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Vascular parkinsonism

Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Karin Persson, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Mona Beyer, Maria Barca, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND: The dementia syndrome has been regarded a clinical diagnosis but the focus on supplemental biomarkers is increasing. An automatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry method, NeuroQuant® (NQ), has been developed for use in clinical settings. PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NQ in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from non-dementia and non-AD dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NQ was performed in 275 patients diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10 for AD, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); the Winblad criteria for mild cognitive impairment; the Lund-Manchester criteria for frontotemporal dementia; and the revised consensus criteria for Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
September 28, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Diane M A Swallow, Michael A Lawton, Katherine A Grosset, Naveed Malek, Johannes Klein, Fahd Baig, Claudio Ruffmann, Nin P Bajaj, Roger A Barker, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, David J Burn, Thomas Foltynie, Huw R Morris, Nigel Williams, Nicholas W Wood, Michele T M Hu, Donald G Grosset
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) influences phenotypic variation in Parkinson's disease (PD), and is usually an indication for statin therapy. It is less clear whether cardiovascular risk factors influence PD phenotype, and if statins are prescribed appropriately. OBJECTIVES: To quantify vascular risk and statin use in recent-onset PD, and examine the relationship between vascular risk, PD severity and phenotype. METHODS: Cardiovascular risk was quantified using the QRISK2 calculator (high ≥20%, medium ≥10 and <20%, low risk <10%)...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Monika Chaszczewska-Markowska, Maria Sagan, Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik
Secretion of renin juxtaglomerular cells into bloodstream initiates activation of an enzymatic-hormonal cascade known as the RAAS (renin - angiotensin - aldosterone system). As a result, blood pressure is increased by the means several interrelated mechanisms. Mechanism of Zjednoczoaction of this system has been known for decades, but a few previously unknown components were recently added, such as ACE-2 and Ang(1-7), and their role often seems to be opposite to that of the conventional components. Local tissue systems also have important biological functions...
September 13, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel M Carvalho, Krishna M Panchalingam, Ana J Rodrigues, Bárbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Sandra Anjo, Bruno Manadas, Leo A Behie, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
: : Research in the last decade strongly suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapeutic benefits are mainly due to their secretome, which has been proposed as a possible therapeutic tool for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, it has been shown that the MSC secretome increases neurogenesis and cell survival, and has numerous neuroprotective actions under different conditions. Additionally, using dynamic culturing conditions (through computer-controlled bioreactors) can further modulate the MSC secretome, thereby generating a more potent neurotrophic factor cocktail (i...
September 22, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Bilge Kocer, Hayat Guven, Isik Conkbayir, Selim Selcuk Comoglu, Sennur Delibas
Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson's disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3%) with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients' cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
D V Pokhabov, V G Abramov, D D Pokhabov
In this article, non-drug methods of treatment of Parkinson's disease are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the motor symptoms of disease, specifically to gait disorders. Information about objective methods of gait impairment is presented. Own results that confirm the effect of a method of tempo-rhythmical correction of walk in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and vascular parkinsonism as well as a device for assessment of gait parameters developed by the authors are analyzed. The efficacy of other methods of gait correction using external cues, study design and level of evidence are analyzed as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Liza Grosman-Rimon, William Parkinson, Suneel Upadhye, Hance Clarke, Joel Katz, John Flannery, Philip Peng, Dinesh Kumbhare
The aims of the present study were to compare levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers and growth factors between patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and healthy control participants, and to assess the relationship among inflammatory markers and growth factors in the two groups.Biomarkers levels were assessed in patients (n = 37) with myofascial pain complaints recruited from the hospital emergency department and non-MPS controls (n = 21), recruited via advertisements in the hospital and community...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
S Fielding, A D Macleod, C E Counsell
BACKGROUND: The best data on prognosis comes from population-based incident cohorts but few such cohorts exist for Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism. METHODS: The PINE study is a prospective follow-up study of an incident cohort of people with degenerative or vascular parkinsonism and age-sex matched controls. Participants have annual follow-up from diagnosis until death with review of primary/secondary care records and linkage to the UK death register...
August 12, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Arijit Ghosh, Fang Chen, Abhimanyu Thakur, Hao Hong
Cysteinyl leukotrienes are a group of the inflammatory lipid molecules well known as mediators of inflammatory signaling in the allergic diseases. Although they are traditionally known for their role in allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and others, recent advances in the field of biomedical research highlighted the role of these inflammatory mediators in a broader range of diseases such as in the inflammation associated with the central nervous system (CNS) disorders, vascular inflammation (atherosclerotic), and in cancer...
