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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938568/senp3-grants-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#1
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938118/snapshot-n-glycosylation-processing-pathways-across-kingdoms
#2
Cheng-Yu Chung, Natalia I Majewska, Qiong Wang, Jackson T Paul, Michael J Betenbaugh
Post-translational modification of proteins with carbohydrates shapes their localization and function. This SnapShot presents the core pathways from different organisms that install these complex and highly variable structures.
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937686/serine-392-phosphorylation-modulates-p53-mitochondrial-translocation-and-transcription-independent-apoptosis
#3
Cédric Castrogiovanni, Béranger Waterschoot, Olivier De Backer, Patrick Dumont
The tumor suppressor p53 is a key regulator of apoptosis induced by various cellular stresses. p53 can induce apoptosis by two mechanisms. First, p53 acts as a transcription factor inducing and repressing pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic targets genes, respectively. Second, p53 is able to translocate to the mitochondria, where it interacts with BCL-2 family members to induce membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. p53 transcriptional activity is regulated by a set of post-translational modifications that have been well documented...
September 22, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937587/%C3%A2%C2%B5-conotoxins-modulating-sodium-currents-in-pain-perception-and-transmission-a-therapeutic-potential
#4
REVIEW
Elisabetta Tosti, Raffaele Boni, Alessandra Gallo
The Conus genus includes around 500 species of marine mollusks with a peculiar production of venomous peptides known as conotoxins (CTX). Each species is able to produce up to 200 different biological active peptides. Common structure of CTX is the low number of amino acids stabilized by disulfide bridges and post-translational modifications that give rise to different isoforms. µ and µO-CTX are two isoforms that specifically target voltage-gated sodium channels. These, by inducing the entrance of sodium ions in the cell, modulate the neuronal excitability by depolarizing plasma membrane and propagating the action potential...
September 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936802/significance-of-mitochondrial-protein-post-translational-modifications-in-pathophysiology-of-brain-injury
#5
Nina Klimova, Aaron Long, Tibor Kristian
Mitochondria are complex organelles that undergo constant fusion and fission in order to adapt to the ever-changing cellular environment. The fusion/fission proteins, localized in the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane, play critical roles under pathological conditions such as acute brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Post-translational modifications of these proteins tightly regulate their function and activity, ultimately impacting mitochondrial dynamics and their efficiency to generate ATP. The individual post-translational modifications that are known to affect mitochondrial dynamics include SUMOylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, acetylation, O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, and proteolytic cleavage...
September 21, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936665/phosphoprotein-enrichment-from-tobacco-mature-pollen-crude-protein-extract
#6
Jan Fíla, David Honys
Protein phosphorylation was repeatedly shown to be the most dynamic post-translational modification mediated by a huge orchestra of protein kinases and phosphatases. Upon landing on a stigma, pollen grain dehydration and activation are accompanied by changes in protein phosphorylation together with the translation activation of stored mRNAs. To enable studies of the total phosphoproteome, it is usually necessary to apply various enrichment techniques. In this chapter, one of these protocols that worked previously well on tobacco mature pollen is presented in more detail...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935371/a-sir2-family-protein-rv1151c-deacetylates-hu-to-alter-its-dna-binding-mode-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Chinmay Anand, Rajni Garg, Soumitra Ghosh, Valakunja Nagaraja
Till recently, knowledge about epigenetic regulation in bacterial world confined largely to DNA methylation. Lysine acetylation/deacetylation of histones is a major contributor for chromatin dynamics in eukaryotes. However, little is known about such epigenetic changes brought about by post-translational modifications in bacteria. Here, we describe an example of such mechanism occurring in a histone like protein, HU from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previously, we demonstrated the interaction and acetylation of Mtb HU (MtHU) by one of the acetyl transferases, Eis...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935183/identification-of-novel-pde%C3%AE-interacting-proteins
#8
Philipp Küchler, Gunther Zimmermann, Michael Winzker, Petra Janning, Herbert Waldmann, Slava Ziegler
Prenylation is a post-translational modification that increases the affinity of proteins for membranes and mediates protein-protein interactions. The retinal rod rhodopsin-sensitive cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta (PDEδ) is a prenyl binding protein that is essential for the shuttling of small GTPases between different membrane compartments and, thus, for their proper functioning. Although the prenylome comprises up to 2% of the mammalian proteome, only few prenylated proteins are known to interact with PDEδ...
