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immunology sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033944/artificial-polysialic-acid-chains-as-sialidase-resistant-molecular-anchors-to-accumulate-particles-on-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#1
Christina E Galuska, Jan A Dambon, Andrea Kühnle, Kim F Bornhöfft, Gerlinde Prem, Kristina Zlatina, Thomas Lütteke, Sebastian P Galuska
Neutrophils are involved in numerous immunological events. One mechanism of neutrophils to combat pathogens is the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Thereby, neutrophils use DNA fibers to form a meshwork of DNA and histones as well as several antimicrobial components to trap and kill invaders. However, the formation of NETs can lead to pathological conditions triggering among other things (e.g., sepsis or acute lung failure), which is mainly a consequence of the cytotoxic characteristics of accumulated extracellular histones...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965650/acute-ethanol-intoxication-suppresses-pentraxin-3-expression-in-a-mouse-sepsis-model-involving-cecal-ligation-and-puncture
#2
Shogo Kasuda, Risa Kudo, Katsuya Yuui, Yoshihiko Sakurai, Katsuhiko Hatake
Acute ethanol intoxication impairs immunological reactions and increases the risk of sepsis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Pentraxin (PTX) 3 is a humoral pattern recognition receptor whose levels rapidly increase in response to inflammation. PTX3 production is triggered by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and is mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). As PTX3 exerts protective effects against sepsis as well as acute lung injury, we investigated whether acute ethanol exposure exacerbates sepsis by altering PTX3 expression...
November 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960213/impaired-polyfunctionality-of-cd8-t-cells-in-severe-sepsis-patients-with-human-cytomegalovirus-reactivation
#3
Young Joon Choi, Sun Bean Kim, Jong Hoon Kim, Su-Hyung Park, Moo Suk Park, June Myung Kim, Sang Hoon Han, Eui-Cheol Shin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a lifelong chronic latent infection and often reactivates in immunocompromised patients. In addition, HCMV reactivates in patients with sepsis or other critical illnesses, particularly in patients with poor prognoses. However, the immunological characteristics of sepsis patients with HCMV reactivation have not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined T-cell responses in severe sepsis patients with and without HCMV reactivation. First, HCMV pp65-specific T-cell functions were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IFN-γ, TNF-α, and MIP-1β and by CD107a staining...
September 29, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942175/evaluation-of-immunological-responses-to-recombinant-porin-a-protein-rpoa-from-native-strains-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroups-a-and-b-using-omv-as-an-adjuvant-in-balb-c-mice
#4
Parviz Afrough, Saeid Bouzari, Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Farzam Vaziri, Abolfazl Fateh, Ava Behrouzi, Mohammadali Malekan, Seyed Davar Siadat
Neisseria meningitidis is one of the main causes of sepsis and meningitis, which are two serious life-threatening diseases in both children and adolescents. Porin A (porA) from both serogroup A and B were cloned into the pET28a plasmid and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected three times with 25 μg of the recombinant PorA. Specific total IgG antibodies and isotypes were evaluated using ELISA assay...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918754/macrophage-activation-like-syndrome-an-immunological-entity-associated-with-rapid-progression-to-death-in-sepsis
#5
Evdoxia Kyriazopoulou, Konstantinos Leventogiannis, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Georgios Dimopoulos, Aikaterini Pantazi, Stylianos E Orfanos, Nikoletta Rovina, Iraklis Tsangaris, Theologia Gkavogianni, Elektra Botsa, Eleftheria Chassiou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Christina Kontouli, Panagiotis Chaloulis, Dimitrios Velissaris, Athina Savva, Jonas-Sundén Cullberg, Karolina Akinosoglou, Charalambos Gogos, Apostolos Armaganidis, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
BACKGROUND: A subanalysis of a randomized clinical trial indicated sepsis survival benefit from interleukin (IL)-1 blockade in patients with features of the macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS). This study aimed to investigate the frequency of MALS and to develop a biomarker of diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS: Patients with infections and systemic inflammatory response syndrome were assigned to one test cohort (n = 3417) and a validation cohort (n = 1704)...
September 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890868/surgical-and-immune-reconstitution-murine-models-in-bone-marrow-research-potential-for-exploring-mechanisms-in-sepsis-trauma-and-allergy
#6
REVIEW
Pedro Xavier-Elsas, Renato Nunes Ferreira, Maria Ignez C Gaspar-Elsas
Bone marrow, the vital organ which maintains lifelong hemopoiesis, currently receives considerable attention, as a source of multiple cell types which may play important roles in repair at distant sites. This emerging function, distinct from, but closely related to, bone marrow roles in innate immunity and inflammation, has been characterized through a number of strategies. However, the use of surgical models in this endeavour has hitherto been limited. Surgical strategies allow the experimenter to predetermine the site, timing, severity and invasiveness of injury; to add or remove aggravating factors (such as infection and defects in immunity) in controlled ways; and to manipulate the context of repair, including reconstitution with selected immune cell subpopulations...
