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José Rubén Herrera-Atoche, María Del Rosario Agüayo-de-Pau, Mauricio Escoffié-Ramírez, Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala, Bertha Arelly Carrillo-Ávila, Marina Eduviges Rejón-Peraza
Objective. We quantified the prevalence of impacted maxillary canines (IMC) and their association with other dental anomalies (DAs). Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was done with 860 patients 12 to 39 years of age. The prevalence of IMC was calculated and compared by sex. The sample was divided into a control group and an impaction group, and the prevalence was calculated in both for a series of anomalies: agenesis, supernumerary teeth, shape anomalies of the upper laterals (microdontia, peg and barrel shape, and talon cusp), fusion, gemination, other impacted teeth, transposition, and amelogenesis imperfecta...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
Rafał Jakubowski, Dorota Pomorska, Angelika Długosz, Anna Janecka, Urszula Krajewska, Marek Różalski, Marek Mirowski, Tomasz Bartosik, Tomasz Janecki
The synthesis of new library of 4,4-disubstituted 3-methylidene-3,4-dihydro-2H-chroman-2-ones applying Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons methodology for the construction of egzo-methylidene moiety is reported. Corresponding 3-diethoxyphosphorylchroman-2-ones were synthesized in a three step reaction sequence consisting of O-methylation of ethyl 2-diethoxyphosphoryl-3-oxoalkanoates, followed by reaction of obtained 2-diethoxyphosphoryl-3-methoxy-2-alkenoates with phenols or 1-naphthol. Obtained 3-diethoxyphosphorylochromen-2-ones proved to be effective Michael acceptors in the reaction with various Grignard reagents...
March 4, 2017: ChemMedChem
Miaomiao Zhang, Wenhao Bo, Fang Xu, Huan Li, Meixia Ye, Libo Jiang, Chaozhong Shi, Yaru Fu, Guomiao Zhao, Yuejiao Huang, Kirk Gosik, Dan Liang, Rongling Wu
The coordination of shoots and roots is critical for plants to adapt to changing environments by fine-tuning energy production in leaves and the availability of water and nutrients from roots. To understand the genetic architecture of how these two organs covary during developmental ontogeny, we conducted a mapping experiment using Euphrates poplar (Populus euphratica), a so-called hero tree able to grow in the desert. We geminated intraspecific F1 seeds of Euphrates Poplar individually in a tube to obtain a total of 370 seedlings, whose shoot and taproot lengths were measured repeatedly during the early stage of growth...
February 28, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zhiwen Chu, Kai Wang, Lu Gao, Zhenlei Song
Enantioselective synthesis of SiMe3/SiPh2Me-substituted crotyl geminal bis(silane) has been developed. This compound is a useful reagent for Ph3C(+)B(C6F5)4(-)-catalyzed asymmetric Sakurai allylation and one-pot Sakurai allylation/Prins cyclization processes. Chemoselective desilylation of SiPh2Me leads to efficient chirality transfer.
February 28, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Rafael Lemaitre
A new secretive, yet brightly colored hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis mollymulleraesp. n., is fully described based on specimens from the reefs of Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean Sea. Populations of this new species were discovered and photographed in the Bonaire National Marine Park under a large coral ledge, at a depth of 13.7 m, living in crevices known by scuba divers to serve as den to a pair of "flaming reef lobsters" Enoplometopus antillensis, or a "broad banded moray" Channomuraena vittata...
2017: ZooKeys
Camila Gemin Ribas, Letícia Alves da Silva, Marina Ribas Corrêa, Hélio Ghizone Teive, Silvia Valderramas
Although motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are well established, few studies have described the effects of exergaming on the clinical and functional outcomes of PD. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effectiveness of exergaming in improving functional balance, fatigue, functional exercise capacity and quality of life in PD. METHODS: The study population consisted of 20 patients (12 males and 8 females) aged 61 ± 9.11 years allocated into two groups: an exergaming group (EGG) (n = 10) and a conventional exercise, or control, group (CG) (n = 10)...
February 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Peter J Pallister, Seán T Barry
The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) as thin film deposition techniques has had a major impact on a number of fields. The deposition of pure, uniform, conformal thin films requires very specific vapour-solid reactivity that is largely unknown for the majority of ALD and CVD precursors. This work examines the initial chemisorption of several thin film vapour deposition precursors on high surface area silica (HSAS) using (13)C, (31)P, and quantitative (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mariusz Wojcik, Artur Nowak, Kazuhiko Seki
We propose a semi-empirical theory which describes the geminate electron-hole separation probability in both homogeneous systems and donor-acceptor heterojunction systems applicable in organic photovoltaics. The theory is based on the results of extensive simulation calculations, which were carried out using various lattice models of the medium and different charge-carrier hopping mechanisms, over the parameter ranges typical for organic solar cells. It is found that the electron-hole separation probability can be conveniently described in terms of measurable parameters by a formula whose functional form is derived from the existing recombination theories, and which contains only one empirical parameter...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Anyu Zhu, Ian K Greaves, Elizabeth S Dennis, W James Peacock
BACKGROUND: Hybrid vigour (heterosis) has been used for decades in cropping agriculture, especially in the production of maize and rice, because hybrid varieties exceed their parents in plant biomass and seed yield. The molecular basis of hybrid vigour is not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that epigenetic systems could play a role in heterosis. RESULTS: In this project, we investigated genome-wide patterns of four histone modifications in Arabidopsis hybrids in germinating seeds...
