise estimates of neonatal sepsis burden vary by setting. Differing estimates of disease burden have been reported from high-income countries compared with reports from low-income and middle-income countries. The clinical manifestations range from subclinical infection to severe manifestations of focal or systemic disease. The source of the pathogen might be attributed to an in-utero infection, acquisition from maternal flora, or postnatal acquisition from the hospital or community...
April 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303104/mathematical-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-invasive-infection-and-treatment
#6
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Neville J Boon, Thomas B Clarke, Reiko J Tanaka
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp-host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296035/sepsis-after-renal-transplantation-clinical-immunological-and-microbiological-risk-factors
#7
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: As immunosuppressive therapy and allograft survival have improved, the increased incidence of sepsis has become a major hurdle of disease-free survival after renal transplantation. METHODS: We identified 112 of 957 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with sepsis. In all, 31 KTRs developed severe sepsis or septic shock, and 30 KTRs died from sepsis. KTRs without sepsis were used for comparison. CMV-specific and alloreactive T cells were measured using an interferon-γ Elispot assay...
March 11, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224121/immunological-defects-in-neonatal-sepsis-and-potential-therapeutic-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Julie A Stortz, Juan C Mira, Shawn D Larson, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer
Despite advances in critical care medicine, neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the greatest risk affecting very low birth weight, preterm neonates. The presentation of neonatal sepsis varies markedly from its presentation in adults, and there is no clear consensus definition of neonatal sepsis. Previous work has demonstrated that when neonates become septic, death can occur rapidly over a matter of hours or days and is generally associated with inflammation, organ injury, and respiratory failure...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223455/acute-fetal-demise-with-first-trimester-maternal-infection-resulting-from-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#9
Bryce Wolfe, Gregory J Wiepz, Michele Schotzko, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Maureen Durning, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Nancy G Faith, Emmanuel Sampene, Marulasiddappa Suresh, Sophia Kathariou, Charles J Czuprynski, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210072/the-parenteral-vitamin-c-improves-sepsis-and-sepsis-induced-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-via-preventing-cellular-immunosuppression
#10
Yu-Lei Gao, Bin Lu, Jian-Hua Zhai, Yan-Cun Liu, Hai-Xia Qi, Ying Yao, Yan-Fen Chai, Song-Tao Shou
Cellular immunosuppression appears to be involved in sepsis and sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Recent evidence showed that parenteral vitamin C (Vit C) had the ability to attenuate sepsis and sepsis-induced MODS. Herein, we investigated the impact of parenteral Vit C on cellular immunosuppression and the therapeutic value in sepsis. Using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), sepsis was induced in WT and Gulo(-/-) mice followed with 200 mg/Kg parenteral Vit C administration. The immunologic functions of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, as well as the organ functions, were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203237/activation-of-the-wnt-pathway-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-wnt-wnt-situation
#11
REVIEW
Tomás Villaseñor, Edgardo Madrid-Paulino, Rafael Maldonado-Bravo, Antonio Urbán-Aragón, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an intracellular pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a major worldwide human infectious disease. The innate immune system is the first host defense against M. tuberculosis. The recognition of this pathogen is mediated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors expressed on the host innate immune cells, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors like Dectin-1, the Mannose receptor, and DC-SIGN...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202703/investigations-in-gabaa-receptor-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#12
Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro, Thaís Armangue, Fernanda J Castro, Maria I Barcelo Artigues, Maria R Julià Benique, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Ana Felipe, Ruben L Caparó Oblitas, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features, comorbidities, receptor subunit targets, and outcome in patients with anti-GABAA receptor (GABAAR) encephalitis. METHODS: Clinical study of 26 patients, including 17 new (April 2013-January 2016) and 9 previously reported patients. Antibodies to α1, β3, and γ2 subunits of the GABAAR were determined using reported techniques. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 40.5 years (interquartile range 48...
March 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163013/lepidopteran-species-have-a-variety-of-defence-strategies-against-bacterial-infections
#13
Lauri Mikonranta, Franziska Dickel, Johanna Mappes, Dalial Freitak
The insect immune system has versatile ways of coping with microbial insults. Currently, innate immune priming has been described in several invertebrates, and the first insights into its mechanistic basis have been described. Here we studied infections with two different strains of Serratia marcescens bacteria in two different Lepidopteran hosts. The results reveal fundamental differences between the two hosts, a well-known model organism Galleria mellonella and a non-model species Arctia plantaginis. They differ in their strategies for resisting oral infections; priming their defences against a recurring sepsis; and upregulating immunity related genes as a response to the specific pathogen strains...