August 19, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Ulf Simonsen, Simon Comerma-Steffensen, Karl-Erik Andersson
The currently recommended first-line treatments of erectile dysfunction, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), e.g. sildenafil, are efficacious in many patients with erectile dysfunction of vascular origin, but this therapy is insufficient in approximately 30-40% of men with erectile dysfunction where there is also a neuronal affection. There is a demand of novel approaches to treat the condition. We review the possibility of modulating the dopaminergic pathways to improve erectile function. Dopamine D1 (D1 , D5 )-and D2 (D2 -D4 )-like receptors in the paraventricular area, the medial preoptic area, the spinal cord, and in the erectile tissue are involved in erection, and several agonists developed for treatment of Parkinson's disease are associated with increased libido...
August 19, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Robert Kromer, Carsten Buhmann, Ute Hidding, Matthias Keserü, Diana Keserü, Andrea Hassenstein, Birthe Stemplewitz
PURPOSE: The retina has been found affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is unclear if this is due to neurodegeneration of local dopamine-dependent retinal cells, a result of central nervous degeneration including the optic nerve or retinal small vessel disease. This study aimed to detect changes of the retinal vasculature in PD patients compared to controls. METHODS: We examined 49 PD patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with a circular scan centred at the optic disc...
2016: PloS One
Nikolett Lénárt, David Brough, Ádám Dénes
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders is increasingly recognised. Inflammatory processes are associated with the aetiology and clinical progression of migraine, psychiatric conditions, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, dementia and neurodegeneration, such as seen in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Both central and systemic inflammatory actions have been linked with the development of brain diseases, suggesting that complex neuro-immune interactions could contribute to pathological changes in the brain across multiple temporal and spatial scales...
October 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
L Defebvre, P Krystkowiak
Stroke may be associated with different types of movement disorders, such as hyperkinetic syndromes (hemichorea-hemiballism, unilateral asterixis, limb-shaking, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus) and hypokinetic syndromes (especially vascular parkinsonism). However, movement disorders are rare and transient in acute stroke and, as a permanent consequence, are more often delayed. While ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes can happen at any level of the frontal-subcortical motor system, they can be explained most of the time by a dysfunction in the basal ganglia motor circuit...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
Safieh Ebrahimi, Najme Jaberi, Amir Avan, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Mohammad Reza Keramati, Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian
Thrombin initiates proinflammatory signaling responses through activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs) in in vitro and in vivo systems. Proinflammatory signaling function of thrombin increases secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, triggers vascular permeability, promotes leukocyte migration, and induces adhesion molecule expression. Thrombin as a potent signaling molecule is strongly implicated in a number of proinflammatory disorders including severe sepsis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and of special interest in this review neurodegenerative disorders...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Joseph C Masdeu
This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
V Dunet, J Deverdun, C Charroud, E Le Bars, F Molino, S Menjot de Champfleur, F Maury, M Charif, X Ayrignac, P Labauge, G Castelnovo, F Pinna, A Bonafe, C Geny, N Menjot de Champfleur
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with vascular parkinsonism have higher cognitive decline and more basal ganglia lesions. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of cognitive impairment with functional connectivity between the basal ganglia and cingulate cortex in vascular parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (8 with vascular parkinsonism and 22 with Parkinson disease) and 23 controls were enrolled. The Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and the Stroop Task were used to assess cognitive decline...
July 14, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Shuang Ling, Jin-Wen Xu
2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) is active component of the Chinese medicinal plant Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (THSG). Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that THSG exhibits numerous biological functions in treating atherosclerosis, lipid metabolism, vascular and cardiac remodeling, vascular fibrosis, cardiac-cerebral ischemia, learning and memory disorders, neuroinflammation, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, diabetic complications, hair growth problems, and numerous other conditions...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Antoine Leuzy, Konstantinos Chiotis, Steen G Hasselbalch, Juha O Rinne, Alexandre de Mendonça, Markus Otto, Alberto Lleó, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Jarkko Johansson, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Christine A F von Arnim, Ambros Beer, Rafael Blesa, Juan Fortea, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Erik Portelius, Josef Pannee, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Agneta Nordberg
The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally measured cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 using a Meso Scale Discovery enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 centrally measured using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference method...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Sandro Zambito Marsala, Manuela Gioulis, Michele Pistacchi, Cecilia Lo Cascio
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently occur in the elderly; however, CVD is not frequent in the PD population. The possible relationship between PD and CVD was studied with controversial findings. More specifically, it is unclear whether PD can be protective against the development of vascular disease. To assess the neurosonological examination of a group of PD patients matched with a control group of patients not affected by PD along with the potential risk of developing CVD in the PD group to evaluate any differences...
October 2016: Neurological Sciences
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