August 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932910/a-histone-deacetylase-gene-slhda3-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-fruit-ripening-and-carotenoid-accumulation
#9
Jun-E Guo, Zongli Hu, Xiaohui Yu, Anzhou Li, Fenfen Li, Yunshu Wang, Shibing Tian, Guoping Chen
SlHDA3 functions as an inhibitor and regulates tomato fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Post-translational modifications, including histones acetylation, play a pivotal role in the changes of chromatin structure dynamic modulation and gene activity. The regulation of histone acetylation is achieved by the action of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, which play crucial roles in the regulation of transcription activation. There is an increasing research focus on histone deacetylation in crops, but the role of histone deacetylase genes (HDACs) in tomato has not been elucidated...
September 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932884/facile-and-easily-popularized-synthesis-of-l-cysteine-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticles-based-on-one-step-functionalization-for-highly-efficient-enrichment-of-glycopeptides
#10
Xiaoyan Feng, Chunhui Deng, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang
Protein glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. Also, efficient enrichment and separation of glycopeptides from complex samples are crucial for the thorough analysis of glycosylation. Developing novel hydrophilic materials with facile and easily popularized synthesis is an urgent need in large-scale glycoproteomics research. Herein, for the first time, a one-step functionalization strategy based on metal-organic coordination was proposed and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were directly functionalized with zwitterionic hydrophilic L-cysteine (L-Cys), greatly simplifying the synthetic procedure...
September 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932213/petri-net-based-model-of-helicobacter-pylori-mediated-disruption-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-stomach-lining-during-gastric-carcinoma
#11
Anam Naz, Ayesha Obaid, Faryal M Awan, Aqsa Ikram, Jamil Ahmad, Amjad Ali
Tight junctions help prevent the passage of digestive enzymes and microorganisms through the space between adjacent epithelial cells lining. However, Helicobacter pylori encoded virulence factors negatively regulate these tight junctions and contribute to dysfunction of gastric mucosa. Here, we have predicted the regulation of important tight junction proteins, such as Zonula occludens-1, Claudin-2 and Connexin32 in the presence of pathogenic proteins. Molecular events such as post translational modifications and crosstalk between phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, palmitoylation and methylation are explored which may compromise the integrity of these tight junction proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932194/h2s-induced-sulfhydration-biological-function-and-detection-methodology
#12
REVIEW
Da Zhang, Junbao Du, Chaoshu Tang, Yaqian Huang, Hongfang Jin
At appropriate concentrations, hydrogen sulfide, a well-known gasotransmitter, plays important roles in both physiology and pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests that modifying thiol groups of specific cysteines in target proteins via sulfhydration or persulfidation is one of the important mechanisms responsible for the biological functions of hydrogen sulfide. A variety of key proteins of different cellular pathways in mammals have been reported to be sulfhydrated by hydrogen sulfide to participate and regulate the processes of cell survival/death, cell differentiation, cell proliferation/hypertrophy, cellular metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics/biogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, vasorelaxtion, inflammation, oxidative stress, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931878/a-method-to-identify-trace-sulfated-igg-n-glycans-as-biomarkers-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Jing-Rong Wang, Wei-Na Gao, Rudolf Grimm, Shibo Jiang, Yong Liang, Hua Ye, Zhan-Guo Li, Lee-Fong Yau, Hao Huang, Ju Liu, Min Jiang, Qiong Meng, Tian-Tian Tong, Hai-Hui Huang, Stephanie Lee, Xing Zeng, Liang Liu, Zhi-Hong Jiang
N-linked glycans on immunoglobulin G (IgG) have been associated with pathogenesis of diseases and the therapeutic functions of antibody-based drugs; however, low-abundance species are difficult to detect. Here we show a glycomic approach to detect these species on human IgGs using a specialized microfluidic chip. We discover 20 sulfated and 4 acetylated N-glycans on IgGs. Using multiple reaction monitoring method, we precisely quantify these previously undetected low-abundance, trace and even ultra-trace N-glycans...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931431/fasciclin-calcareous-corpuscle-binary-complex-mediated-protein-protein-interactions-in-taenia-solium-metacestode
#14
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Young-An Bae, Seon-Hee Kim, Joo-Ho Shin, Yichao Yang, Insug Kang, Yoon Kong
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) is a serious neurological disease of global concern. Diverse bioactive molecules involved in the long-term survival of TsM might contribute to disease progression. Fasciclin (Fas) is an extracellular protein that mediates adhesion, migration and differentiation of cells by interacting with other molecules. We hypothesized that TsMFas might bind to calcareous corpuscle (CC) through its adhesive property and participate in crucial protein-protein interactions, thus contributing to the creation of a symbiotic interactome network...
