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Chlorine reactivity

Buddhika Gunawardana, Peter J Swedlund, Naresh Singhal, Michel K Nieuwoudt
The dechlorination of chlorinated organic pollutants by zero valent iron (ZVI) is an important water treatment process with a complex dependence on many variables. This complexity means that there are reported inconsistencies in terms of dechlorination with ZVI and the effect of ZVI acid treatment, which are significant and are as yet unexplained. This study aims to decipher some of this complexity by combining Raman spectroscopy with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the influence of the mineralogy of the iron oxide phases on the surface of ZVI on the reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP)...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rania Nassar, Ahmad Rifai, Aurélien Trivella, Patrick Mazellier, Samia Mokh, Mohamad Al-Iskandarani
Sulfonamides (SNs) are synthetic antimicrobial agents. These substances are continually introduced into the environment and they may spread and maintain bacterial resistance in the different compartments. The chlorination of two sulfonamides, namely sulfamethazine (SMT) and sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP), was investigated in order to study their reactivity with chlorine at typical concentrations for water treatment conditions. Experiments conducted in purified water show an acceleration of SMT and SMP degradation of a factor 1...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Li Yu, Yue Yang, Fu-Sheng Du, Zi-Chen Li
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive polymers have attracted attention for their potential in photodynamic therapy. Herein, we report the ROS-responsive aliphatic polycarbonates prepared by the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of three six-membered cyclic carbonate monomers with ethyl selenide, phenyl selenide or ethyl telluride groups. Under catalysis of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), all three monomers underwent the controlled anionic ROP, showing a feature of equilibrium polymerization due to the bulky effect of 5,5-disubstituents...
April 18, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Vívian F Silva Kahl, Varinderpal Singh Dhillon, Daniel Simon, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Mirian Salvador, Cátia Dos Santos Branco, Mónica Cappetta, Wilner Martínez-López, Flávia V Thiesen, Johnny F Dias, Claudia Telles de Souza, Michael Fenech, Juliana da Silva
Tobacco farming is an important economic income in Brazil, although it has been challenged as regard the occupational exposure to both pesticides and nicotine endured by farmers. Chronic occupational exposure to complex mixtures can lead to health hazardous. We examined genomic instability and epigenetic changes in tobacco farmers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures and nicotine at tobacco fields. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay in blood cells. Genomic DNA was isolated, and telomere length was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay...
April 13, 2018: Mutagenesis
Etsuo Niki
The unregulated oxidative modification of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids induced by multiple oxidants has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Antioxidants with diverse functions exert their roles either directly or indirectly in the physiological defense network to inhibit such deleterious oxidative modification of biological molecules and resulting damage. The efficacy of antioxidants depends on the nature of oxidants. Therefore, it is important to identify the oxidants which are responsible for modification of biological molecules...
April 3, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yang Su, Yingqing Wang, Olasehinde Owoseni, Yueheng Zhang, Vijay John, Gary L McPherson, David Pierce Gamliel, Julia A Valla
Thin-shelled hollow silica particles are synthesized using an aerosol based process where the concentration of a silica precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) determines the shell thickness. The synthesis involves a novel concept of the salt-bridging of an iron salt, FeCl3 to a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which modulates the templating effect of the surfactant on silica porosity. The salt bridging leads to a sequestration of the surfactant in the interior of the droplet with the formation of a dense silica shell around the organic material...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Melanie S Coker, Louisa V Forbes, Matthew Plowman-Holmes, David R Murdoch, Christine C Winterbourn, Anthony J Kettle
When neutrophils engulf bacteria, myeloperoxidase converts hydrogen peroxide to hypochlorous acid, which is toxic to all micro-organisms. It has been suggested that some pathogens have virulence factors that target myeloperoxidase to dampen the oxidative reactions of neutrophils. These virulence factors include staphyloxanthin, the golden pigment of Staphylococcus aureus, and enterobactin - a siderophore released by gram-negative bacteria. We investigated the potential of staphyloxanthin and enterobactin to shield bacteria from hypochlorous acid and related chloramines...