August 20, 2017: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865219/expression-and-immunological-evaluation-of-elongation-factor-tu-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#7
X J Xia, L Wang, L K Cheng, Z Q Shen, S G Li, J L Wang
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is considered as a major pathogen that causes sepsis and meningitis in piglets and humans, but knowledge of its antigenic proteins remains limited so far. The surface-related proteins of pathogens often play significant roles in bacterium-host interactions and infection. Here, we obtained the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) gene of Streptococcus suis and constructed the recombinant expression plasmid successfully. The target recombinant plasmid was then expressed in Escherichia coli and the immuno-protection of the recombinant protein was subsequently evaluated as well...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810616/single-blinded-randomized-and-controlled-clinical-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-among-septic-patients-with-intestinal-dysfunction-a-pilot-study
#8
Huaisheng Chen, Wei Wang, Yingcai Hong, Huadong Zhang, Chengying Hong, Xueyan Liu
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory reaction, which is aggravated by aspects of the immune response that are thought to be inhibited by Omega-3 fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to determine if Omega-3 fatty acid could modulate immunological function and improve survival rate among septic patients with intestinal dysfunction. A total of 48 mechanically ventilated patients with intestinal dysfunction were included in this prospective, randomized and single-blind clinical study. Patients were randomly divided into control (group A) and treatment groups (group B)...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797204/immunologic-biomarkers-for-diagnostic-of-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#9
Mohammad Yousef Memar, Naser Alizadeh, Mojtaba Varshochi, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Accurate identification of early onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) is challenging. Blood culture has been considered as a gold standard method but the identification of EOS is intricate by a high false-negative results. This review provides an overview of biomarkers as indicators for the diagnosis of EOS. There is an affluence of studies appraising diagnostic indicators in the identification of EOS. Acute-phase reactants, cytokines and cell surface antigens have been investigated as indicators for EOS, but none of them are presently in routine clinical setting...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782758/mechanism-of-c5a-induced-immunologic-derangement-in-sepsis
#10
Ruonan Xu, Fang Lin, Chunmei Bao, Fu-Sheng Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768668/a-combination-of-recombinant-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-strains-expressing-pneumococcal-proteins-induces-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-and-protects-against-pneumococcal-colonization-and-sepsis
#11
Cibelly Goulart, Dunia Rodriguez, Alex I Kanno, Thiago Rojas Converso, Ying-Jie Lu, Richard Malley, Luciana C C Leite
Pneumococcal diseases remain a substantial cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. The development of potentially serotype-transcending vaccines has been extensively studied; ideally, such a vaccine should include antigens that are able to induce protection against colonization (likely mediated by interleukin-17A [IL-17A]) and invasive disease (likely mediated by antibody). The use of strong adjuvants or alternative delivery systems that are able to improve the immunological response of recombinant proteins has been proposed but poses potential safety and practical concerns in children...
October 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715505/the-clinical-and-immunological-performance-of-28-days-survival-model-of-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-in-humanized-mice
#12
Krzysztof Laudanski, Natalia Lapko, Mateusz Zawadka, Benjamin X Zhou, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, George S Worthen
Sepsis triggers a coordinated and thorough immune system response with long-term unfavorable sequelae after the initial insult. Long-term recovery from sepsis has garnered increasing attention recently, but a lack of suitable animal models impairs progress in this area. Our study, therefore, aimed to address the performance of the immune system in a survivable model of sepsis (cecal ligation and sepsis; CLP) for up to 28 d after the initial injury in humanized mice. Our model mimics human sepsis with weight loss and post-sepsis hypothermia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708664/esmolol-administration-to-control-tachycardia-in-an-ovine-model-of-peritonitis
#13
Koji Hosokawa, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Emiel Hendrik Post, Adriano José Pereira, Antoine Herpain, Jacques Creteur, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Excessive adrenergic signaling may be harmful in sepsis. Using β-blockers to reduce sympathetic overactivity may modulate sepsis-induced cardiovascular, metabolic, immunologic, and coagulation alterations. Using a randomized ovine fecal peritonitis model, we investigated whether administration of a short-acting β-blocker, esmolol, could control tachycardia without deleterious effects on hemodynamics, renal perfusion, cerebral perfusion, cerebral metabolism, or outcome. METHODS: After induction of fecal peritonitis, 14 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and hemodynamically monitored adult female sheep were randomly assigned to receive a continuous intravenous infusion of esmolol to control heart rate between 80 and 100 bpm (n = 7) or a saline infusion (control group, n = 7)...
July 13, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699713/-potential-role-of-norepinephrine-in-the-immune-dysfunction-associated-with-sepsis
#14
Anna Bauer-Dörries, Sarah De Cupis, Lucas Liaudet
Septic shock may be complicated by a state of immune suppression, with ominous prognosis significance. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, it is possible that norepinephrine, used to treat circulatory failure during septic shock, plays a significant contributing role. Indeed, besides its hemodynamic effects, norepinephrine exerts multiple immunosuppressive actions, which are primarily mediated by beta-2 adrenergic receptors expressed by immune cells. Furthermore, norepinephrine has the ability to promote the growth of numerous bacteria, and could thereby foster the development of nosocomial infections...
