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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449936/function-of-aquaporins-in-sepsis-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Katharina Rump, Michael Adamzik
Background: Sepsis is a common cause of death in intensive care units worldwide. Due to the high complexity of this immunological syndrome development of novel therapeutic strategies is urgent. Promising drug targets or biomarkers may depict aquaporins (AQPs) as they regulate crucial key mechanisms of sepsis. Main body: Here we report on base of the current literature that several AQPs are involved in different physiological processes of sepsis. In immune system mainly AQPs 3, 5 and 9 seem to be important, as they regulate the migration of different immune cells...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434744/interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-3-downregulation-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-attenuates-immunosuppression-in-sepsis
#2
Qin Xia, Yupin Zhou, Xi Wang, Shukun Fu
Sepsis is the leading cause of mortality in intensive care units due to complex inflammatory immune responses and immunosuppression. Recent studies have indicated that the negative regulator of toll like receptors, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK-3/IRAK-M), serves an important role in immunosuppression during sepsis. In the current study, a cecal ligation puncture model was established in mice using lipopolysaccharide secondary challenge to simulate immunosuppression in sepsis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from this model were then used to evaluate the expression and function of IRAK-M...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382531/gonadal-hormone-receptors-underlie-the-resistance-of-female-rats-to-inflammatory-and-cardiovascular-complications-of-endotoxemia
#3
Mohammed A El-Lakany, Mohamed A Fouda, Hanan M El-Gowelli, Sahar M El-Gowilly, Mahmoud M El-Mas
The male gender is more vulnerable to immunological complications of sepsis. Here, we tested the hypotheses that female rats are protected against endotoxemia-evoked hypotension and cardiac autonomic dysfunction, and that gonadal hormone receptors account for such protection. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance caused by i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. In male rats, LPS elevated serum TNFα together with falls in blood pressure and rises in heart rate. The spectral index of cardiac sympathovagal balance (low-frequency/high-frequency ratio, LF/HF) was reduced by LPS, suggesting an enhanced parasympathetic dominance...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379043/early-immune-anergy-towards-recall-antigens-and-mitogens-in-patients-at-onset-of-septic-shock
#4
M Feuerecker, L Sudhoff, B Crucian, J-I Pagel, C Sams, C Strewe, A Guo, G Schelling, J Briegel, I Kaufmann, A Choukèr
The pathology of sepsis is typically characterized by an infection and excessive initial inflammation including a cytokine storm, followed by a state of immune suppression or paralysis. This classical view of a two peak kinetic immune response is currently controversially discussed. This study was a sub-study of the randomized clinical Trial SISPCT registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00832039, Registration date: 29/01/2009). Blood samples from 76 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C in vitro with bacterial or fungal recall-antigens or specific mitogen antigens within 24 hours of sepsis onset...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377225/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus-gas-infections-by-influenza-virus-gas-superinfection
#5
REVIEW
Shigefumi Okamoto, Satoshi Nagase
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) are pathogenic bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, and cause severe invasive GAS infections that comprise a wide range of diverse diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, renal failure, toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS), sepsis, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. The essential virulence, infected host, and external environmental factors required for invasive GAS infections still have not known. We demonstrated that superinfection with influenza virus and GAS induced invasive GAS infections in a mouse model, and then several investigators reported clinical cases of invasive GAS infections secondary to influenza virus infection in Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, China, and others...
