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Chlorine reactivity

Sara Moghnie, Artak Tovmasyan, James Craik, Ines Batinic-Haberle, Ludmil Benov
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach particularly attractive for treatment of localized fungal infections. It is based on compounds, photosensitizers (PSs), which when excited with visible light, generate reactive species that ultimately cause cell death. Such species have short lifespans; as a consequence, efficiency and selectivity of the PDT treatment depend mainly on the properties of the PSs. This study is the first to explore the effect of cationic porphyrin-based photosensitizers on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a member of the fungus kingdom...
October 18, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Linyan Huang, Qianqian Li, Guijin Su, Minghui Zheng, Yalu Liu, Yangyang Gu, Lirong Gao, Guorui Liu, Wenbin Liu
NixCo1-xFe2Oz composite oxide nanosphere was successfully prepared, to degrade 2-monochlorobiphenly (CB-1) in continuous-flow fixed-bed microreactor at GHSV of 20000h(-1). The five cycles of temperature-dependent run experiments between 150 and 350°C showed its superior activity with a CB-1 conversion of more than 95% above 300°C over Ni0.5Co0.5Fe2Oz. Importantly, the sustainable higher reactivity could be observed over prolonged 600min reaction times after the 5th run test. The degradation products detected as biphenyl and monochlorobenzene with yield ratio of 129, account for 0...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xuexiang He, Benjamin D Stanford, Craig Adams, Erik J Rosenfeldt, Eric C Wert
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is an antibody-based analytical method that has been widely applied in water treatment utilities for the screening of toxic cyanobacteria metabolites such as microcystins (MCs). However, it is unknown how the minor structural difference of MCs may impact their chlorination kinetics and measurement via ELISA method. It was found in this study that, regardless of the experimental conditions (n = 21), there was no MC-YR or MC-LY residual, while different removal rates of other MCs were observed (MC-RR > MC-LR > MC-LA ∼ MC-LF) as measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which was consistent with the relative reactivity of the amino acid variables with free chlorine...
September 21, 2017: Water Research
Moisés Lopes Carvalho, Ana Paula Pinto, Leandro José Raniero, Maricilia Silva Costa
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal producing both superficial and systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, it has been described an increase in the frequency of infections which have become refractory to standard antifungal therapy. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a nontoxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PACT, using chlorin e6, as a photosensitizer on C...
October 9, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Zhuo-Yan Wu, Teng Wang, Yin-Shan Meng, Yu Rao, Bing-Wu Wang, Jie Zheng, Song Gao, Jun-Long Zhang
Fine-tuning of the porphyrin β-periphery is important for naturally occurring metal tetrapyrroles to exert diverse biological roles. Here we describe how this approach is also applied to design molecular catalysts, as exemplified by Ni(ii) porphyrinoids catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We found that β-hydrogenation of porphyrin remarkably enhances the electrocatalytic HER reactivity (turnover frequencies of 6287 vs. 265 s(-1) for Ni(ii) chlorin (Ni-2) and porphyrin (Ni-1), and of 1737 vs...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Zihao Wu, Kaiheng Guo, Jingyun Fang, Xueqin Yang, Hong Xiao, Shaodong Hou, Xiujuan Kong, Chii Shang, Xin Yang, Fangang Meng, Liwei Chen
The UV/chlorine process is an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP) that produces various reactive species, such as hydroxyl radicals (HO) and reactive chlorine species (RCS). The effects of the treatment conditions, such as chlorine dosage and pH, and the water matrix components of natural organic matter (NOM), alkalinity, ammonia and halides, on the kinetics and reactive species in the degradation of four micropollutants, metronidazole (MDZ), nalidixic acid (NDA), diethyltoluamide (DEET) and caffeine (CAF), by the UV/chlorine process were investigated...
