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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#1
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078564/mri-measurements-of-brainstem-structures-in-patients-with-vascular-parkinsonism-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Byeong C Kim, Seong-Min Choi, Kang-Ho Choi, Tai-Seung Nam, Joon-Tae Kim, Seung-Han Lee, Man-Seok Park, Woong Yoon
Magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of brainstem structures have been reported to be useful in differentiating patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from those with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to determine whether quantitative measurements of brainstem structures on MR images can help differentiate vascular parkinsonism (VaP) from degenerative parkinsonism (PD and PSP). Areas of the midbrain and pons, and widths of the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) were measured in 62 patients with PD, 25 patients with PSP (11 probable and 14 possible), and 24 patients with VaP on T 1-weighted MR images...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077166/threonine-175-a-novel-pathological-phosphorylation-site-on-tau-protein-linked-to-multiple-tauopathies
#3
Alexander J Moszczynski, Wencheng Yang, Robert Hammond, Lee Cyn Ang, Michael J Strong
Microtubule associated protein tau (tau) deposition is associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases collectively termed tauopathies. We have previously shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with cognitive impairment (ALSci) is associated with tau phosphorylation at Thr(175) and that this leads to activation of GSK3β which then induces phosphorylation at tau Thr(231). This latter step leads to dissociation of tau from microtubules and pathological tau fibril formation. To determine the extent to which this pathway is unique to ALS, we have investigated the expression of pThr(175) tau and pThr(231) tau across a range of frontotemporal degenerations...
January 11, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061383/increased-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-associated-with-dementia-and-diabetes-but-not-amyloid-pathology-or-apoe-genotype
#4
Shorena Janelidze, Joakim Hertze, Katarina Nägga, Karin Nilsson, Christer Nilsson, Malin Wennström, Danielle van Westen, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Oskar Hansson
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction might be an important component of many neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated its role in dementia using large clinical cohorts. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma albumin ratio (Qalb), an indicator of BBB (and blood-CSF barrier) permeability, was measured in a total of 1015 individuals. The ratio was increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinson's disease dementia, subcortical vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia compared with controls...
December 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003435/genetic-compendium-of-1511-human-brains-available-through-the-uk-medical-research-council-brain-banks-network-resource
#5
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Ian Wilson, Jon Coxhead, Sarah Ryan, Sara Rollinson, Helen Griffin, Marzena Kurzawa-Akanbi, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368)...
January 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003035/the-ontario-neurodegenerative-disease-research-initiative-ondri
#6
Sali M K Farhan, Robert Bartha, Sandra E Black, Dale Corbett, Elizabeth Finger, Morris Freedman, Barry Greenberg, David A Grimes, Robert A Hegele, Chris Hudson, Peter W Kleinstiver, Anthony E Lang, Mario Masellis, William E McIlroy, Paula M McLaughlin, Manuel Montero-Odasso, David G Munoz, Douglas P Munoz, Stephen Strother, Richard H Swartz, Sean Symons, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Lorne Zinman, Michael J Strong
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and vascular cognitive impairment...
December 22, 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999408/cyclodextrins-as-emerging-therapeutic-tools-in-the-treatment-of-cholesterol-associated-vascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Caroline Coisne, Sébastien Tilloy, Eric Monflier, Daniel Wils, Laurence Fenart, Fabien Gosselet
Cardiovascular diseases, like atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are closely linked to alterations of cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, innovative pharmacological approaches aiming at counteracting cholesterol imbalance display promising therapeutic potential. However, these approaches need to take into account the existence of biological barriers such as intestinal and blood-brain barriers which participate in the organ homeostasis and are major defense systems against xenobiotics...