September 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930534/regulation-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-functions-by-post-translational-modifications
#15
Lianhua Piao, Kyoko Fujioka, Makoto Nakakido, Ryuji Hamamoto
The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) catalyze poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, a post-translational modification of proteins. This  consists of the attachment of mono- or poly-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose units from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to specific polar residues of target proteins. PARP1 is the most abundant and best-characterized member of the family of PARP enzymes. PARP1 plays key roles in DNA repair, as well as a wide variety of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromatin modulation, cellular signaling pathway, inflammation, cellular stress responses and so on...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929346/o-glcnac-dependent-regulation-of-progesterone-receptor-function-in-breast-cancer
#16
Gloria M Trinca, Merit L Goodman, Evangelia K Papachristou, Clive S D'Santos, Prabhakar Chalise, Rashna Madan, Chad Slawson, Christy R Hagan
Emerging clinical trial data implicate progestins in the development of breast cancer. While the role for the progesterone receptor (PR) in this process remains controversial, it is clear that PR, a steroid-activated nuclear receptor, alters the transcriptional landscape of breast cancer. PR interacts with many different types of proteins, including transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and proteins that post-translationally modify PR (i.e., kinases and phosphatases)...
September 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929344/glucosidase-ii-beta-subunit-gluii%C3%AE-plays-a-role-in-autophagy-and-apoptosis-regulation-in-lung-carcinoma-cells-in-a-p53-dependent-manner
#17
Worapong Khaodee, Nichanan Inboot, Suruk Udomsom, Warunee Kumsaiyai, Ratchada Cressey
PURPOSE: Glucosidase II plays a major role in regulating the post-translational modification of N-linked glycoproteins. Previously, we found that the beta subunit of glucosidase II (GluIIβ) levels are significantly increased in lung carcinoma tissues, indicating a potential role in lung tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the role of GluIIβ in the regulation of autophagy and apoptosis in lung carcinoma- and immortalized human bronchial epithelial-derived cells. METHODS: A selective glucosidase II inhibitor, bromoconduritol, was used to inhibit GluII enzyme activity and a siRNA-based technology was used to suppress the expression of the GluIIβ encoding gene PRKCSH in lung carcinoma cells differing in p53 status...
September 19, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928633/glutaminase-and-mmp-9-downregulation-in-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-lpa1-receptor-null-mice-correlate-with-altered-dendritic-spine-plasticity
#18
Ana Peñalver, José A Campos-Sandoval, Eduardo Blanco, Carolina Cardona, Laura Castilla, Mercedes Martín-Rufián, Guillermo Estivill-Torrús, Raquel Sánchez-Varo, Francisco J Alonso, Mercedes Pérez-Hernández, María I Colado, Antonia Gutiérrez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Javier Márquez
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator that regulates nervous system development and functions acting through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here we explore the crosstalk between LPA1 receptor and glutamatergic transmission by examining expression of glutaminase (GA) isoforms in different brain areas isolated from wild-type (WT) and KOLPA1 mice. Silencing of LPA1 receptor induced a severe down-regulation of Gls-encoded long glutaminase protein variant (KGA) (glutaminase gene encoding the kidney-type isoforms, GLS) protein expression in several brain regions, particularly in brain cortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928488/ubiquitylation-at-the-crossroads-of-development-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Michael Rape
Human development requires intricate cell specification and communication pathways that allow an embryo to generate and appropriately connect more than 200 different cell types. Key to the successful completion of this differentiation programme is the quantitative and reversible regulation of core signalling networks, and post-translational modification with ubiquitin provides embryos with an essential tool to accomplish this task. Instigated by E3 ligases and reversed by deubiquitylases, ubiquitylation controls many processes that are fundamental for development, such as cell division, fate specification and migration...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928079/polyglutamine-expansion-diseases-more-than-simple-repeats
#20
Alexandra Silva, Ana Viana de Almeida, Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro
Polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat-containing proteins are widespread in the human proteome but only nine of them are associated with highly incapacitating neurodegenerative disorders. The genetic expansion of the polyQ tract in disease-related proteins triggers a series of events resulting in neurodegeneration. The polyQ tract plays the leading role in the aggregation mechanism, but other elements modulate the aggregation propensity in the context of the full-length proteins, as implied by variations in the length of the polyQ tract required to trigger the onset of a given polyQ disease...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
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