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Chlorine reactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820043/rapid-removal-of-chloroform-carbon-tetrachloride-and-trichloroethylene-in-water-by-aluminum-iron-alloy-particles
#1
Jie Xu, Yuan Pu, Xiao Jin Yang, Pingyu Wan, Rong Wang, Peng Song, Adrian Fisher
Water contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as chloroform (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the major public health concerns. In this study, we explored the use of aluminum-iron alloys particles in millimeter scale for rapid removal of CHCl3, CCl4 and TCE from water. Three types of Al-Fe alloy particles containing 10, 20 and 58 wt% of Fe (termed as Al-Fe10, Al-Fe20 and Al-Fe58) were prepared and characterized by electrochemical polarization, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819397/iron-chelators-and-exogenic-photosensitizers-synergy-through-oxidative-stress-gene-expression
#2
Anna Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Katarzyna Malarz, Marzena Rams-Baron, Maciej Serda, Daniela Bauer, Franz-Peter Montforts, Alicja Ratuszna, Thomas Burley, Jaroslaw Polanski, Robert Musiol
In non-invasive anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS), which is activated by visible light, is used as a magic bullet that selectively destroys cancer cells. Recently, we described the combined therapy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) with thiosemicarbazone (TSC), i.e. an iron-chelating agent. This resulted in a strong synergistic effect. Herein, we investigated a novel strategy using a combination of PDT consist of the xenobiotic-porphyrin type PS with TSC. We observed a synergistic effect for all of the pairs of TSC-PS...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809556/radical-chemistry-and-structural-relationships-of-ppcp-degradation-by-uv-chlorine-treatment-in-simulated-drinking-water
#3
Kaiheng Guo, Zihao Wu, Chii Shang, Bo Yao, Shaodong Hou, Xin Yang, Weihua Song, Jingyun Fang
The UV/chlorine process is an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP) used for the degradation of micropollutants. However, the radical chemistry of this AOP is largely unknown for the degradation of numerous structurally diverse micropollutants in water matrices of varying quality. These issues were addressed by grouping 34 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) according to the radical chemistry of their degradation in the UV/chlorine process at practical PPCP concentrations (1 μg L-1) and in different water matrices...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801887/degradation-of-5-5-diphenylhydantoin-by-chlorination-and-uv-chlorination-kinetics-transformation-by-products-and-toxicity-assessment
#4
Nur Adawiyah Mansor, Kheng Soo Tay
This study investigated the reaction kinetics and mechanism of the degradation of 5,5-diphenylhydantoin (DPH) during conventional chlorination and UV/chlorination. DPH is one of the antiepileptic drugs, which has frequently been detected in the aquatic environment. For chlorination, the second-order rate constant for the reaction between DPH and free active chlorine (FAC) was determined at pH 5 to 8. At pH 6 to 8, the efficiency of chlorination in the removal of DPH was found to be dominated by the reaction involving hypochlorous acid (HOCl)...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774603/dbp-formation-from-degradation-of-deet-and-ibuprofen-by-uv-chlorine-process-and-subsequent-post-chlorination
#5
Ehsan Aghdam, Yingying Xiang, Jianliang Sun, Chii Shang, Xin Yang, Jingyun Fang
The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the degradation of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzoyl amide (DEET) and ibuprofen (IBP) by the ultraviolet irradiation (UV)/chlorine process and subsequent post-chlorination was investigated and compared with the UV/H2O2 process. The pseudo first-order rate constants of the degradation of DEET and IBP by the UV/chlorine process were 2 and 3.1 times higher than those by the UV/H2O2 process, respectively, under the tested conditions. This was due to the significant contributions of both reactive chlorine species (RCS) and hydroxyl radicals (HO) in the UV/chlorine process...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764859/modeling-3d-csia-data-carbon-chlorine-and-hydrogen-isotope-fractionation-during-reductive-dechlorination-of-tce-to-ethene
#6
Boris M Van Breukelen, Heloïse A A Thouement, Philip E Stack, Mindy Vanderford, Paul Philp, Tomasz Kuder
Reactive transport modeling of multi-element, compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) data has great potential to quantify sequential microbial reductive dechlorination (SRD) and alternative pathways such as oxidation, in support of remediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. As a key step towards this goal, a model was developed that simulates simultaneous carbon, chlorine, and hydrogen isotope fractionation during SRD of trichloroethene, via cis-1,2-dichloroethene (and trans-DCE as minor pathway), and vinyl chloride to ethene, following Monod kinetics...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763641/degradation-of-natural-organic-matter-by-uv-chlorine-oxidation-molecular-decomposition-formation-of-oxidation-byproducts-and-cytotoxicity
#7
Wen-Long Wang, Xue Zhang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Ye Du, Hong-Ying Hu
The degradation of natural organic matters (NOMs) by the combination of UV and chlorine (UV/chlorine) was investigated in this study. UV/chlorine oxidation can effectively degrade NOMs, with the degradation of chromophores (∼80%) and fluorophores (76.4-80.8%) being more efficient than that of DOC (15.1-18.6%). This effect was attributed to the chromophores and fluorophores (double bonds, aromatic groups and phenolic groups) being preferentially degraded by UV/chlorine oxidation, particularly reactive groups with high electron donating capacity...
