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Chlorine reactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638766/metalate-mediated-functionalization-of-p4-by-trapping-anionic-cp-fe-co-2-%C3%AE-1-p4-with-lewis-acids
#1
Jaap E Borger, Maarten K Jongkind, Andreas W Ehlers, Martin Lutz, J Chris Slootweg, Koop Lammertsma
The development of selective functionalization strategies of white phosphorus (P4) is important to avoid the current chlorinated intermediates. The use of transition metals (TMs) could lead to catalytic procedures, but these are severely hampered by the high reactivity and unpredictable nature of the tetrahedron. Herein, we report selective first steps by reacting P4 with a metal anion [Cp*Fe(CO)2](-) (Cp*=C5(CH3)5), which, in the presence of bulky Lewis acids (LA; B(C6F5)3 or BPh3), leads to unique TM-substituted LA-stabilized bicyclo[1...
June 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638140/imaging-dynamic-fingerprints-of-competing-e2-and-sn2-reactions
#2
Eduardo Carrascosa, Jennifer Meyer, Jiaxu Zhang, Martin Stei, Tim Michaelsen, William L Hase, Li Yang, Roland Wester
The competition between bimolecular nucleophilic substitution and base-induced elimination is of fundamental importance for the synthesis of pure samples in organic chemistry. Many factors that influence this competition have been identified over the years, but the underlying atomistic dynamics have remained difficult to observe. We present product velocity distributions for a series of reactive collisions of the type X(-) + RY with X and Y denoting the halogen atoms fluorine, chlorine and iodine. By increasing the size of the residue R from methyl to tert-butyl in several steps, we find that the dynamics drastically change from backward to dominant forward scattering of the leaving ion relative to the reactant RY velocity...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627569/porphyrin-based-photosensitizers-and-their-dna-conjugates-for-singlet-oxygen-induced-nucleic-acid-interstrand-crosslinking
#3
Eva M Llamas, João P C Tome, João M M Rodrigues, Tomás Torres, Annemieke Madder
The development of methods for the generation of site-selective interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) in synthetic oligonucleotides provides a platform for the study of ICL repair mechanisms and the stabilisation of DNA-based materials. Our group has previously reported on the use of a furan moiety as a masked reactive functionality for ICL generation and recently introduced the use of (1)O2 as an efficient light-induced oxidant. Here, the use of porphyrin-based photosensitizers (PSs) has been explored for ICL generation...
June 19, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618281/chlor-am-ination-of-iopamidol-kinetics-pathways-and-disinfection-by-products-formation
#4
Fu-Xiang Tian, Bin Xu, Yi-Li Lin, Chen-Yan Hu, Tian-Yang Zhang, Sheng-Ji Xia, Wen-Hai Chu, Nai-Yun Gao
The degradation kinetics, pathways and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation of iopamidol by chlorine and chloramines were investigated in this paper. The chlorination kinetics can be well described by a second-order model. The apparent second-order rate constants of iopamidol chlorination significantly increased with solution pH. The rate constants of iopamidol with HOCl and OCl(-) were calculated as (1.66 ± 0.09) × 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1) and (0.45± 0.02) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. However, the chloramination of iopamidol fitted well with third-order kinetics and the maximum of the apparent rate constant occurred at pH 7...
June 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616398/new-photodynamic-therapy-with-next-generation-photosensitizers
#5
REVIEW
Hiromi Kataoka, Hirotada Nishie, Noriyuki Hayashi, Mamoru Tanaka, Akihiro Nomoto, Shigenobu Yano, Takashi Joh
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive antitumor treatment that uses the combination of a photosensitizer, tissue oxygen, and visible light irradiation to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, predominantly singlet oxygen. Currently, first-generation PDT using porfimer sodium with an excimer dye laser, and second-generation PDT using talaporfin sodium PDT with a semiconductor laser are approved by health insurance for use in Japan. However, the cancer cell specificity and selectivity of these treatments are inadequate...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594401/upconversion-nanoparticle-mediated-photodynamic-therapy-induces-autophagy-and-cholesterol-efflux-of-macrophage-derived-foam-cells-via-ros-generation
#6
Xiaobo B Han, Hongxia X Li, Yueqing Q Jiang, Hao Wang, Xuesong S Li, Jiayuan Y Kou, Yinghong H Zheng, Zhongni N Liu, Hong Li, Jing Li, Dou Dou, You Wang, Ye Tian, Liming M Yang
Macrophage-derived foam cells are a major component of atherosclerotic plaques and have an important role in the progression of atherosclerotic plaques, thus posing a great threat to human health. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the effect of PDT mediated by upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles encapsulating chlorin e6 (UCNPs-Ce6) on the cholesterol efflux of THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells and explored the possible mechanism of this effect...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573904/dichloroacetonitrile-induces-cytotoxicity-through-oxidative-stress-mediated-and-p53-dependent-apoptosis-pathway-in-lo2-cells
#7
Hao Luo, Lu Zhai, Hui Yang, Longmei Xu, Jiaxian Liu, Hairong Liang, Huanwen Tang
Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), one of the disinfection byproducts of water chlorination, induces cell proliferation and apoptosis, however, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress participates in various biological processes, including DNA damage and cytotoxicity. To explore whether oxidative stress mediated DCAN-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis, we assessed the effect of redox imbalance and apoptosis in LO2 cells. We observed increase of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde and increased apoptosis by 13...
