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Vascular parkinsonism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320892/sepiapterin-reductase-gene-disrupted-mice-suffer-from-hypertension-with-fluctuation-and-bradycardia
#1
Chiho Sumi-Ichinose, Yui Suganuma, Taiki Kano, Noriko Ihira, Hiroko Nomura, Kazuhisa Ikemoto, Tadayoshi Hata, Setsuko Katoh, Hiroshi Ichinose, Kazunao Kondo
(6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for monoamine and nitric oxide (NO) production. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the final step in BH4 biosynthesis. We analyzed the cardiovascular function of adult Spr gene-disrupted (Spr(-/-)) mice for the first time. After weaning, Spr(-/-) mice suffered from hypertension with fluctuation and bradycardia, while the monoamine contents in these mice were less than 10% of those in the wild-type mice as a result of BH4 depletion...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302047/neuroinflammation-as-a-common-mechanism-associated-with-the-modifiable-risk-factors-for-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#2
Jordan Alexander McKenzie, Lindsay J Spielman, Caitlin B Pointer, Jessica R Lowry, Ekta Bajwa, Carolyn W Lee, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are among the most common causes of dementia, which increasingly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. A common hallmark in the pathogenesis of these two diseases is neuroinflammation, which is initially triggered by the presence of pathological structures associated with these disorders. Chronic neuroinflammation is sustained by persistent and aberrant microglial activation in the brain, which results in damage and death of neighboring cells, including neurons and glial cells...
March 15, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288370/the-role-of-gpcrs-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-avenues-for-therapeutic-intervention
#3
REVIEW
Yunhong Huang, Nicholas Todd, Amantha Thathiah
Neurodegenerative diseases represent a large group of neurological disorders with heterogeneous clinical and pathological profiles. The majority of current therapeutic strategies provide temporary symptomatic relief but do not target the underlying disease pathobiology and thus do not affect disease progression. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the most successful targets for therapeutic development of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Many current clinical therapeutic agents act by targeting this class of receptors and downstream signaling pathways...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237545/enhancement-of-brain-plasticity-and-recovery-of-locomotive-function-after-lumbar-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-combination-with-gait-training-with-partial-weight-support-in-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Yoon-Hee Choi, Shi-Uk Lee
Lumbar spinal cord stimulation (LSCS) is reportedly effective for the recovery of locomotive intraspinal neural network, motor cortex and basal ganglia in animals with complete spinal cord injury and parkinsonism. We evaluated the effect of LSCS in combination with gait training on the recovery of locomotive function and brain plasticity using a rat model of brain ischemia. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats with ischemia were randomly assigned into one of four groups: sham treatment (group 1), LSCS only (group 2), LSCS with gait training and 50% (group 3) and 80% (group 4) of body weight support...
February 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229442/-rapidly-progressive-dementia-and-parkinsonism-associated-to-multiple-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#5
P Mejia, L M Piedra, X Merchan-Del Hierro
INTRODUCTION: Rapidly progressive dementias are an infrequent group of diseases characterised by cognitive deterioration and other neurological disorders that develop over a period ranging from weeks to months. Their causation is varied and includes a large number of neurodegenerative, toxic, metabolic, autoimmune, infectious and vascular conditions. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year-old male who was admitted to hospital due to a rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism caused by multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas, which were successfully treated by means of endovascular therapy...
