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Chlorine reactivity

Jing-Hua Sun, Wei Zhang, Dong-Yang Zhang, Jianliang Shen, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
A multimodal nanocarrier based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is developed to co-delivery photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox) for cancer combination therapy. Ce6 was covalently conjugated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles, which could increase the loading efficiency, and allowed for photodynamic therapy. Doxorubicin was loaded into the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to afford the dual drug delivery system Dox@MSNs-Ce6. These hybrid nanoparticles have an average diameter of about 100 nm and slightly negative charge of about -17 mV...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Je Ho Ryu, Young-Il Jeong, Hyun Yul Kim, Gyung Mo Son, Hye Lim Lee, Chung-Wook Chung, Chong Woo Chu, Dae Hwan Kang
Nanophotosensitizer composed of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MePEG) and chlorin e6 (Ce6) (abbreviated as Pe6) was synthesized for efficient delivery of Ce6 to the colon cancer cells. Pe6 nanophotosensitizer has small diameter less than 100 nm with spherical shape and core-shell structure. They were activated in aqueous solution while Ce6 was quenched due to its poor aqueous solubility. They showed no intrinsic cytotoxicity against normal cells and colon cancer cells. Pe6 nanophotosensitizers showed enhanced cellular uptake, phototoxicity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at in vitro cell culture experiment...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Laith Furatian, Madjid Mohseni
The use of 185 nm radiation from a conventional low pressure mercury lamp generates the hydroxyl radical (OH) from the photolysis of water and offers an advanced oxidation process (AOP) for water treatment that does not require chemical addition. However, the influence of the water matrix on the process differs substantially from that of other ultraviolet and ozone based processes. In particular chloride (Cl - ), and not water, absorbs the majority of 185 nm photons when [Cl - ]>20mgL -1 and generates the chlorine atom radical (Cl) as a reactive species...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Antonio Moreno-Vicente, Laura Abella, Khalid Azmani, Antonio Rodríguez-Fortea, Josep M Poblet
Halogenation has been one of the most used strategies to explore the reactivity of empty carbon cages. In particular, the higher reactivity of non-IPR fullerenes, i.e. those fullerenes that do not satisfy the Isolated Pentagon Rule (IPR), has been used to functionalize and capture these less stable fullerenes. Here, we have explored the stability and reactivity of the non-IPR isomer C72(11188) with C2v symmetry, which is topologically linked to the only IPR isomer of C70. DFT calculations and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations suggest that chlorination takes places initially in non-specific sites, once carbon cages are formed...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Lyubov V Kostryukova, Vladimir N Prozorovskiy, Natalya V Medvedeva, Olga M Ipatova
Photodynamic therapy is an advanced method of treating cancer and various benign diseases, including infections. It uses light-activated molecules [photosensitizers (PSs)] to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) when irradiated with light of a specific wavelength. This study examined the photophysical and photosensitizing activity of the PS chlorin e6 incorporated in a delivery system based on plant phospholipids. This new nanoform of chlorin e6 comprised particles with a diameter of 18.4 ± 2.5 nm and zeta potential of -34...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Fei Yang, Ying Huang, Changling Fang, Ying Xue, Luoyan Ai, Jianshe Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Both Cl- and base can affect PMS activation to produce reactive chlorine or oxygen species, but the overall effects of chloride on this emerging PMS/base technology in saline wastewater treatment are unknown. Here effectiveness of PMS/base, PMS/Cl- and PMS/base/Cl- is compared with a gradient concentration of chloride and alkalinity, by probing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). Both PMS/base and PMS/Cl- systems can rapidly degrade MB due to the generation of singlet oxygen and reactive chlorine, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Baiping Mao, Caixia Liu, Wenwen Zheng, Xiaoheng Li, Renshan Ge, Haifa Shen, Xiaoling Guo, Qingquan Lian, Xian Shen, Chao Li
Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) is a natural biomacromolecule with excellent biocompatible and biodegradable properties. In this study, cyclic pentapeptide cRGDfk and Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were conjugated to SF polypeptides, and genipin was used to prepare 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) doped SF-based nanoparticles (NPs). The photodynamic therapy (PDT) potential and active targeting properties were systematically investigated in αvβ3 integrin receptor over-expressed MGC-803 cells in vitro. The results revealed that treatment with the multifunctional SF-based NPs and PDT, high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death can be induced in MGC-803 cells...