September 18, 2017: Water Research
Preeti Kumari, Shreya Jain, Balaram Ghosh, Vladimir Petrovich Zorin, Swati Biswas
Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has found wide application as a non-invasive treatment modality for several cancers. However, the suboptimal delivery of photosensitizers (PSs) to the tumor site is a drawback, which inhibits the effectiveness of PDT. Hydrophobicity, strong oxygen and light dependence, and limited tissue penetrability of photosensitizers represent the major barriers to the clinical application of PDT. In order to improve biopharmaceutical properties of a clinically approved photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6), we developed a nano-formulation encapsulating Ce6 in methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) co-polymeric micelles...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Saloumeh Ghasemian, Bahareh Asadishad, Sasha Omanovic, Nathalie Tufenkji
Electrochemical disinfection has been shown to be an efficient method with a shortrequired contact time for treatment of drinking water supplies, industrial raw water supplies, liquid foodstuffs, and wastewater effluents. In the present work, the electrochemical disinfection of saline water contaminated with bacteria was investigated in chloride-containing solutions using Sb-doped Sn80%-W20%-oxide anodes. The influence of current density, bacterial load, initial chloride concentration, solution pH, and the type of bacteria (E...
September 18, 2017: Water Research
Honggen Wang, Yao-Fu Zeng, Wei-Wei Ji, Wen-Xin Lv, Yunyun Chen, Dong-Hang Tan, Qingjiang Li
The individual molecules of α-chloro alkenyl boronates include both an electrophilic C-Cl bond and a nucleophilic C-B bond, which makes them intriguing organic synthons. Reported herein is a stereodivergent synthesis of both E and Z-α-chloro alkenyl N-methyliminodiacetyl (MIDA) boronates by the direct chlorination of alkenyl MIDA boronates using t-BuOCl and PhSeCl reagents, respectively. Both reaction processes are stereospecific and the use of sp3-B MIDA boronate is the key contributor to the reactivity...
September 29, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
SheJiang Liu, QinMing Yang, YongKui Yang, Hui Ding, Yun Qi
Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) is among the most ubiquitous chlorinated compounds found in groundwater contamination. Its chlorinated degradation by-products remain highly toxic. In this study, an anaerobic/aerobic permeable reactive barrier system consisting of four different functional layers was designed to remediate PCE-contaminated groundwater. The first (oxygen capture) layer maintained the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at < 1.35 mg/L in influent supplied to the second (anaerobic) layer. The third (oxygen-releasing) layer maintained DO concentration at > 11...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chaofan Zhang, Liang Fu, Zhengxue Xu, Houfeng Xiong, Dandan Zhou, Mingxin Huo
Intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) provides superior treatment for the degradation of bio-recalcitrant compounds, such as chlorophenol. Photocatalytically generated intermediates can be promptly used by the enclosed biofilms. Chlorophenol degradation can theoretically be accelerated by a co-substrate or be compromised by the competition for photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, studies to examine the comparison are limited in number. Non-chlorinated phenols commonly co-exist in real wastewater; thus, we evaluated the influence of phenol (hard to photo-oxidize) and pyrocatechol (easy to photo-oxidize) on the degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4CP)...
September 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lili Feng, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Desirable nanosystem that could not only deliver drugs safely and effectively into tumor sites, but also be expected to serve as photosensitizer to realize the photodynamic therapeutic function, would be of great significance in the synergistic cancer therapy. To perform this task, a multifunctional nanosystem has been developed for markedly enhanced cancer therapeutic efficacy by loading chemotherapy agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and photosensitive drug chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the channels of mesoporous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) layer which coats on Nd(3+)-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)...
September 13, 2017: Biomaterials
Nivedita Chaudhri, Nitika Grover, Muniappan Sankar
One-pot facile synthesis and characterization of novel β-substituted meso-tetraphenylporphyrins and/or chlorins were described. The high regioselective reactivity of active methylene compounds in Michael addition reaction was reported to access β-substituted trans-chlorins. Size-dependent approach was applied for the fine-tuning of product formation from porphyrins to chlorins. Notably, we were able to isolate mono/trisubstituted porphyrin and/or di/tetra-substituted chlorin from one-pot synthesis for the first time in porphyrin chemistry...
October 2, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Paromita Sarbadhikary, Alok Dube
We investigated the anticancer chemotoxicity of previously reported iodinated chlorin p6 copper complex (ICp6-Cu), a novel chlorophyll derivative in which copper is attached to the side chain carboxylate groups via coordination. Human oral carcinoma cells NT8e, 4451 and the non-cancerous keratinocyte HaCaT cells were treated with ICp6-Cu for 48 h in dark and cell viability, proliferation and morphological alterations were examined. ICp6-Cu showed pronounced cytotoxicity in cancer cells with IC50 ∼40 μM, whereas, the viability of HaCaT cells was not affected...