March 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191785/impact-of-the-secretome-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-brain-structure-and-animal-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Fábio G Teixeira, Miguel M Carvalho, Krishna M Panchalingam, Ana J Rodrigues, Bárbara Mendes-Pinheiro, Sandra Anjo, Bruno Manadas, Leo A Behie, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado
Research in the last decade strongly suggests that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapeutic benefits are mainly due to their secretome, which has been proposed as a possible therapeutic tool for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, it has been shown that the MSC secretome increases neurogenesis and cell survival, and has numerous neuroprotective actions under different conditions. Additionally, using dynamic culturing conditions (through computer-controlled bioreactors) can further modulate the MSC secretome, thereby generating a more potent neurotrophic factor cocktail (i...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174096/retinal-biomarkers-provide-insight-into-cortical-pharmacology-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Christine T O Nguyen, Flora Hui, Jason Charng, Shajan Velaedan, Anna K van Koeverden, Jeremiah K H Lim, Zheng He, Vickie H Y Wong, Algis J Vingrys, Bang V Bui, Magnus Ivarsson
The retina is an easily accessible out-pouching of the central nervous system (CNS) and thus lends itself to being a biomarker of the brain. More specifically, the presence of neuronal, vascular and blood-neural barrier parallels in the eye and brain coupled with fast and inexpensive methods to quantify retinal changes make ocular biomarkers an attractive option. This includes its utility as a biomarker for a number of cerebrovascular diseases as well as a drug pharmacology and safety biomarker for the CNS...
February 5, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#8
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162137/are-parkinson-s-patients-more-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-risk-a-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-study
#9
Jacob D Jones, Jared J Tanner, Michael Okun, Catherine C Price, Dawn Bowers
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased vulnerability for vascular-related cognitive impairment relative to controls. The underlying assumption behind this hypothesis relates to brain reserve and that both PD and vascular risk factors impair similar fronto-executive cognitive systems. METHODS: The sample included 67 PD patients and 61 older controls (total N=128). Participants completed neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal delayed recall/memory, language, and auditory attention...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154566/histological-architecture-underlying-brain-immune-cell-cell-interactions-and-the-cerebral-response-to-systemic-inflammation
#10
Atsuyoshi Shimada, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii
Although the brain is now known to actively interact with the immune system under non-inflammatory conditions, the site of cell-cell interactions between brain parenchymal cells and immune cells has been an open question until recently. Studies by our and other groups have indicated that brain structures such as the leptomeninges, choroid plexus stroma and epithelium, attachments of choroid plexus, vascular endothelial cells, cells of the perivascular space, circumventricular organs, and astrocytic endfeet construct the histological architecture that provides a location for intercellular interactions between bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage cells and brain parenchymal cells under non-inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126506/-other-causes-of-parkinsonism
#11
Christine Tranchant
Numerous causes may induce parkinsonism, and in case of Parkinsonism, l-dopa resistance, associated neurological signs, early falls, early dysautonomia or early cognitive disorders are the main red flags which should lead to exclude Parkinson's disease. Drug-induced parkinsonism and in young people, Wilson disease, should always be searched. Lower limbs parkinsonism is often due to vascular lesions. Multiple systemic atrophy, supranuclear palsy, Lewy body disease and the rarer corticobasal degeneration, each have specific clinical signs...
January 23, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120046/music-and-mind-in-memoriam-professor-carlo-alberto-pagni-md-phd-february-13-1931-march-1-2009
#12
Klaus R H von Wild
Carlo Alberto Pagni, born in La Spezia, Italy, on February 13, 1931, was an eminent and respected professor of neurosurgery and chairman of the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Turin from 1980 to 2003. He died on March 1, 2009. As a professor of neurology and neurological surgery he was renowned as an expert on vascular, tumor, and functional neurosurgery. Beyond the Italian Neurosurgical Society, he was the doyen of functional neurosurgery, specializing in motor cortex stimulation for the treatment of focal dystonia, Parkinson's disease, and postictal spasticity and pain...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#13
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078564/mri-measurements-of-brainstem-structures-in-patients-with-vascular-parkinsonism-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Byeong C Kim, Seong-Min Choi, Kang-Ho Choi, Tai-Seung Nam, Joon-Tae Kim, Seung-Han Lee, Man-Seok Park, Woong Yoon
Magnetic resonance (MR) measurements of brainstem structures have been reported to be useful in differentiating patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from those with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to determine whether quantitative measurements of brainstem structures on MR images can help differentiate vascular parkinsonism (VaP) from degenerative parkinsonism (PD and PSP). Areas of the midbrain and pons, and widths of the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) were measured in 62 patients with PD, 25 patients with PSP (11 probable and 14 possible), and 24 patients with VaP on T 1-weighted MR images...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077166/threonine-175-a-novel-pathological-phosphorylation-site-on-tau-protein-linked-to-multiple-tauopathies
#15
Alexander J Moszczynski, Wencheng Yang, Robert Hammond, Lee Cyn Ang, Michael J Strong
Microtubule associated protein tau (tau) deposition is associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases collectively termed tauopathies. We have previously shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with cognitive impairment (ALSci) is associated with tau phosphorylation at Thr(175) and that this leads to activation of GSK3β which then induces phosphorylation at tau Thr(231). This latter step leads to dissociation of tau from microtubules and pathological tau fibril formation. To determine the extent to which this pathway is unique to ALS, we have investigated the expression of pThr(175) tau and pThr(231) tau across a range of frontotemporal degenerations...