December 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986830/subtle-motor-disturbances-in-predict-pd-participants
#8
Alastair J Noyce, Anette Schrag, Joseph M Masters, Jonathan P Bestwick, Gavin Giovannoni, Andrew J Lees
OBJECTIVE: The PREDICT-PD study aims to identify increased risk of Parkinson''s disease (PD) using online assessments of previously identified risk and early features of PD and an evidence-based scoring algorithm. We sought to determine whether higher risk participants (defined as those above the 15th centile of risk estimates) were more likely to have mild parkinsonian signs compared with lower risk participants. METHODS: Video recordings of neurological examinations, including the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) part III, of 208 individuals who had previously completed an online risk assessment were scored blindly and independently by two movement-disorders experts...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956121/cardiovascular-dysfunction-associated-with-neurodegeneration-in-an-experimental-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Barbara Falquetto, Marina Tuppy, Simone R Potje, Thiago S Moreira, Cristina Antoniali, Ana C Takakura
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit both motor and non-motor symptoms. Among the non-motor symptoms, cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is frequently observed. Here, we evaluated baroreflex function, vascular reactivity and neuroanatomical changes in brainstem regions involved in the neural control of circulation in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. Male Wistar rats received a bilateral injection of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the striatum. After 61 days, baroreflex function and vascular reactivity were assessed...
December 9, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928446/gastrostomy-with-peritoneal-collar-versus-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy
#10
Tudor C, Branescu C, Savlovschi C, El-Khatib A, Pantu H, Nica A, Dascalu Am, Masoumeh B, Tudor As, Oprescu Sm, Serban D
Aim. The present study aimed to perform a medico-surgical comparative analysis of the 2 most widely used techniques: gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, based on the vast clinical experience in an Upper Digestive Surgery Clinic. Materials and method. A retrospective study was carried out between January 2010 and January 2015 on the patients admitted for a surgical solution for feeding. The indications, preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900498/central-hemodynamics-and-arterial-stiffness-in-idiopathic-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#11
Klaas Franzen, Sabine Fliegen, Jelena Koester, Rafael Campos Martin, Günther Deuschl, Michael Reppel, Kai Mortensen, Susanne A Schneider
Blood pressure is commonly abnormal in parkinsonian disorders, but central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness, well-established predictors of total cardiovascular risk, have rarely been studied in these disorders. 32 patients [27 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD); 5 with multiple system atrophy (MSA)] and 15 controls matched for cardiac risk factors underwent 24 h-ambulatory blood pressure recordings using an I.E.M. device (Mobil-O-Graph™), measuring peripheral pressure and calculating central pressures and arterial stiffness...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872856/altered-expression-of-epo-might-underlie-hepatic-hemangiomas-in-lrrk2-knockout-mice
#12
Ben Wu, Kaifu Xiao, Zhuohua Zhang, Long Ma
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. The molecular mechanism of PD pathogenesis is unclear. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. However, studies on LRRK2 mutant mice revealed no visible dopaminergic neuronal loss in the midbrain. While surveying a LRRK2 knockout mouse strain, we found that old animals developed age-dependent hepatic vascular growths similar to cavernous hemangiomas...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848965/sulfheme-formation-during-homocysteine-s-oxygenation-by-catalase-in-cancers-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
Dominique Padovani, Assia Hessani, Francine T Castillo, Géraldine Liot, Mireille Andriamihaja, Annaïg Lan, Camilla Pilati, François Blachier, Suvajit Sen, Erwan Galardon, Isabelle Artaud
Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormal levels of homocysteine are associated with vascular dysfunctions, cancer cell proliferation and various neurodegenerative diseases. With respect to the latter, a perturbation of transition metal homeostasis and an inhibition of catalase bioactivity have been reported. Herein, we report on some of the molecular bases for the cellular toxicity of homocysteine and demonstrate that it induces the formation of sulfcatalase, an irreversible inactive state of the enzyme, without the intervention of hydrogen sulfide...