March 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119177/immunoparalysis-clinical-and-immunological-associations-in-sirs-and-severe-sepsis-patients
#14
Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Aikaterini Pistiki, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Theodora Christodoulopoulou, Georgia Damoraki, Dimitris Goukos, Efrossini Briassouli, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Apostolos Armaganidis, Serafim Nanas, George Briassoulis, Sotirios Tsiodras
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to identify changes in the monocytic membrane marker HLA-DR and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in relation to T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and other immunological marker changes in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis/septic shock. METHODS: Healthy volunteers, intensive care unit (ICU) patients with SIRS due to head injury and ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock were enrolled in the current study...
April 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079790/ecthyma-gangrenosum-a-skin-manifestation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sepsis-in-a-previously-healthy-child-a-case-report
#15
Stephanie Biscaye, Diane Demonchy, Mickael Afanetti, Audrey Dupont, Herve Haas, Antoine Tran
RATIONALE: Ecthyma gangrenosum (Eg) is a necrotic lesion that is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. It reflects a severe sepsis, possibly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa). PATIENT CONCERNS: A healthy 3-year-old girl admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department presented a sepsis-associated purpura with neurological and respiratory distress. INTERVENTIONS: An empiric antibiotherapy (anti-meningococcal) was prescribed. DIAGNOSES: Forty-eight hours after admission, blood and wound cultures were positive for Pa...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075032/microbiological-findings-and-antibacterial-therapy-in-stevens-johnson-syndrome-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-patients-from-a-swedish-burn-center
#16
Ilaria Tocco-Tussardi, Fredrik Huss, Benjamin Presman
BACKGROUND: Superimposed infections/sepsis are the major cause of morbidity/mortality in Stevens-Johnson syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN). It is a delicate balance between avoiding new pharmaceuticals and prophylactically treat an incipient infection. The objective of this study was to investigate the rates and types of infection-microbials and antibiotics involved in SJS/TEN patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microbiology and clinical data were collected for SJS/TEN patients admitted to our Burn Center from January 2010 through January 2016...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058672/neuroprotective-effects-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-are-mediated-through-inhibition-of-complement-activation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#17
Figen Esen, Gunseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Evren Senturk, Melike Kucukerden, Murat Giris, Ugur Akcan, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits and increase survival in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. The animals were divided into five groups: sham, control, CLP + saline, CLP + immunoglobulin G (IgG) (250 mg/kg, iv), and CLP + immunoglobulins enriched with immunoglobulin M (IgGAM) (250 mg/kg, iv)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051160/lipopolysaccharide-induced-neutrophil-dysfunction-following-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-stent-shunt-tipss-insertion-is-associated-with-organ-failure-and-mortality
#18
Jane Macnaughtan, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Rajiv Jalan
Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in increasing mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis but the underlying mechanisms are not well characterised. The objective of this study was to characterise neutrophil function, LPS and cytokine concentrations within the splanchnic circulation of alcoholic cirrhotic patients undergoing TIPSS insertion for variceal haemorrhage and correlate this with outcome. 26 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and variceal haemorrhage were studied prior to and 1-hour after TIPSS insertion...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044385/current-concepts-in-maternal-fetal-immunology-recognition-and-response-to-microbial-pathogens-by-decidual-stromal-cells
#19
REVIEW
Anjali P Anders, Jennifer A Gaddy, Ryan S Doster, David M Aronoff
Chorioamnionitis is an acute inflammation of the gestational (extraplacental) membranes, most commonly caused by ascending microbial infection. It is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes including preterm birth, neonatal sepsis, and cerebral palsy. The decidua is the outermost layer of the gestational membranes and is likely an important initial site of contact with microbes during ascending infection. However, little is known about how decidual stromal cells (DSCs) respond to microbial threat. Defining the contributions of individual cell types to the complex medley of inflammatory signals during chorioamnionitis could lead to improved interventions aimed at halting this disease...
March 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029485/shenfu-injection-for-improving-cellular-immunity-and-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-sepsis-or-septic-shock
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ning Zhang, Jianhua Liu, Zeliang Qiu, Yiping Ye, Jian Zhang, Tianzheng Lou
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of Shenfu injection (SFI) for enhancing cellular immunity and improving the clinical outcomes of patients with septic shock. METHODS: Patients with sepsis were randomly assigned to receive either SFI at a dose of 100mL every 24hours for 7 consecutive days or a placebo in addition to conventional therapy. The immunologic parameters were collected on days 1, 3, and 7 after the above treatments, and the clinical outcomes were updated for 28days...
January 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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