January 27, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338031/pre-existing-malignancy-results-in-increased-prevalence-of-distinct-populations-of-cd4-t-cells-during-sepsis
#6
Jianfeng Xie, Jennifer M Robertson, Ching-Wen Chen, Wenxiao Zhang, Craig M Coopersmith, Mandy L Ford
The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302904/acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-with-special-reference-to-pregnancy-specific-disorders-a-hospital-based-study-2014-2016
#7
Jai Prakash, Vivek C Ganiger, Suraj Prakash, Mohammad Iqbal, Deba Prasad Kar, Usha Singh, Ashish Verma
INTRODUCTION: There are numerous reports in the literature describing acute kidney injury in pregnancy (P-AKI) due to various obstetric complications. However, there is a dearth of studies on AKI related to pregnancy-specific disorders from India. We aimed to analyze clinical features and outcome of P-AKI related to pregnancy-specific disorders compared to total pregnancy, in India. METHOD: All pregnant women attending the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology from November 2014 to July 2016 were screened for AKI based on: (1) sudden elevation of serum creatinine ≥ 1 mg/dl; (2) oligoanuria for > 12 h; and (3) need for dialysis...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295868/the-immunoproteasome-specific-inhibitor-onx-0914-reverses-susceptibility-to-acute-viral-myocarditis
#8
Nadine Althof, Carl Christoph Goetzke, Meike Kespohl, Karolin Voss, Arnd Heuser, Sandra Pinkert, Ziya Kaya, Karin Klingel, Antje Beling
Severe heart pathology upon virus infection is closely associated with the immunological equipment of the host. Since there is no specific treatment available, current research focuses on identifying new drug targets to positively modulate predisposing immune factors. Utilizing a murine model with high susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis, this study describes ONX 0914-an immunoproteasome-specific inhibitor-as highly protective during severe heart disease. Represented by reduced heart infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and diminished organ damage, ONX 0914 treatment reversed fulminant pathology...
January 2, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277158/postoperative-symbiotic-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-double-blind-randomised-trial
#9
Priscilla C Lages, Simone V Generoso, Maria Isabel T D Correia
Studies on the 'gut origin of sepsis' have suggested that stressful insults, such as surgery, can affect intestinal permeability, leading to bacterial translocation. Symbiotics have been reported to be able to improve gut permeability and modulate the immunologic system, thereby decreasing postoperative complications. Therefore we aimed to evaluate the postoperative use of symbiotics in head and neck cancer surgical patients for intestinal function and permeability, as well as the postoperative outcomes. Patients were double-blind randomised into the symbiotic (n 18) or the control group (n 18)...
December 26, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275601/-the-need-to-focus-on-the-immunological-mechanism-and-therapy-strategies-of-secondary-infection-in-sepsis
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275405/neonatal-systemic-inflammation-induces-inflammatory-reactions-and-brain-apoptosis-in-a-pathogen-specific-manner
#11
Mari Falck, Damjan Osredkar, Thomas Ragnar Wood, Elke Maes, Torun Flatebø, Hemmen Sabir, Marianne Thoresen
BACKGROUND: After neonatal asphyxia, therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is the only proven treatment option. Although established as a neuroprotective therapy, benefit from HT has been questioned when infection is a comorbidity to hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury. Gram-negative and gram-positive species activate the immune system through different pathogen recognition receptors and subsequent immunological systems. In rodent models, gram-negative (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and gram-positive (PAM3CSK4 [PAM]) inflammation similarly increase neuronal vulnerability to HI...
