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Chlorine reactivity

Chih-Ping Tso, Yang-Hsin Shih
Zerovalent iron (ZVI) based technology has been applied to remediate contaminated groundwater and has been paid great attention as an economic alternative. But it is still remains highly challenging to remove chlorinated pollutants such as trichloroethylene (TCE) with ZVI. Low molecular weight carboxylic ligands (formic acid (FA), oxalic acid (OA), and citric acid (CA)) were chosen to study the influence on the performance of ZVI in groundwater, including the morphology of Fe surface and the Fe dissolution...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Ana Meireles, Carla Ferreira, Luís Melo, Manuel Simões
Microbial contamination is an unavoidable problem in industrial processes. Sodium hypochlorite (SH) is the most common biocide used for industrial disinfection. However, in view of the current societal concerns on environmental and public health aspects, there is a trend to reduce the use of this biocide as it can lead to the formation of organochlorinated carcinogenic compounds. In this work the efficacy of SH was assessed against Escherichia coli in planktonic and biofilm states and compared with three alternative chlorine-based biocides: neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW), chlorine dioxide (CD) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC)...
December 2017: Food Research International
Rania Nassar, Samia Mokh, Ahmad Rifai, Fatmeh Chamas, Maha Hoteit, Mohamad Al Iskandarani
Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamide class, frequently detected at low levels in drinking and surface water as organic micropollutant. The main goal of the present study is the evaluation of SQX reactivity during chlorination and UV irradiations which are two processes mainly used in water treatment plants. The SQX transformation by chlorination and UV lights (254 nm) was investigated in purified water at common conditions used for water disinfection (pH = 7.2, temperature = 25 °C, [chlorine] = 3 mg L-1)...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Gyung Deok Han, Jahyun Na, Yong Shik Chun, Sunil Kumar, Wook Kim, Yonggyun Kim
Polyunsaturated fatty acids usually undergo lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Calcium-independent cellular phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) can maintain fatty acid compositions in phospholipids depending on physiological conditions. An insect iPLA2 (Pi-iPLA2) was predicted from the transciptome of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. It encodes 835 amino acids. It possesses five ankyrin repeats in the N terminal and patatin lipase domain in the C terminal. Pi-iPLA2 was expressed in all developmental stages of the Indianmeal moth...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Toshihiko Osawa
Oxidative stress may cause a wide variety of free radical reactions to produce deleterious modifications in membranes, proteins, enzymes, and DNA. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) can induce lipid peroxidation and also play an important role in the generation of reactive chlorinating and brominating species. As the universal biomarkers, chemical, and immunochemical approach on oxidatively modified and halogenated tyrosines has been carried out. As amido-type adduct biomarkers, chemical, and immunochemical evaluation of hexanoyl- and propanoyl-lysines, hexanoyl- and propanoyl-dopamines and phospholipids were prepared and developed for application of evaluation of novel antioxidative functional food factors...
November 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ping Jiang, Guang Huang, Lindsay K Jmaiff Blackstock, Jianye Zhang, Xing-Fang Li
We report a new method of ascorbic acid assisted high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) for the differentiation of isomeric N-chloro (N-Cl) from phenol ring C-chloro (C-Cl) peptides produced in chlorination of water. Using the specific reductive nature of ascorbic acid we successfully identified the N-Cl isomers and C-Cl isomer, overcoming the difficulties that due to lack of standards, these isomers cannot be separated by HPLC-HRMS. Using the new approach, we identified 36 new chlorinated products including mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-Cl- tyrosyl dipeptides in the reaction mixture based on retention time, accurate mass, 35Cl/37Cl isotopic pattern, and characteristic MS/MS fragments...