March 31, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Zahraa Youssef, Valérie Jouan-Hureaux, Ludovic Colombeau, Philippe Arnoux, Albert Moussaron, Francis Baros, Joumana Toufaily, Tayssir Hamieh, Thibault Roques-Carmes, Céline Frochot
In this study, light-sensitive photosensitizers (Chlorin e6, Ce6) were linked to TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in order to develop new kinds of NP-based drug delivery systems for cancer treatment by PDT. the TiO2 or SiO2 NPs were modified either by the growth of a polysiloxane layer constituted of two silane reagents ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)) around the core (PEGylated NPs: TiO2 @4Si-Ce6-PEG, SiO2 @4Si-Ce6-PEG) or simply modified by APTES alone (APTES-modified NPs: TiO2 -APTES-Ce6, SiO2 -APTES-Ce6)...
March 23, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Lin-Lin Zhang, Xiang-Yun Wang, Kun-Yao Jiang, Bing-Yuan Zhao, Hui-Min Yan, Xiao-Yun Zhang, Zhu-Xia Zhang, Zhen Guo, Chi-Ming Che
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the ruthenium porphyrin-catalyzed oxidation of styrene to generate an aldehyde. The results indicate that two reactive oxidants, dioxoruthenium and monooxoruthenium-superoxo porphyrins, participate in the catalytic oxidation. In the mechanism, the resultant monooxoruthenium porphyrin acts in the tandem epoxide isomerization (E-I) to selectively yield an aldehyde and generate a dioxoruthenium porphyrin, thereby triggering new oxidation reaction cycles...
March 23, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
John Sidney, Jose Luis Vela, Dave Friedrich, Ravi Kolla, Matthias von Herrath, Johnna D Wesley, Alessandro Sette
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is thought to be an autoimmune disease driven by anti-islet antigen responses and mediated by T-cells. Recent published data suggests that T-cell reactivity to modified peptides, effectively neoantigens, may promote T1D. These findings have given more credence to the concept that T1D may not be solely an error of immune recognition but may be propagated by errors in protein processing or in modifications to endogenous peptides occurring as result of hyperglycemia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, or general beta cell dysfunction...
March 21, 2018: BMC Immunology
Yuxin Gu, Yu Yang, Bin Wan, Minjie Li, Liang-Hong Guo
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), as alternatives of brominated flame retardants, can cause neurodevelopmental effects similar to organophosphate pesticides. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity remain elusive. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) regulates numerous neural processes through the O-GlcNAcylation modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms accounting for the developmental neurotoxicity of OPFRs by identifying potential targets of OPFRs and the attendant effects...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Xiujuan Kong, Zihao Wu, Ziran Ren, Kaiheng Guo, Shaodong Hou, Zhechao Hua, Xuchun Li, Jingyun Fang
Degradation of three lipid regulators, i.e., gemfibrozil, bezafibrate and clofibric acid, by a UV/chlorine treatment was systematically investigated. The chlorine oxide radical (ClO• ) played an important role in the degradation of gemfibrozil and bezafibrate with second-order rate constants of 4.2 (±0.3) × 108  M-1  s-1 and 3.6 (±0.1) × 107  M-1  s-1 , respectively, whereas UV photolysis and the hydroxyl radical (HO• ) mainly contributed to the degradation of clofibric acid. The first-order rate constants (k') for the degradation of gemfibrozil and bezafibrate increased linearly with increasing chlorine dosage, primarily due to the linear increase in the ClO• concentration...