February 3, 2018: Biomaterials
Haifeng Zhang, Min Yang
To date, study on the speciation of brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs), which have higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than their analogous chlorinated DBPs (Cl-DBPs), formed in chloramination is still limited. In this study, the previous unknown Br-DBPs formed during chloramination of artificial drinking water were explored with electrospray ionization ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS). In total, 193 formulae of one bromine containing Br-DBPs and 5 formulae of two bromine containing Br-DBPs were detected in the chloraminated artificial drinking water sample...
January 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jingyun Fang, Jiajian Liu, Chii Shang, Chihhao Fan
Taste- and odor-causing (T&O) compounds are a major concern in drinking water treatment plants due to their negative impacts on the safety and palatability of water supply. This study explored the degradation kinetics and radical chemistry of four often-detected T&O compounds, geosmin (GSM), 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), benzothiazole (BT), and 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), in the ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) advanced oxidation process. All experiments were carried out in a 700 mL photoreactor and the process effectively degraded the investigated T&O compounds in a slightly acidic environment...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hirotada Nishie, Hiromi Kataoka, Shigenobu Yano, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Akihiro Nomoto, Mamoru Tanaka, Akihisa Kato, Takaya Shimura, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Eiji Kubota, Satoshi Tanida, Takashi Joh
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) exploits the reaction between photosensitizer and irradiated light to generate potentially therapeutic reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen in cancer cells. We have reported several sugar-conjugated chlorins that express stronger antitumor effects in PDT than talaporfin sodium (TS), a second-generation photosensitizer clinically used in Japan. In this study, we developed a novel glucose-conjugated chlorin e6 (G-chlorin e6) and evaluated its antitumor effects...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ikuko Araki, Kaoru Fukui, Hiroshi Fujii
A bis-hypochlorite adduct of a manganese(IV) salen complex having a chiral (R,R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine linkage (2-tBu) is successfully prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The reactions of 2-tBu with various organic substrates show that 2-tBu is capable of sulfoxidation, epoxidation, chlorination, and hydrogen abstraction reactions. However, the enantioselectivity of the epoxidation reactions by 2-tBu is much lower than that reported for the catalytic reactions by Jacobsen's catalyst...
February 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Hongyi Wan, Nicolas J Briot, Anthony Saad, Lindell Ormsbee, Dibakar Bhattacharyya
Functionalized PVDF membrane platforms were developed for environmentally benign in-situ nanostructured Fe/Pd synthesis and remediation of chlorinated organic compounds. To prevent leaching and aggregation, nanoparticle catalysts were integrated into membrane domains functionalized with poly (acrylic acid). Nanoparticles of 16-19 nm were observed inside the membrane pores by using focused ion beam (FIB). This technique prevents mechanical deformation of the membrane, compared to the normal SEM preparation methods, thus providing a clean, smooth surface for nanoparticles characterization...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Membrane Science
Tatyana V Vakhrusheva, Daria V Grigorieva, Irina V Gorudko, Alexey Sokolov, Valeria A Kostevich, Vassili N Lazarev, Vadim B Vasilyev, Sergey N Cherenkevich, Oleg M Panasenko
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), found mainly in neutrophils, is released in inflammation. MPO produces reactive halogen species (RHS) which are bactericidal agents. However, RHS overproduction, i.e. halogenative stress, can also damage host biomolecules, and MPO itself may be targeted by RHS. Therefore, we examined the susceptibility of MPO to inactivation by its primary products (HOCl, HOBr, HOSCN) and secondary products such as taurine monochloramine (TauCl) and monobromamine (TauBr). MPO was dose-dependently inhibited up to complete inactivity by treatment with HOCl or HOBr...