July 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760586/inactivation-of-microbicidal-active-halogen-compounds-by-sodium-thiosulphate-and-histidine-methionine-for-time-kill-assays
#8
Barbara Böttcher, Bettina Sarg, Herbert H Lindner, Markus Nagl
Rapid inactivation of antimicrobial test agents after exact incubation times with microorganisms is required in time-kill assays. Sodium thiosulphate and a combination of methionine and histidine were compared for neutralisation of active halogen compounds. Test oxidants were mixed with surplus sodium thiosulphate (3%-6%) or histidine/methionine (1% each) in phosphate-buffered saline and incubated for different times, followed by addition of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1000CFU/ml...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740247/inactivation-mechanism-of-escherichia-coli-induced-by-slightly-acidic-electrolyzed-water
#9
Zhangying Ye, Shuo Wang, Tao Chen, Weishan Gao, Songming Zhu, Jinsong He, Zhiying Han
Foodborne disease outbreak caused by food microbiological contamination is a serious public health problem. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), a new ultra-high effect and wide-spectrum disinfectant that is colourless, odourless, and harmless to humans and the environment, is directly used on food surfaces in Japan and America. However, the underlying inactivation mechanism remains unknown. In this study, biochemical and cellular changes were observed to investigate the bactericidal mechanism of SAEW against Escherichia coli (E...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738204/the-fate-of-sotalol-in-aqueous-chlorination-kinetics-mechanisms-and-ecotoxicity-assessment
#10
Wan Nor Adira Wan Khalit, Kheng Soo Tay
Unmetabolized pharmaceuticals often enter the water treatment plants and exposed to various treatment processes. Among these water treatment processes, disinfection is a process which involves the application of chemical oxidation to remove pathogen. Untreated pharmaceuticals from primary and secondary treatment have the potential to be exposed to the chemical oxidation process during disinfection. This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of the degradation of sotalol during chlorination process. Chlorination with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as main reactive oxidant has been known as one of the most commonly used disinfection methods...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737290/integration-of-ir-808-sensitized-upconversion-nanostructure-and-mos2-nanosheet-for-808-nm-nir-light-triggered-phototherapy-and-bioimaging
#11
Jiating Xu, Arif Gulzar, Yuhui Liu, Huiting Bi, Shili Gai, Bin Liu, Dan Yang, Fei He, Piaoping Yang
Near infrared (NIR) light triggered phototherapy including photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) affords superior outcome in cancer treatment. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NIR-excited upconversion nanostructure is limited by the feeble upconverted light which cannot activate PDT agents efficiently. Here, an IR-808 dye sensitized upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) with a chlorin e6 (Ce6)-functionalized silica layer is developed for PDT agent. The two booster effectors (dye-sensitization and core-shell enhancement) synergistically amplify the upconversion efficiency, therefore achieving superbright visible emission under low 808 nm light excitation...
July 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731097/dba-induced-caspase-3-dependent-apoptosis-occurs-through-mitochondrial-translocation-of-cyt-c-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#12
Wenbo Jiang, Yingying Chen, Bai Li, Shuying Gao
Dibromoacetic acid (DBA), a by-product of disinfection, develops in drinking water during chlorination or ozonation processes. Water intake is the main source of DBA exposure in humans, which is potentially neurotoxic. The present study investigated the neurotoxic effects of DBA by assessing the behavioral and biochemical characteristics of Sprague Dawley rats intragastrically treated with DBA at concentrations of 20, 50 and 125 mg kg(-1) body weight for 28 consecutive days. The results indicated that animal weight gain and food consumption were not significantly affected by DBA...
July 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729656/endolysosomal-targeting-of-a-clinical-chlorin-photosensitiser-for-light-triggered-delivery-of-nano-sized-medicines
#13
Elnaz Yaghini, Ruggero Dondi, Kunal M Tewari, Marilena Loizidou, Ian M Eggleston, Alexander J MacRobert
A major problem with many promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including macromolecules is that owing to their size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. Photochemical internalisation (PCI) is a technique for inducing cytosolic release of the entrapped agents that harnesses sub-lethal photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a photosensitiser that localises in endolysosomal membranes...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716739/phototoxicity-in-a-laryngeal-cancer-cell-line-enhanced-by-a-targeting-amphiphilic-chlorin-photosensitizer
#14
Milene N O Moritz, Carlos Rossa, Kleber T de Oliveira, Marciana P Uliana, Janice R Perussi
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been established in several countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of various malignancies. This therapy involves the incorporation of a photosensitizer (PS) that is activated by visible light and form reactive oxygen species leading to target cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Previously, our group has demonstrated that CHL-T (semi-synthesized from chlorophyll a and containing a linked solubilizing group TRISMA(®)) presented a pronounced potential to induce death in HeLa cell line after PDT...