December 23, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273917/recent-advances-in-the-pathogenetic-mechanisms-of-sepsis-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#12
REVIEW
Filippo Fani, Giuseppe Regolisti, Marco Delsante, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Giuseppe Castellano, Loreto Gesualdo, Gianluca Villa, Enrico Fiaccadori
Sepsis is a serious medical condition that can lead to multi-organ failure and shock, and it is associated with increased mortality. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of sepsis in critically ill patients, and often requires renal replacement therapy. The pathophysiology of AKI in sepsis has not yet been fully defined. In the past, classic theories were mainly focused on systemic hemodynamic derangements, underscoring the key role of whole kidney hypoperfusion due to reduced renal blood flow...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250561/tnf-tolerance-in-monocytes-and-macrophages-characteristics-and-molecular-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
René Huber, Rolf Bikker, Bastian Welz, Martin Christmann, Korbinian Brand
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) tolerance in monocytes and macrophages means that preexposure to TNF reduces the sensitivity in these cells to a subsequent restimulation with this cytokine. Differential effects arise following preincubation with both low and high doses of TNF resulting in absolute as well as induction tolerance affecting specific immunologically relevant gene sets. In this review article, we summarize the relevance of TNF tolerance in vivo and the molecular mechanisms underlying these forms of tolerance including the role of transcription factors and signaling systems...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232699/cxcr4-blockade-decreases-cd4-t-cell-exhaustion-and-improves-survival-in-a-murine-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis
#14
Kimberly M Ramonell, Wenxiao Zhang, Annette Hadley, Ching-Wen Chen, Katherine T Fay, John D Lyons, Nathan J Klingensmith, Kevin W McConnell, Craig M Coopersmith, Mandy L Ford
Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic response to infection involving many inflammatory pathways and the induction of counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory processes that results in a state of immune incompetence and can lead to multi-organ failure. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that, following ligation by CXCL12, directs cells to bone marrow niches and also plays an important role in T cell cosignaling and formation of the immunological synapse. Here, we investigated the expression and function of CXCR4 in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232196/mechanisms-of-action-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-septic-encephalopathy
#15
Figen Esen, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Erdem Tuzun, M Dustin Boone
Acute brain dysfunction associated with sepsis is a serious complication that results in morbidity and mortality. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. Our results suggest that IVIgG and IgGAM administration ameliorates neuronal dysfunction and behavioral deficits by reducing apoptotic cell death and glial cell proliferation...
December 12, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220594/modification-of-immunological-features-in-human-platelets-during-sepsis
#16
Valle-Jiménez Xareni Raque, Sánchez-García Juan Carlos, Revilla-Rodríguez Eduardo, Baltierrez-Hoyos Rafael, Romero-Tlalolini María de Los Ángeles, Ramírez-Cosmes Adriana, Torres-Aguilar Honorio, Bustos-Arriaga José, Aguilar-Ruiz Sergio Roberto
Sepsis is an organic dysfunction that puts at risk the life of patients suffering this disorder due to an exacerbated immunological response to the infection mediated by the host. Platelets have been largely researched on sepsis owing to its role in Disseminated Intracellular Coagulation (DIC) and because thrombocytopenia is an important clinical feature of these patients. Nevertheless, a great number of evidence shows that platelets have also an important role in immunological response since they have pattern recognition receptors, chemokine receptors and granules with stored soluble mediators...
December 8, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209311/codevelopment-of-microbiota-and-innate-immunity-and-the-risk-for-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#17
REVIEW
Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD), which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203386/procalcitonin-the-marker-of-pediatric-bacterial-infection
#18
Mohammad Yousef Memar, Mojtaba Varshochi, Behrooz Shokouhi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Timely recognition of systemic bacterial infections in pediatric care setting is the basis for effective treatment and control. This review provides an overview of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early marker for the detection of severe, invasive bacterial infection in children. Almost all articles on biochemical property and clinical studies in PubMed and Scopus databases regarding their use in pediatric infections and the use of PCT as a marker of bacterial infections were examined. Various methods and analyzers are currently available for the evaluation of PCT...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149940/immune-activation-in-sepsis
#19
REVIEW
Andrew Conway-Morris, Julie Wilson, Manu Shankar-Hari
Sepsis is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Immune responses determine the characteristics of sepsis. The body's protection against infection involves danger signal surveillance and recognition from nonself, effector functions in response to sensing danger signals, homeostatic regulation, and generation of immunologic memory. During sepsis, the immune system is activated by pathogen-associated and host-derived molecular patterns. Detecting these molecular patterns generates multisystem responses...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138874/using-il-6-concentrations-in-the-first-24%C3%A2-h-following-trauma-to-predict-immunological-complications-and-mortality-in-trauma-patients-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Zhi Qiao, Weikang Wang, Luxu Yin, Peng Luo, Johannes Greven, Klemens Horst, Frank Hildebrand
PURPOSE: In previous studies, interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been shown to have a high predictive value for the development of complications and mortality after trauma; however, there is some uncertainty around these results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the value of early IL-6 levels (within the first 24 h after trauma) for predicting post-traumatic complications [acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, multiple organ failure (MOF), and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)] and mortality...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
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