February 2, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Hong Yu, Meifang Wang, Derek Wang, Theodore J Kalogeris, Jane McHowat, David A Ford, Ronald J Korthuis
Increased endothelial cell adhesion molecule (ECAM) expression, leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interactions (LECA), platelet-endothelial cell adhesion (PECA), mast cell activation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and microvascular permeability are hallmarks of the inflammatory response. The infiltration of inflammatory phagocytes is associated with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a reactive chlorinating species (RCS) that targets membrane lipids to produce halogenated lipids such as 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA) and 2-chloropalmitic acid (2-ClPA)...
February 1, 2018: Shock
Elisa N D Palladino, Celine L Hartman, Carolyn J Albert, David A Ford
Myeloperoxidase produces the two-electron oxidant HOCl, which targets plasmalogen phospholipids liberating 2-chlorofatty aldehyde. 2-Chlorofatty aldehyde has four known fates: 1) oxidation to 2-chlorofatty acid; 2) reduction to 2-chlorofatty alcohol; 3) Schiff base adduct formation with proteins and amines; and 4) reactivity with glutathione through nucleophilic attack of the α-chlorinated carbon. 2-Chlorofatty acid does not undergo conventional fatty acid β-oxidation due to the presence of the α-chlorinated carbon; however, 2-chlorofatty acid does undergo sequential ω-oxidation and β-oxidation from the ω-end, ultimately resulting in 2-chloroadipic acid urinary excretion...
January 26, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Dana Reichmann, Wilhelm Voth, Ursula Jakob
Some of the most challenging stress conditions that organisms encounter during their lifetime involve the transient accumulation of reactive oxygen and chlorine species. Extremely reactive to amino acid side chains, these oxidants cause widespread protein unfolding and aggregation. It is therefore not surprising that cells draw on a variety of different strategies to counteract the damage and maintain a healthy proteome. Orchestrated largely by direct changes in the thiol oxidation status of key proteins, the response strategies involve all layers of protein protection...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Cell
Kanta Pravalika, Deepaneeta Sarmah, Harpreet Kaur, Madhuri Wanve, Jackson Saraf, Kiran Kalia, Anupom Borah, Dileep R Yavagal, Kunjan R Dave, Pallab Bhattacharya
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a protein present in azurophilic granules, macrophages, and neutrophils that are released into extracellular fluid (ECF) during inflammation. MPO releases hypochlorous acid (HOCL) and other chlorinated species. It is derived from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) showing response during inflammatory conditions and plays a role in the immune defense against pathogens. MPO may show unwanted effects by indirectly increasing the formation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) leading to inflammation and oxidative stress...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Cipriano Rangel, Joaquin Espinosa-Garcia
Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation a full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface, PES-2017, was developed for the gas-phase hydrogen abstraction reaction between the chlorine atom and ethane, which is a nine body system. This surface presents a valence-bond/molecular mechanics functional form dependent on 60 parameters and is fitted to high-level ab initio calculations. This reaction presents little exothermicity, -2.30 kcal mol-1, with a low height barrier, 2.44 kcal mol-1, and intermediate complexes in the entrance and exit channels...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Neerugatti KrishnaRao Eswar, Sangeeta Adhikari, Praveen C Ramamurthy, Giridhar Madras
The present work demonstrates an extremely proficient and robust study of efficient interfacial charge transfer through plasmonic Ag decorated Bi2O3 hierarchical photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical treatment of chlorinated phenols. Unique 2D flake-like Bi2O3 hierarchical nanostructures were grown onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a simple chemical bath deposition method using triethanolamine as complexing agent. The formation of Bi2O3 on FTO was governed by the decomposition of a nucleated bismuth-hydroxyl complex (Bi2O1-x(OH)x) and modification to the electrode was carried out by the deposition of Ag via a chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate...
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shuangshuang Cheng, Xinran Zhang, Xin Yang, Chii Shang, Weihua Song, Jingyun Fang, Yanheng Pan
This study investigated the role of bromide ions in the degradation of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment of simulated drinking water containing 2.5 mgC/L natural organic matter (NOM). The kinetics of contributions from UV irradiation and from oxidation by free chlorine, free bromine, hydroxyl radical and reactive halogen species were evaluated. The observed loss rate constants of PPCPs in the presence of 10 μM bromide were 1.6 to 23 times of those observed in the absence of bromide (except for iopromide and ibuprofen)...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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