July 14, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699680/intermacrocyclic-interaction-triggers-facile-one-pot-synthesis-of-a-chlorin-porphyrin-heterodimer
#15
Sankar Prasad Rath, Younis Ahmad Pandit, Sarnali Sanfui
We report here a highly facile one-pot synthesis of a new series of fully π-conjugated unsymmetric chlorin-porphyrin heterodimers with quantitative yields by utilizing intermacrocyclic interactions. One-electron oxidations of dicopper(II) and dipalladium(II) porphyrin dimers using mild oxidants such as iodine at room temperature resulted in the formation of a strongly interacting cofacial mixed-valent π-cation radical dimers. The radical being highly reactive drives spontaneous and rapid transformation involving a new N=C bond formation, 1,2-ethyl migration and the generation of a new indolizinium ring that bridges between the two macrocycles...
July 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691804/toxicity-of-wastewater-with-elevated-bromide-and-iodide-after-chlorination-chloramination-or-ozonation-disinfection
#16
Shengkun Dong, Nedal Masalha, Michael J Plewa, Thanh H Nguyen
Water reuse is receiving unprecedented attention as many areas around the globe attempt to better-manage their fresh water resources. Wastewaters in coastal regions may contain elevated levels of bromide (Br(-)) and iodide (I(-)) from seawater intrusion or high mineral content in the source waters. Disinfection of such wastewater is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens; however, little is known about the toxicity of the treated wastewater. In this study, we evaluated the genotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells induced by municipal secondary wastewater effluent amended with elevated Br(-) and I(-) after disinfection by chlorine, chloramines, or ozone...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686025/laterally-%C3%AF-extended-dithia-6-helicenes-with-heptagons-saddle-helix-hybrid-molecules
#17
Takao Fujikawa, Yasutomo Segawa, Kenichiro Itami
A laterally π-extended dithia[6]helicene 1, representing an interesting saddle-helix hybrid molecule containing an unusual heptagon, has been synthesized by MoCl5-mediated oxidative stitching of tetrakis(thienylphenyl)naphthalene precursor 2 involving reactive-site capping by chlorination and subsequent Pd-mediated dechlorination of tetrachlorinated intermediate 1-Cl4. Highly distorted, wide helical structures of dithia[6]helicenes (1 and 1-Cl4) were clarified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses where heterochiral slipped π-π stacking was displayed in a one-dimensional fashion...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681359/intramolecular-halogen-atom-coordinated-h-transfer-via-ion-neutral-complex-in-the-gas-phase-dissociation-of-protonated-dichlorvos-derivatives
#18
Xiaoping Zhang, Shuai Cheng
Intramolecular halogen atom coordinated H transfer reaction in the gas phase dissociation of protonated dichlorvos derivatives has been explored by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Upon collisional activation, protonated dichlorvos underwent dissociation reaction via cleavage of the P-O bond to give reactive ion-neutral complex (INC) intermediate, [dimethoxylphosphinoylium + dichloroacetaldehyde]. Besides direct dissociation of the complex, intramolecular chlorine atom coordinated H transfer reaction within the complex takes place, leading to the formation of protonated dimethyl chlorophosphate...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660505/de-novo-formation-of-dioxins-from-milled-model-fly-ash
#19
Ishrat Mubeen, Alfons Buekens, Zhiliang Chen, Shengyong Lu, Jianhua Yan
Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has been classified as hazardous waste and needs treatment in an environmentally safe manner. Mechanochemical (MC) treatment is such a detoxification method, since it destroys dioxins and solidifies heavy metals. Milling, however, also introduces supplemental metals (Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn…), following wear of both steel balls and housing. Milling moreover reduces the particle size of fly ash and disperses catalytic metal, potentially rising the reactivity of fly ash to form and destroy 'dioxins', i...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650525/thermal-synthesis-of-perchlorinated-oligosilanes-a-fresh-look-at-an-old-reaction
#20
Max C Holthausen, Felix Neumeyer, Julia I Schweizer, Lioba Meyer, Alexander G Sturm, Andor Nadj, Norbert Auner
A combined experimental and theoretical study of the high-temperature reaction of SiCl4 and elemental silicon is presented. The nature and reactivity of the product formed upon rapid cooling of the gaseous reaction mixture is investigated by comparison with defined model compounds, i.e. cyclo-Si5Cl10, n-Si5Cl12 and n-Si4Cl10. A DFT assessment provides mechanistic insight into the oligosilane formation. Experimental 29Si NMR investigations, supported by quantum-chemical 29Si NMR calculations, consistently show that the reaction product is composed of discrete molecular perchlorinated oligosilanes...
June 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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