November 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Rong-Ni Dou, Jing-Hao Wang, Yuan-Cai Chen, Yong-You Hu
This study systematically explored the effect of humic acid (HA) (as model of natural organic matter) on the kinetics, products and transformation pathway of triclosan (TCS) by laccase-catalyzed oxidation. It was found that TCS could be effectively transformed by laccase-catalysis, with the apparent second-order rate constant being 0.056 U(-1) mL min(-1). HA inhibited the removal rate of TCS. HA-induced inhibition was negatively correlated with HA concentration in the range of 0-10 mg L(-1) and pH-dependent from 3...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Marco Casciaro, Eleonora Di Salvo, Elisabetta Pace, Elvira Ventura-Spagnolo, Michele Navarra, Sebastiano Gangemi
Aging is an agglomerate of biological long-lasting processes that result being inevitable. Main actors in this scenario are both long-term inflammation and oxidative stress. It has been proved that oxidative stress induce alteration in proteins and this fact itself is critically important in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to diseases typical of aging. Among reactive species, chlorine ones such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are cytotoxic oxidants produced by activated neutrophils during chronic inflammation processes...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Wen-Long Wang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Ye Du, Nan Huang, Hong-Ying Hu
Breakpoint chlorination can be commonly observed in the chlorination of water treatments when ammonia is present. In this study, it was found that breakpoint chlorination can remarkably eliminate a ubiquitous and chlorine-refractory micropollutant, carbamazepine (CBZ), with the removal of 72% at neutral condition. At neutral pH, low CBZ elimination was observed at a chlorine/ammonia molar ratio (Cl/N) of 1.0 and higher CBZ elimination was observed as Cl/N ratio increased from 1.0 to 1.6 (breakpoint), indicating that CBZ elimination was closely related to the generation and decomposition of chloramines...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
Angel Resendez, Md Abdul Halim, Jasmeet Singh, Dominic-Luc Webb, Bakthan Singaram
To address carbohydrates that are commonly used in biomedical applications with low binding affinities for boronic acid based detection systems, two chemical modification methods were utilized to increase sensitivity. Modified carbohydrates were analyzed using a two component fluorescent probe based on boronic acid-appended viologen-HPTS (4,4'-o-BBV). Carbohydrates normally giving poor signals (fucose, l-rhamnose, xylose) were subjected to sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reduction in ambient conditions for 1 h yielding the corresponding sugar alcohols from fucose, l-rhamnose and xylose in essentially quantitative yields...
November 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Magdalena Boncler, Beate Kehrel, Rafał Szewczyk, Emilia Stec-Martyna, Radosław Bednarek, Martin Brodde, Cezary Watala
We examined the structural and functional consequences of oxidative modification of C-reactive protein (CRP) by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which can be generated in vivo via the myeloperoxidase/H2O2/Cl(-) system. HOCl exposure resulted in the oxidation and chlorination of CRP amino acid residues, leading to protein unfolding, greater surface hydrophobicity and the formation of aggregates. After treatment of isolated platelets with 50μg/ml HOCl-CRP, the modified CRP significantly stimulated platelet activation (over 10-fold increase in the fraction of CD62-positive platelets compared to controls, P <0...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Milica Velimirovic, Melanie Auffan, Luca Carniato, Vesna Micić Batka, Doris Schmid, Stephan Wagner, Daniel Borschneck, Olivier Proux, Frank von der Kammer, Thilo Hofmann
Milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles have been recognized as a promising agent for groundwater remediation because of (1) their high reactivity with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, organic dyes, and a number of inorganic contaminants, and (2) a possible greater persistance than the more extensively investigated nanoscale zerovalent iron. We have used laboratory-scale batch degradation experiments to investigate the effect that hydrogeochemical conditions have on the corrosion of milled ZVI and on its ability to degrade trichloroethene (TCE)...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tarek Manasfi, Bruno Coulomb, Sylvain Ravier, Jean-Luc Boudenne
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in sunscreens and other personal-care products to protect against harmful effects of exposure to UV solar radiation. Little is known about the fate of UV filters in seawater swimming pools disinfected with chlorine. The present study investigated the occurrence and fate of five commonly used organic UV filters, namely dioxybenzone, oxybenzone, avobenzone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, and octocrylene, in chlorinated seawater swimming pools. Pool samples were collected to monitor the variation of UV filter concentrations during pool opening hours...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
