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Vascular parkinsonism

Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jacek Staszewski, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Ewa Skrobowska, Bogdan Brodacki, Katarzyna Macek, Adam Stępień
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of aspirin resistance (AR) in patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease is not well known. The aim of this single-center, prospective study was to examine the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic significance of AR in patients with different clinical manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) over 24-month follow-up. METHODS: We studied 104 patients with MRI confirmed CSVD, including those with recent lacunar stroke (LS, n=49), vascular parkinsonism (VaP, n=16) and dementia (VaD, n=39)...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Kenneth Maiese
As a result of the advancing age of the global population and the progressive increase in lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders continue to increase in incidence throughout the world. New strategies for neurodegenerative disorders involve the novel pathways of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) (SIRT1) that can modulate pathways of apoptosis and autophagy. The pathways of mTOR and SIRT1 are closely integrated...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Narahari Rishitha, Arunachalam Muthuraman
BACKGROUND: Quercetin is a major flavonoid in various plants. It possesses the multiple pharmacological actions like vascular integrity and regulatory action of the blood-brain barrier. AIMS: The present study is focused on evaluating the role of solid lipid nanoparticle of quercetin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced cognitive impairment of Danio rerio species. MAIN METHODS: The memory impairment of zebrafish was induced by exposing of PTZ in 7...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Milene R Malheiros-Lima, Washington Pires, Ivana A T Fonseca, Julliane V Joviano-Santos, Anderson J Ferreira, Cândido C Coimbra, Nilo R V Lima, Samuel P Wanner
This study aimed to investigate the chronic effects of caudal artery denervation on morphometric parameters of the tail vascular smooth muscle and on physical exercise-induced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adjustments in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to caudal artery denervation or the sham procedure. Approximately 26-28 days after these procedures, their thermoregulatory and cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at rest and during or following a fatiguing treadmill run. At the end of the experiments, the rats were euthanized, and samples of their tails were removed to evaluate morphometric parameters of the vascular smooth muscle surrounding the caudal artery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Wolfgang Reith
Neurodegenerative diseases are sporadic and rare hereditary disorders of the central nervous system, which cause a slowly progressive loss of function of specific neuron populations and their connections. Severe impairments and care dependency can be the sequelae. Neurodegenerative disorders are diseases of older people; therefore, the demographic shift leads to an increase in the number of affected patients. Radiologists will also become more involved. For this reason important neurodegenerative diseases are presented in this article...
March 2018: Der Radiologe
Irina Alafuzoff
Research on human brain diseases is currently often conducted on cell cultures and animals. Several questions however can only be addressed by studying human postmortem brain tissue. However, brain tissue obtained postmortem almost always displays pathology that is often related to the aging phenomenon. Thus, in order to be certain that the answers obtained are reliable, a systematic and thorough assessment of the brain tissue to be studied should be carried out. We are currently aware of several protein alterations that are found in middle-aged and aged brains that are obtained from neurologically unimpaired subjects...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Xiuli Jiang, Xiaoli Wang, Miao Tuo, Jiangnan Ma, Anmu Xie
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays crucial roles in the development of many human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis and cancer. RAGE involves in a number of cell processes such as neuroinflammation, apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy. In CNS, RAGE was primarily expressed in neurons, microglia and vascular endothelial cells. Interacting with ligands, RAGE induces a series of signal transduction cascades and leads to the activation of transcription factor NF-κB as well as increased expression of cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sanaa A M Elgayar, Amel A M Abdel-Hafez, Asmaa M S Gomaa, Raghda Elsherif
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes have been implicated as potentially exerting both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities in Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether glial cells negatively impact the neuron integrity remains to be determined. We aimed to assess the vulnerability of glia and vessels in rat substantia nigra in a rotenone PD model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups: vehicle-control group (received dimethylsulfoxide + polyethylene glycol (PEG)-300, 1:1 v/v) and rotenone-treated group (received six doses of rotenone, 1...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Mária Markó-Kucsera, László Vécsei, Edit Paulik
Background and purpose: Parkinson's disease (PD) has the second highest incidence among neurodegenerative diseases in the world population. The study aimed to investigate the presence of some cardiovascular risk factors - dyslipidemia, diabetes, and hypertension - in PD patients and to compare their risk with non-PD population in South East Hungary. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at the Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Hungary. The study included 1299 subjects out of which 620 patients were identified as cases of diagnosed PD and 679 as controls...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Stephen Ball, Sarah Al-Bachari, Laura M Parkes, Hedley C A Emsley, Charles N McCollum
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by dementia. Cardiovascular risk factors and spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) are strongly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). We measured SCE in the middle cerebral artery and arterial wall volume in the extracranial arteries in patients with IPD and controls, and explored the relationships with structural and physiological MRI brain neurovascular measures...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Cettina Allone, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Lilla Bonanno, Rosanna Palmeri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Angela Marra, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
AIM: Cognitive impairment is present in several neurodegenerative disorders. The clock-drawing test (CDT) represents a useful screening instrument for assessing the evolution of cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of the CDT in monitoring and differentiating the evolution of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's dementia (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: This study involved 139 patients, including 39 patients with PD and mild cognitive impairment, 16 demented PD patients, 21 VaD patients with mild cognitive impairment, 17 patients with VaD, 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and 13 patients with probable AD...