September 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Naresh Mameda, Hyung-June Park, Kwang-Ho Choo
The synergistic combination of membrane filtration with advanced oxidation is of particular interest for next-generation wastewater treatment technologies. A membrane electro-oxidizer (MEO) hybridizing a submerged microfilter and an electrochemical cell was developed and investigated for tertiary treatment of secondary industrial (textile) wastewater effluent. Laboratory- and pilot-scale MEO systems were designed and evaluated for treatment efficiency and membrane fouling control. The MEO achieved substantial removal of color (50-90%), turbidity (>90%), and bacteria (>4 log) as well as chemical oxygen demand (13-31%) and 1,4-dioxane (∼25-53%)...
September 5, 2017: Water Research
Amos Olalekan Abolaji, Oluwatoyin Victoria Babalola, Abimbola Kehinde Adegoke, Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated organic pollutant of groundwater with diverse toxic effects in animals and humans. Here, we investigated the ameliorative role of hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid on TCE-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Four groups of D. melanogaster (50 flies/vial, with 5 vials/group) were exposed to ethanol (2.5%, control), HSP (400mg/10g diet), TCE (10μM/10g diet) and TCE (10μM/10g diet)+HSP (400mg/10g diet) respectively in the diet for 5days. Then, selected oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were evaluated...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
B G de Sousa, J I N Oliveira, E L Albuquerque, U L Fulco, V E Amaro, C A G Blaha
Many species of bacteria involved in degradation of n-alkanes have an important constitutional metabolic enzyme, the alkane hydroxylase called AlkB, specialized in the conversion of hydrocarbons molecules that can be used as carbon and/or energy source. This enzyme plays an important role in the microbial degradation of oil, chlorinated hydrocarbons, fuel additives, and many other compounds. A number of these enzymes has been biochemically characterized in detail because the potential of alkane hydroxylases to catalyse high added-value reactions is widely recognized...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Young-Il Jeong, Byungyoul Cha, Hye Lim Lee, Yeon Hui Song, Yun Hye Jung, Tae Won Kwak, Changyong Choi, Gyeong-Won Jeong, Jae Woon Nah, Dae Hwan Kang
The polysaccharide chitosan has abundant cationic amine groups, and can form ion-complexes with anionic molecules such as the strong photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6). In this study, water-soluble chitosan (WSC) was used to fabricate Ce6-incorporated nanophotosensitizers (Abbreviated as ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer) via a self-assembling process. This was accomplished by dissolving WSC in pure water and then directly mixing the solution with solid Ce6 causing ion complex formation between WSC and Ce6. The resulting nanophotosensitizer was spherical in shape and had a particle size of less than 300nm...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hae Sun You, Ailyn Fadriquela, Ma Easter Joy Sajo, Johny Bajgai, Jesmin Ara, Cheol Su Kim, Soo-Ki Kim, Jin Rok Oh, Kwang Yong Shim, Hyun Kyo Lim, Kyu-Jae Lee
Acidic electrolyzed water is an innovative sanitizer having a wide-spectrum of applications in food industry, and healthcare industry but little is known on its effect and mechanism in wound healing. The study was conducted to identify the effect and mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on cutaneous wounds in hairless mice. SAEW (pH: 5-6.5, oxidation reduction potential: 800 mV, chlorine concentration: 25 ppm) was prepared through electrolysis of water and was applied to the wounds of hairless mice three times a day for seven days...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Joana Madureira, Elisa Ceriani, Nuno Pinhão, Ester Marotta, Rita Melo, Sandra Cabo Verde, Cristina Paradisi, Fernanda M A Margaça
In this work, we study degradation of clofibric acid (CFA) in aqueous solution using either ionizing radiation from a(60)Co source or a non-thermal plasma produced by discharges in the air above the solution. The results obtained with the two technologies are compared in terms of effectiveness of CFA degradation and its by-products. In both cases the CFA degradation follows a quasi-exponential decay in time well modelled by a kinetic scheme which considers the competition between CFA and all reaction intermediates for the reactive species generated in solution as well as the amount of the end product formed...
August 23, 2017: Chemosphere
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