November 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844282/morphological-changes-in-a-severe-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-its-suitability-to-test-the-therapeutic-effects-of-microencapsulated-neurotrophic-factors
#14
C Requejo, J A Ruiz-Ortega, H Bengoetxea, A García-Blanco, E Herrán, A Aristieta, M Igartua, J L Pedraz, L Ugedo, R M Hernández, J V Lafuente
The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion of medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in rats affords us to study the advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous evidences suggest synergic effects when various neurotrophic factors are administered in experimental models of PD. The aim of the present work was to assess the morphological changes along the rostro-caudal axis of caudo-putamen complex and substantia nigra (SN) in the referred model in order to test the suitability of a severe model to evaluate new neurorestorative therapies...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830890/adrenal-medulla-of-as-agu-rats-a-histological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#15
Musaad A Al-Fayez, Muhammad Atteya, Raeesa A Mohamed, Aly M Ahmed, Ali Hussein Alroalle, Mahmoud Salah Khalil, Mohammed Al-Ahmed, Anthony Payne
BACKGROUND: The outcome of the autogrfat therapy for Parkinson's disease including autologous cells from adrenal medulla was disappointing. This could be attributed to the pathological process in Parkinson's disease affecting cells of the adrenal medulla. This study was performed to investigate the histopathological changes in the adrenal medulla of AS/AGU rat, a model of Parkinson's disease, in comparison with Albino Swiss (AS) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 24 male AS rats were divided into four groups, each of 6 animals: AS W1, AS rats aged one week; AS adult, AS adult rats; AS/AGU W1, AS/AGU rats aged one week; and AS/AGU adult, AS/AGU adult rats...
November 10, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801938/causes-of-death-according-to-death-certificates-in-individuals-with-dementia-a-cohort-from-the-swedish-dementia-registry
#16
Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Ingemar Kåreholt, Pavla Cermakova, Debora Rizzuto, Dorota Religa, Maria Eriksdotter
OBJECTIVES: The causes of death in dementia are not established, particularly in rarer dementias. The aim of this study is to calculate risk of death from specific causes for a broader spectrum of dementia diagnoses. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem), 2007-2012. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with incident dementia registered in SveDem (N = 28,609); median follow-up 741 days. Observed deaths were 5,368 (19%)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784025/arterial-stiffness-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Joong-Seok Kim, Si-Hoon Lee, Yoon-Sang Oh, Jeong-Wook Park, Jae-Young An, Hyun-Seok Choi, Kwang-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Pulse wave velocity is a marker of arterial stiffness and a surrogate marker of vascular damage. Autonomic abnormalities associated with blood pressure are relatively commonly observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare arterial stiffness between patients with PD and controls and investigate the associations between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and pulse wave velocity in PD. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five PD patients without diabetes mellitus were enrolled into this study, along with 22 age-matched controls...
October 27, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770207/gait-disorders-in-adults-and-the-elderly-a%C3%A2-clinical-guide
#18
Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687251/fully-automated-structural-mri-of-the-brain-in-clinical-dementia-workup
#19
Karin Persson, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Mona Beyer, Maria Barca, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND: The dementia syndrome has been regarded a clinical diagnosis but the focus on supplemental biomarkers is increasing. An automatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry method, NeuroQuant® (NQ), has been developed for use in clinical settings. PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NQ in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from non-dementia and non-AD dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NQ was performed in 275 patients diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10 for AD, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); the Winblad criteria for mild cognitive impairment; the Lund-Manchester criteria for frontotemporal dementia; and the revised consensus criteria for Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
September 28, 2016: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671901/statins-are-underused-in-recent-onset-parkinson-s-disease-with-increased-vascular-risk-findings-from-the-uk-tracking-parkinson-s-and-oxford-parkinson-s-disease-centre-opdc-discovery-cohorts
#20
Diane M A Swallow, Michael A Lawton, Katherine A Grosset, Naveed Malek, Johannes Klein, Fahd Baig, Claudio Ruffmann, Nin P Bajaj, Roger A Barker, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, David J Burn, Thomas Foltynie, Huw R Morris, Nigel Williams, Nicholas W Wood, Michele T M Hu, Donald G Grosset
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) influences phenotypic variation in Parkinson's disease (PD), and is usually an indication for statin therapy. It is less clear whether cardiovascular risk factors influence PD phenotype, and if statins are prescribed appropriately. OBJECTIVES: To quantify vascular risk and statin use in recent-onset PD, and examine the relationship between vascular risk, PD severity and phenotype. METHODS: Cardiovascular risk was quantified using the QRISK2 calculator (high ≥20%, medium ≥10 and <20%, low risk <10%)...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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