March 6, 2018: Water Research
Xiaoye Yang, Xiaoqun Shi, Jianbo Ji, Guangxi Zhai
The development of imaging-guided smart drug delivery systems for combinational photodynamic/chemotherapy of the tumor has become highly demanded in oncology. Herein, redox-responsive theranostic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated innovatively using low molecular weight heparin (LWMH) as the backbone. Chlorin e6 (Ce6) and alpha-tocopherol succinate (TOS) were conjugated to LMWH via cystamine as the redox-sensitive linker, forming amphiphilic Ce6-LMWH-TOS (CHT) polymer, which could self-assemble into NPs in water and encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX) inside the inner core (PTX/CHT NPs)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Laith Furatian, Madjid Mohseni
The 185 nm wavelength radiation generated by the conventional low pressure mercury lamp forms the basis of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) that does not require chemical addition. The photolysis of water by 185 nm photons generates the hydroxyl radical (OH) used to degrade trace organic contaminants. While AOPs in general suffer decreased efficiency in direct proportion to the concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and alkalinity (HCO3 - /CO3 2- ), acting as OH scavengers, such solutes impose an additional parasitic effect on the 185 nm AOP as absorbers of photons...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Jie Wu, Jian Ye, Huanlong Peng, Meirou Wu, Weiwei Shi, Yongmei Liang, Wei Liu
In the Pearl River Delta area, the upstream municipal wastewater is commonly discharged into rivers which are a pivotal source of downstream drinking water. Solar irradiation transforms some of the dissolved organic matter discharged from the wastewater, also affecting the formation of disinfection by-products in subsequent drinking water treatment plants. The effect of simulated solar radiation on soluble microbial products extracted from activated sludge was documented in laboratory experiments. Irradiation was found to degrade macromolecules in the effluent, yielding smaller, more reactive intermediate species which reacted with chlorine or chloramine to form higher levels of noxious disinfection by-products...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Yuqing Tang, Xueting Shi, Yongze Liu, Li Feng, Liqiu Zhang
As a potential endocrine disruptor, clofibric acid (CA) was investigated in this study for its degradation kinetics and pathways in UV/chlorine process. The results showed that CA in both UV photolysis and UV/chlorine processes could be degraded via pseudo-first-order kinetics, while it almost could not be degraded in the dark chlorination process. The observed rate constant ( k obs ) in UV photolysis was 0.0078 min-1, and increased to 0.0107 min-1 combining with 0.1 mM chlorine. The k obs increased to 0...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Dhurairajan Senthilnathan, Rajadurai Vijay Solomon, Shanmugam Kiruthika, Ponnambalam Venuvanalingam, Mahesh Sundararajan
Bent metallocenes (BM) have anti-tumor properties but they face a serious drug efficacy problem due to poor aqueous solubility and rapid hydrolysis under physiological conditions. These two problems can be fixed by encapsulating them in host molecules such as cyclodextrin (CD), cucurbituril (CB) etc. Experimentally, CD-BM, CB-BM host-guest complexes have been investigated to check the efficiency of the drug delivery and efficiency of the encapsulated drug. CB has been reported to be a better host than CD but the reasons for this has not been figured out...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Hong Zhang, Xiaodi Li, Kai Yu, Na Li, Jing He, Hong You, Jie Jiang
A simple method by coupling a spray capillary with pressurized photoreactor for on-line monitoring of photolysis reactions was reported. In this method, only an inert gas is used to transfer the reaction solution, which avoids potential sample loss and contamination. The photolysis reaction is online quenched, and therefore, it has advantages of on-line detection and characterization of photolysis reaction intermediates. The assembly is easy to achieve, low-cost, and robust. Different from off-line methods, the photolysis reaction solution is directly transferred to a capillary tip for ionization, avoiding the delay in the detection of reactive intermediates...
July 12, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Naima A Khan, Michael D Johnson, Kenneth C Carroll
Recalcitrant organic contaminants, such as 1,4-dioxane, typically require advanced oxidation process (AOP) oxidants, such as ozone (O3 ), for their complete mineralization during water treatment. Unfortunately, the use of AOPs can be limited by these oxidants' relatively high reactivities and short half-lives. These drawbacks can be minimized by partial encapsulation of the oxidants within a cyclodextrin cavity to form inclusion complexes. We determined the inclusion complexes of O3 and three common co-contaminants (trichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,4-dioxane) as guest compounds within hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Qin Liu, Ji'en Wu, Zhi Yang Lim, Shaojuan Lai, Norman Lee, Hongshun Yang
Bactericidal effects of low concentration electrolysed water (LcEW) on microorganisms are previously well reported; however, the inactivation mechanism of EW is not understood. The lethal and sublethal injuries of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua by EW treatments were determined and the metabolic profile changes for L. innocua were characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Microbial metabolomics approach combined with multivariate data analyses was used to interpret the cellular chemical fingerprints of L...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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