M Rumayor, K Svoboda, J Švehla, M Pohořelý, M Šyc
This study describes the main mechanisms that take part in the mercury homogeneous oxidation pathway in presence of some of the main reactive compounds formed during waste incineration processes (O2, HCl, SO2 and NO). Series of model, synthetic dry flue gases were used to elucidate the effects of HCl, SO2, NO and their proportions in the gas on mercury behaviour. Three samples of fly ash collected from a MSWI facility were characterized and evaluated both for Hg heterogeneous oxidation and Hg removal in a laboratory scale device...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Paromita Sarbadhikary, Alok Dube
The combination of synchrotron X-ray radiation and metal-based radiosensitizer is a novel form of photon activation therapy which offers the advantage of treating malignant tumors with greater efficacy and higher precision than conventional radiation therapy. In this study the anticancer cytotoxic efficacy of a new chlorophyll derivative, iodinated chlorin p6 copper complex (ICp6-Cu), combined with synchrotron X-ray radiation (8-10 keV) in two human oral cancer cell lines is explored. Pre-treatment of cells with 20 µM and 30 µM ICp6-Cu for 3 h was found to enhance the X-ray-induced cytotoxicity with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Mingquan Yan, Paolo Roccaro, Massimiliano Fabbricino, Gregory V Korshin
This study compared effects of chlorination and chloramination on the chromophores of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and attendant formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in raw and treated surface waters. Comparison of the differential absorbance spectra of chloraminated and chlorinated waters shows that interactions of chloramine with DOM chromophores result in changes that are in many respects similar to those observed for chlorine although the extent of degradation of DOM chromophores and the attendant decrease of DOM aromaticity by chloramine are less pronounced than that caused by free chlorine...
October 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Xue-Ting Shi, Yong-Ze Liu, Yu-Qing Tang, Li Feng, Li-Qiu Zhang
UV/chlorine, as a novel disinfection method, has attracted great interest due to its effective removal for pathogenic microorganism and degradation of trace organic contaminants existed in water environment. This paper investigated the degradation kinetics and pathways of Bezafibrate (BZF), a typical antilipemic drug, during UV/chlorine process. The results showed that 92.3% of BZF was degraded after 20 min in UV/chlorine process. This indicated HO• and reactive chlorine species (RCSs) formed in UV/chlorine played the dominant role in degrading BZF...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zarina Arif, Km Neelofar, Mir Yasir Arfat, Asif Zaman, Akhlas Tarannum, Iffat Parveen, Shafeeque Ahmad, Md Adnan Khan, Asim Badar, Shireen Naaz Islam
Chronic oxidative stress fuels pathogenesis of a large set of diseases. Oxidative stress is the cause and consequence of numerous diseases including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), in which there is selective destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells. Studies have documented that hyperglycemia produces profound stress. In vivo production of numerous reactive oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine species and lipid/sugar oxidation products are result of persistent hyperglycemia. Post-translational modifications by reactive species may create new antigenic epitopes and play a role in the development of autoimmune response...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sara Moghnie, Artak Tovmasyan, James Craik, Ines Batinic-Haberle, Ludmil Benov
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach particularly attractive for treatment of localized fungal infections. It is based on compounds, photosensitizers (PSs), which when excited with visible light, generate reactive species that ultimately cause cell death. Such species have short lifespans; as a consequence, efficiency and selectivity of the PDT treatment depend mainly on the properties of the PSs. This study is the first to explore the effect of cationic porphyrin-based photosensitizers on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a member of the fungus kingdom...
November 8, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Linyan Huang, Qianqian Li, Guijin Su, Minghui Zheng, Yalu Liu, Yangyang Gu, Lirong Gao, Guorui Liu, Wenbin Liu
NixCo1-xFe2Oz composite oxide nanosphere was successfully prepared, to degrade 2-monochlorobiphenly (CB-1) in continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor at GHSV of 20000h(-1). The five cycles of temperature-dependent run experiments between 150 and 350°C showed its superior activity with a CB-1 conversion of more than 95% above 300°C over Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2Oz. Importantly, the sustainable higher reactivity could be observed over prolonged 600min reaction times after the 5th run test. The degradation products detected as biphenyl and monochlorobenzene with yield ratio of 129, account for 0...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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