January 11, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061383/increased-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-associated-with-dementia-and-diabetes-but-not-amyloid-pathology-or-apoe-genotype
#16
Shorena Janelidze, Joakim Hertze, Katarina Nägga, Karin Nilsson, Christer Nilsson, Malin Wennström, Danielle van Westen, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Oskar Hansson
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction might be an important component of many neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated its role in dementia using large clinical cohorts. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma albumin ratio (Qalb), an indicator of BBB (and blood-CSF barrier) permeability, was measured in a total of 1015 individuals. The ratio was increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinson's disease dementia, subcortical vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia compared with controls...
March 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003435/genetic-compendium-of-1511-human-brains-available-through-the-uk-medical-research-council-brain-banks-network-resource
#17
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Ian Wilson, Jon Coxhead, Sarah Ryan, Sara Rollinson, Helen Griffin, Marzena Kurzawa-Akanbi, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
Given the central role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of common neurodegenerative disorders, it is critical that mechanistic studies in human tissue are interpreted in a genetically enlightened context. To address this, we performed exome sequencing and copy number variant analysis on 1511 frozen human brains with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 289), frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD/ALS, n = 252), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, n = 239), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 39), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 58), other neurodegenerative, vascular, or neurogenetic disorders (n = 266), and controls with no significant neuropathology (n = 368)...
January 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003035/the-ontario-neurodegenerative-disease-research-initiative-ondri
#18
Sali M K Farhan, Robert Bartha, Sandra E Black, Dale Corbett, Elizabeth Finger, Morris Freedman, Barry Greenberg, David A Grimes, Robert A Hegele, Chris Hudson, Peter W Kleinstiver, Anthony E Lang, Mario Masellis, William E McIlroy, Paula M McLaughlin, Manuel Montero-Odasso, David G Munoz, Douglas P Munoz, Stephen Strother, Richard H Swartz, Sean Symons, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Lorne Zinman, Michael J Strong
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and vascular cognitive impairment...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999408/cyclodextrins-as-emerging-therapeutic-tools-in-the-treatment-of-cholesterol-associated-vascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Caroline Coisne, Sébastien Tilloy, Eric Monflier, Daniel Wils, Laurence Fenart, Fabien Gosselet
Cardiovascular diseases, like atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS) are closely linked to alterations of cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, innovative pharmacological approaches aiming at counteracting cholesterol imbalance display promising therapeutic potential. However, these approaches need to take into account the existence of biological barriers such as intestinal and blood-brain barriers which participate in the organ homeostasis and are major defense systems against xenobiotics...
December 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986830/subtle-motor-disturbances-in-predict-pd-participants
#20
Alastair J Noyce, Anette Schrag, Joseph M Masters, Jonathan P Bestwick, Gavin Giovannoni, Andrew J Lees
OBJECTIVE: The PREDICT-PD study aims to identify increased risk of Parkinson''s disease (PD) using online assessments of previously identified risk and early features of PD and an evidence-based scoring algorithm. We sought to determine whether higher risk participants (defined as those above the 15th centile of risk estimates) were more likely to have mild parkinsonian signs compared with lower risk participants. METHODS: Video recordings of neurological examinations, including the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) part III, of 208 individuals who had previously completed an online risk assessment were scored blindly and independently by two movement-disorders experts...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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