February 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
Jerzy Zoń, Piotr Miziak
Five new geminal aminocycloalkanephosphonic acids (4-8) containing both an aromatic ring and a cycloalkane ring were synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of buckwheat phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Within the set of compounds which are related to 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP, 3), a known powerful inhibitor of PAL, racemic 1-aminobenzocyclobutene-1-phosphonic acid (4), was six times weaker than AIP as an in vitro inhibitor of buckwheat PAL, but six times stronger than AIP as an in vivo inhibitor of phenylalanine-derived anthocyanin synthesis in buckwheat...
February 7, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Michael N R Ashfold, Daniel Murdock, Thomas A A Oliver
Exciting a molecule with an ultraviolet photon often leads to bond fission, but the final outcome of the bond cleavage is typically both molecule and phase dependent. The photodissociation of an isolated gas-phase molecule can be viewed as a closed system: Energy and momentum are conserved, and the fragmentation is irreversible. The same is not true in a solutionphase photodissociation process. Solvent interactions may dissipate some of the photoexcitation energy prior to bond fission and will dissipate any excess energy partitioned into the dissociation products...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
G Shilpa, Niraj Gokhale, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni, Sivakumar Nuvvula
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental anomalies in primary dentition of Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4180 children in the age of 2-6 years. Anomalies were classified based on Kreiborg criteria. The term "double tooth" was used to avoid misinterpretation between gemination. and fusion. Patients having radiographs were also examined for associated dental anomalies in permanent dentition...
January 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Tyler K Mullenbach, Ian J Curtin, Tao Zhang, Russell J Holmes
The migration of weakly and non-luminescent (dark) excitons remains an understudied subset of exciton dynamics in molecular thin films. Inaccessible via photoluminescence, these states are often probed using photocurrent methods that require efficient charge collection. Here we probe exciton harvesting in both luminescent and dark materials using a photovoltage-based technique. Transient photovoltage permits a real-time measurement of the number of charges in an organic photovoltaic cell, while avoiding non-geminate recombination losses...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
Glenn B McGregor, Barbara C Sendall
A new nodularin producing benthic cyanobacterium Iningainema pulvinus gen nov., sp nov. was isolated from a freshwater ambient spring wetland in tropical, north-eastern Australia and characterised using combined morphological and phylogenetic attributes. It formed conspicuous irregularly spherical to discoid, blue-green to olive-green cyanobacterial colonies across the substratum of shallow pools. Morphologically Iningainema is most similar to Scytonematopsis Kiseleva and Scytonema Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault...
February 2017: Harmful Algae
Rocco Restaino, Gemine Vivone, Mauro Dalla Mura, Jocelyn Chanussot
Nonlinear decomposition schemes constitute an alternative to classical approaches for facing the problem of data fusion. In this paper we discuss the application of this methodology to a popular remote sensing application called pansharpening, which consists in the fusion of a low resolution multispectral image and a high resolution panchromatic image. We design a complete pansharpening scheme based on the use of morphological half gradients operators and demonstrate the suitability of this algorithm through the comparison with state of the art approaches...
April 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
D Baran, T Kirchartz, S Wheeler, S Dimitrov, M Abdelsamie, J Gorman, R S Ashraf, S Holliday, A Wadsworth, N Gasparini, P Kaienburg, H Yan, A Amassian, C J Brabec, J R Durrant, I McCulloch
Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9...
December 1, 2016: Energy & Environmental Science
Airi Kawasaki, Osamu Sugino
We extend the Coleman's antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) to develop a wave function theory that can incorporate up to four-body correlation in a region of strong correlation. To facilitate the variational determination of the wave function, the total energy is rewritten in terms of the traces of geminals. This novel trace formula is applied to a simple model system consisting of one dimensional Hubbard ring with a site of strong correlation. Our scheme significantly improves the result obtained by the AGP-configuration interaction scheme of Uemura et al...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Qiongnan Gu, Meijuan Chen, Junbin Huang, Yangdou Wei, Tom Hsiang, Lu Zheng
The infection process of Colletotrichum higginsianum, which causes a disease of crucifers, involves several key steps: conidial germination, appressorial formation, appressorial penetration, and invasive growth in host tissues. In this study, the ChRgf gene encoding a Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor protein was identified by screening T-DNA insertion mutants generated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation that were unable to cause disease on the host Arabidopsis thaliana. Targeted gene deletion of ChRgf resulted in a null mutant (ΔChrgf-42) with defects in vegetative growth, hyphal morphology, and conidiation, and poor surface attachment and low germination on hydrophobic surfaces; however, there were no apparent differences in appressorial turgor pressure between the wild type and the mutant...
April 2017: Phytopathology
Mary Mensah, Evans Elikem Amepetey, Richard Tia, Evans Adei
BACKGROUND: 1,3-Dipolar [3 + 2]-cycloaddition of nitrones to the carbon-carbon double bonds of methylenecyclopropanes yields a mixture of regioisomeric 4- and 5-isoxazolidines. The mechanisms of the reactions of N,C,C-trisubstituted nitrones with ring acceptor substituted dimethyl methylenecyclopropanes-1,2-dicarboxylate and aryl methylidene cyclopropanes-1,1-dicarboxylate have been investigated with the Becke 3-Parameter Lee-Yang-Par exchange-correlation functional, a Hartree-Fock DFT hybrid functional, to delineate the factors responsible for the regioselectivity of these class of reactions...
2016: SpringerPlus
Jakub P Piwowarski, Sebastian Granica, Joanna Stefańska, Anna K Kiss
Ellagitannin-rich plant materials are used as popular remedies in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Urolithins are gut microbiota metabolites of ellagitannins and are considered responsible for in vivo health effects. Various natural products have been studied that are known sources of urolithins. However, few studies have focused on the metabolism of ellagitannin molecules. The aim of the study was to examine the metabolic fate of select ellagitannins using ex vivo cultures of human gut microbiota...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
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