July 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692472/quantification-of-immune-dysregulation-by-next-generation-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-improve-sepsis-diagnosis-in-surgical-patients
#15
Raquel Almansa, Alicia Ortega, Ana Ávila-Alonso, Maria Heredia-Rodríguez, Silvia Martín, Diana Benavides, Marta Martín-Fernandez, Lucia Rico, César Aldecoa, Jesús Rico, Iñigo López de Cenarruzabeitia, Juan Beltrán de Heredia, Esther Gomez-Sanchez, Marta Aragón, Cristina Andrés, Dolores Calvo, David Andaluz-Ojeda, Pilar Liu, Francisco Blanco-Antona, Lydia Blanco, Jose Ignacio Gómez-Herreras, Eduardo Tamayo, Jesus F Bermejo-Martin
OBJECTIVES: To quantify immunological dysfunction in surgical patients with presence/absence of sepsis using a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) transcriptomic analysis. The study also aims to evaluate this approach for improving identification of sepsis in these patients. BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation is a central event in sepsis. Quantification of the expression of immunological genes participating in the pathogenesis of sepsis could represent a new avenue to improve its diagnosis...
July 7, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673381/biomarkers-of-necrotising-soft-tissue-infections-aspects-of-the-innate-immune-response
#16
Marco Bo Hansen
Necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI) is a life-threatening and rapidly progressing bacterial infection involving one or more layers of the soft tissue compartments causing necrosis. The amputation and mortality rates remain high despite increased focus on the patients. Timely treatment, including surgical intervention, reduces the risk of severe disability and death. However, the lack of pathognomonic signs impedes early diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, the rarity of the disease makes it difficult to conduct large prospective studies, thus prospective research is almost non-existent in this group of patients...
July 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646721/biochemical-immunological-hybrid-biosensor-based-on-two-dimensional-chromatography-for-on-site-sepsis-diagnosis
#17
Seung-Wan Kim, Il-Hoon Cho, Guei-Sam Lim, Gi-Na Park, Se-Hwan Paek
A hybrid-biosensor system that can simultaneously fulfill the immunoassay for protein markers (e.g., C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT)) and the enzyme assay for metabolic substances (e.g., lactate) in the same sepsis-based sample has been devised. Such a challenge was pursued through the installation of an enzyme-reaction zone on the signal pad of the typical immuno-strip for the rapid two-dimensional (2-D)-chromatography test. To minimize the mutual interference in the hybrid assays, a pre-determined membrane site was etched in a pattern and mounted with a biochemical-reaction pad, thereby allowing a loaded sample to enter and then stay in the pad for a colored-signal production over the course of an immunoassay...
June 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629122/age-related-changes-in-immunological-and-physiological-responses-following-pulmonary-challenge
#18
REVIEW
Edmund J Miller, Helena M Linge
This review examines the current status of knowledge of sepsis and pneumonia in the elderly population and how the dynamics of the pulmonary challenge affects outcome and consequences. Led by an unprecedented shift in demographics, where a larger proportion of the population will reach an older age, clinical and experimental research shows that aging is associated with certain pulmonary changes, but it is during infectious insult of the lungs, as in the case of pneumonia, that the age-related differences in responsiveness and endurance become obvious and lead to a worse outcome than in the younger population...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623379/cathelicidin-deficient-mice-exhibit-increased-survival-and-upregulation-of-key-inflammatory-response-genes-following-cecal-ligation-and-puncture
#19
Patricia Severino, Suely Kubo Ariga, Hermes Vieira Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Elisangela de Paula Silva, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Victor Nizet, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
Antimicrobial peptides possess a myriad of molecular properties including bacterial killing and the regulation of many aspects of innate immunity. Cathelicidins are a group of antimicrobial peptides widely investigated by the scientific community. Many studies have focused on the bactericidal and pro-inflammatory roles of cathelicidins. Because the role of endogenous cathelicidin expression remains obscure in deep-seated systemic infections, we induced sepsis in cathelicidin knockout and wild-type (WT) mice by cecal ligation and puncture, performing transcriptome screening by DNA microarray in conjunction with other immunologic assays...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597685/a-gain-of-function-mutation-of-stat1-a-novel-genetic-factor-contributing-to-chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis
#20
Narges Eslami, Marzieh Tavakol, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Mohammad Gharegozlou, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel, Satoshi Okada, Saba Arshi, Mohammad Hassan Bemanian, Morteza Fallahpour, Rasool Molatefi, Farhad Seif, Samaneh Zoghi, Nima Rezaei, Mohammad Nabavi
Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have increasingly been identified as a genetic cause of autosomal-dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In this article, we describe a 33-year-old man who experienced chronic refractory candidiasis, recurrent otitis media, and pneumonia resulting in bronchiectasis, severe oral and esophageal candidiases with strictures associated with hypothyroidism and immune hemolytic anemia. His son also suffered from persistent candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, poor weight gain, and pneumonia that resulted in his demise because of sepsis...
June 1, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
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