June 2, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570902/bromate-formation-from-the-oxidation-of-bromide-in-the-uv-chlorine-process-with-low-pressure-and-medium-pressure-uv-lamps
#8
Jingyun Fang, Quan Zhao, Chihhao Fan, Chii Shang, Yun Fu, Xiangru Zhang
When a bromide-containing water is treated by the ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process, hydroxyl radicals (HO) and halogen radicals such as Cl or Br are formed due to the UV photolysis of free halogens. These reactive species may induce the formation of bromate, which is a probable human carcinogen. Bromate formation in the UV/chlorine process using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) lamps in the presence of bromide was investigated in the present study. The UV/chlorine process significantly enhanced bromate formation as compared to dark chlorination...
May 24, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558158/probing-bis-feiv-maug-isolation-of-highly-reactive-radical-intermediates
#9
Sankar Prasad Rath, Tapas Guchhait, Sabyasachi Sarkar, Younis Ahmad Pandit
MauG is a diheme enzyme that utilizes two covalently bound c-type heme centers. We report here step-wise oxidations of a synthetic analog of MauG in which two heme centers are bridged covalently via flexible linker containing a pyrrole moiety. One- and two-electron oxidations produce monocation radical and dication diradical intermediates, respectively, which, being highly reactive, undergo spontaneous intramolecular rearrangement involving the pyrrole bridge itself to form indolizinium-fused chlorin-porphyrin and spiro-porphyrinato heterodimers...
May 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554685/snail-mucus-glandular-origin-and-composition-in-helix-pomatia
#10
Sophie Greistorfer, Waltraud Klepal, Norbert Cyran, Andreas Gugumuck, Livia Rudoll, Johannes Suppan, Janek von Byern
Apart from their well-known culinary use, gastropod species such as Helix, which have a hydrogel-like mucus, are increasingly being exploited for cosmetic, bioengineering and medical applications. However, not only are the origin and composition of these "sticky" secretions far from being fully characterized, the number and morphology of the mucus glands involved is also uncertain. This study aims to characterize in detail the cutaneous glands of the Helix pomatia foot on morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical levels...
May 5, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552914/claudin-4-targeted-nanographene-phototherapy-using-a-clostridium-perfringens-enterotoxin-peptide-photosensitizer-conjugate
#11
Gayong Shim, Mi-Gyeong Kim, Hyerim Jin, Jinyoung Kim, Yu-Kyoung Oh
In this study we designed a claudin 4-directed dual photodynamic and photothermal system, in which a 30-amino acid claudin 4-binding peptide, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), was linked to a photodynamic agent chlorin e6 (Ce6) through a polyethylene glycol spacer (CPC) and anchored onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets to form CPC/rGO nanosheets. For comparison, a conjugate of polyethylene glycol and Ce6 (PC) was anchored onto the rGO nanosheets to generate PC/rGO. Both PC and CPC generated reactive oxygen species upon irradiation at 660 nm...
June 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541663/mechanistic-insight-into-the-reactivity-of-chlorine-derived-radicals-in-the-aqueous-phase-uv-chlorine-advanced-oxidation-process-quantum-mechanical-calculations
#12
Daisuke Minakata, Divya Kamath, Shaye Maetzold
The combined ultraviolet (UV) and free chlorine (UV-chlorine) advanced oxidation process that produces highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)) and chlorine radicals (Cl(•)) is an attractive alternative to UV alone or chlorination for disinfection because of the destruction of a wide variety of organic compounds. However, concerns about the potential formation of chlorinated transformation products require an understanding of the radical-induced elementary reaction mechanisms and their reaction-rate constants...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537894/intratumoral-depletion-of-regulatory-t-cells-using-cd25-targeted-photodynamic-therapy-in-a-mouse-melanoma-model-induces-antitumoral-immune-responses
#13
Dong Sun Oh, Heegon Kim, Ji Eun Oh, Hi Eun Jung, Yun Soo Lee, Ji-Ho Park, Heung Kyu Lee
Tumor immunotherapy aims to overcome the immunosuppressive microenvironment within tumors, and various approaches have been developed. Tumor-associated T regulatory cells (Tregs) suppress the activation and expansion of tumor antigen-specific effector T cells, thus, providing a permissive environment for tumor growth. Therefore, optimal strategies need to be established to deplete tumor-infiltrated Tregs because systemic depletion of Tregs can result in reduced anti-tumor effector cells and autoimmunity. Here, to selectively deplete Tregs in tumors, we intratumorally injected anti-CD25 antibodies conjugated to Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizer that absorbs light to generate reactive oxygen species...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527979/degradation-of-chloramphenicol-by-uv-chlorine-treatment-kinetics-mechanism-and-enhanced-formation-of-halonitromethanes
#14
Huiyu Dong, Zhimin Qiang, Jun Hu, Jiuhui Qu
Ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process is considered as an emerging advanced oxidation process for the degradation of micropollutants. This study investigated the degradation of chloramphenicol (CAP) and formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the UV/chlorine treatment. It was found that CAP degradation was enhanced by combined UV/chlorine treatment compared to that of UV and chlorination treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order rate constant of the UV/chlorine process at pH 7.0 reached 0.016 s(-1), which was 10...