March 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Jing Zou, Zhigang Chen, Caiqian Liang, Yongmei Fu, Xiaobo Wei, Jianjun Lu, Mengqiu Pan, Yue Guo, Xinxue Liao, Huifang Xie, Duobin Wu, Min Li, Lihui Liang, Penghua Wang, Qing Wang
Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), cholinesterase activity (ChE activity) and homocysteine (Hcy) play critical roles in modulating recognition, learning and memory in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and vascular parkinsonism with dementia (VPD). However, whether they can be used as reliable predictors to evaluate the severity and progression of PDD and VPD remains largely unknown. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study that included 92 patients with PDD, 82 patients with VPD and 80 healthy controls...
February 2018: Aging and Disease
Inga Zerr, Matthias Schmitz, André Karch, Anna Villar-Piqué, Eirini Kanata, Ewa Golanska, Daniela Díaz-Lucena, Aikaterini Karsanidou, Peter Hermann, Tobias Knipper, Stefan Goebel, Daniela Varges, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Beata Sikorska, Pawel P Liberski, Isabel Santana, Isidro Ferrer, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Olga Calero, Miguel Calero, Anna Ladogana, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Inês Baldeiras, Franc Llorens
INTRODUCTION: Neurofilament light (NFL) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are increased in several neurodegenerative dementias. However, their diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnostic context is unknown. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid NFL levels were quantified in nonprimarily neurodegenerative neurological and psychiatric diseases (n = 122), mild cognitive impairment (n = 48), Alzheimer's disease (n = 108), dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson's disease dementia (n = 53), vascular dementia (n = 46), frontotemporal dementia (n = 41), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, n = 132), and genetic prion diseases (n = 182)...
January 29, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Augustin Latourte, Thomas Bardin, Pascal Richette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review aims to highlight recent findings on the relation between uric acid level and cognitive decline or dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: The antioxidant properties of uric acid, which have supported the hypothesis that uric acid may be neuroprotective, have been questioned by preclinical data. Studies investigating the relation between serum uric acid (SUA) level and Alzheimer disease are mostly cross-sectional, and results are often inconclusive...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Femke Heindryckx, Jin-Ping Li
Fibrosis is defined as the thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usually as a consequence of tissue damage. The central nervous system (CNS) is special in the sense that fibrogenic cells are restricted to vascular and meningeal areas. Inflammation and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier can lead to the infiltration of fibroblasts and trigger fibrotic response. While the initial function of the fibrotic tissue is to restore the blood-brain barrier and to limit the site of injury, it also demolishes the structure of extracellular matrix and impedes the healing process by producing inhibitory molecules and forming a physical and biochemical barrier that prevents axon regeneration...
January 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Melanie D Sweeney, Abhay P Sagare, Berislav V Zlokovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a continuous endothelial membrane within brain microvessels that has sealed cell-to-cell contacts and is sheathed by mural vascular cells and perivascular astrocyte end-feet. The BBB protects neurons from factors present in the systemic circulation and maintains the highly regulated CNS internal milieu, which is required for proper synaptic and neuronal functioning. BBB disruption allows influx into the brain of neurotoxic blood-derived debris, cells and microbial pathogens and is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, which can initiate multiple pathways of neurodegeneration...
January 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Meral E Kiziltan, Aysegul Gunduz, Melih Tutuncu, Sibel Ertan, Hulya Apaydin, Gunes Kiziltan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Late-onset myoclonus in the elderly is mainly related to dementia or systemic disease. In this report, we aimed to investigate the clinical and electrophysiological features of patients with late-onset myoclonus. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We retrospectively assessed the medical records of patients who were referred to our electromyography laboratory. From these records, we included all patients who had myoclonus which started after the age of 60 years and in whom it was confirmed by polymyography...
December 26, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Wilma Barcellini, Elisa Scola, Silvia Lanfranconi, Marika Grottaroli, Francesca Binda, Bruno Fattizzo, Anna Zaninoni, Gloria Valcamonica, Claudia Maria Cinnante, Carla Boschetti, Massimiliano Buoli, Carlo Alfredo Altamura, Nereo Bresolin, Fabio Triulzi, Alberto Zanella, Agostino Cortelezzi
This study investigated for the first time brain ischemic involvement in 19 consecutive neurologically asymptomatic PNH patients by non-enhanced cerebral MRI, and by intracranial arterial and venous angio-MRI. Eleven cases (58%, 7 aged <65) showed pathological findings: 9 white matter (WM) abnormalities related to chronic ischemic small vessel disease, 2 a focal abnormality >5 mm, and 5 cases a score >4 by the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale. Compared with age and sex-matched controls (1:2 ratio), patients showed an increased frequency of periventricular WM vascular degeneration (32% versus 5...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Ruesch, M A Smith, G Wollstein, I A Sigal, S Nelson, J M Kainerstorfer
The mechanism that maintains a stable blood flow in the brain despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and therefore guaranties a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, is known as cerebral autoregulation (CA). In a certain range of CPP, blood flow is mediated by a vasomotor adjustment in vascular resistance through dilation of blood vessels. CA is known to be impaired in diseases like traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hydrocephalus and others. If CA is impaired, blood flow and pressure changes are coupled and the oxygen supply might be unstable...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
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