May 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527415/trace-bromide-ion-impurity-leads-to-formation-of-chlorobromoaromatic-by-products-in-peroxymonosulfate-based-oxidation-of-chlorophenols
#15
Changling Fang, Zhaohui Wang, Min Feng, Ying Huang, Fei Yang, Jianshe Liu
Trace bromide (Br(-)) released from industrial effluents or brominated compounds is able to directly react with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate a series of reactive oxidants which can oxidize and also halogenate organics. We report the identification and evolution of by-products during 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) degradation in the presence of PMS and trace Br(-). The influencing factors, including Br(-) concentration and pH, were investigated. The depletion of TCP was accelerated with increasing trace Br(-) concentration (0-0...
May 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508904/chloride-accelerated-cu-fenton-chemistry-for-biofilm-removal
#16
Li Wang, Yanni Miao, Mingsheng Lu, Zhi Shan, Shan Lu, Jiaojiao Hou, Qiumei Yang, Xinle Liang, Tao Zhou, Dennis Curry, Ken Oakes, Xu Zhang
Biofilms present challenges to numerous industries. Herein, a simple approach was developed based on chloride-accelerated Fenton chemistry, where copper oxide nanoparticles facilitate efficient generation of reactive chlorine species for biofilm removal.
May 30, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503718/photodithazine-photodynamic-effect-on-viability-of-9l-lacz-gliosarcoma-cell-line
#17
Leticia C Fontana, Juliana G Pinto, André H C Pereira, Cristina P Soares, Leandro J Raniero, Juliana Ferreira-Strixino
Even with the advances of conventional treatment techniques, the nervous system cancer prognosis is still not favorable to the patient which makes alternative therapies needed to be studied. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is presented as a promising therapy, which employs a photosensitive (PS) agent, light wavelength suitable for the PS agent, and molecular oxygen, producing reactive oxygen species in order to induce cell death. The aim of this study is to observe the PDT action in gliosarcoma cell using a chlorin (Photodithazine, PDZ)...
May 15, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502228/the-toxic-effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyl-aroclor-1242-on-tm3-leydig-cells
#18
Yasemin Aydin, Melike Erkan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine function in biological systems, especially in the male reproductive system. Previous studies on the reproductive toxicity of PCBs have focused on the impairment of spermatogenesis, disruption of steroidogenesis, decreased sperm number, and infertility. Aroclor 1242 is a commercial mixture with an average of 42% chlorine by weight. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the hazardous effects of Aroclor 1242 on Leydig cells through an evaluation of cell viability, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radicals, H2O2 production, antioxidant enzymes, and steroidogenic enzymes...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501147/a-fluorescent-homogeneous-assay-for-myeloperoxidase-measurement-in-biological-samples-a-positive-correlation-between-myeloperoxidase-generated-hocl-level-and-oxidative-status-in-stz-diabetic-rats
#19
Pierre Stocker, Mathieu Cassien, Nicolas Vidal, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Sylvia Pietri
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a key enzyme derived from leukocytes which is associated with the initiation and progression of many inflammatory diseases. Increased levels of MPO may contribute to cellular dysfunction and tissues injury by producing highly reactive oxidants such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Myeloperoxidase-generated HOCl is therefore considered as a relevant biomarker of oxidative stress-related damage and its quantitation is of great importance to the study of disease progression. In this context, the current study describes a rapid, sensitive and homogeneous fluorescence-based method for detecting the MPO chlorination activity in biological samples...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501015/effect-of-medium-pressure-uv-lamp-treatment-on-disinfection-by-products-in-chlorinated-seawater-swimming-pool-waters
#20
Waqas A Cheema, Tarek Manasfi, Kamilla M S Kaarsholm, Henrik R Andersen, Jean-Luc Boudenne
Several brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in chlorinated seawater pools, due to the high concentration of bromide in seawater. UV irradiation is increasingly employed in freshwater pools, because UV treatment photodegrades harmful chloramines. However, in freshwater pools it has been reported that post-UV chlorination promotes the formation of other DBPs. To date, UV-based processes have not been investigated for DBPs in seawater pools. In this study, the effects of UV, followed by chlorination, on the concentration of three groups of DBPs were investigated in laboratory batch experiments using a medium-pressure UV lamp...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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