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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777277/impact-of-muscle-atrophy-on-bone-metabolism-and-bone-strength-implications-for-muscle-bone-crosstalk-with-aging-and-disuse
#1
REVIEW
T Bettis, B-J Kim, M W Hamrick
Bone fractures in older adults are often preceded by a loss of muscle mass and strength. Likewise, bone loss with prolonged bed rest, spinal cord injury, or with exposure to microgravity is also preceded by a rapid loss of muscle mass. Recent studies using animal models in the setting of hindlimb unloading or botulinum toxin (Botox) injection also reveal that muscle loss can induce bone loss. Moreover, muscle-derived factors such as irisin and leptin can inhibit bone loss with unloading, and knockout of catabolic factors in muscle such as the ubiquitin ligase Murf1 or the myokine myostatin can reduce osteoclastogenesis...
May 18, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776694/predictive-equations-versus-measured-energy-expenditure-by-indirect-calorimetry-a-retrospective-validation
#2
Oren Zusman, Ilya Kagan, Itai Bendavid, Miriam Theilla, Jonathan Cohen, Pierre Singer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) via indirect calorimetry (IC) in intensive care unit (ICU) patient is the gold standard recommended by guidelines. However technical difficulties hinder its use and predictive equations are largely used instead. We sought to validate commonly used equations using a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Patients hospitalized from 2003 to 2015 in a 16-bed ICU at a university-affiliated, tertiary care hospital who had IC measurement to assess caloric targets were included...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767546/examining-courses-of-sleep-quality-and-sleepiness-in-full-2-weeks-on-2-weeks-off-offshore-day-shift-rotations
#3
V Riethmeister, U Bültmann, M R De Boer, M Gordijn, S Brouwer
To better understand sleep quality and sleepiness problems offshore, we examined courses of sleep quality and sleepiness in full 2-weeks on/2-weeks off offshore day shift rotations by comparing pre-offshore (1 week), offshore (2 weeks) and post-offshore (1 week) work periods. A longitudinal observational study was conducted among N=42 offshore workers. Sleep quality was measured subjectively with two daily questions and objectively with actigraphy, measuring: time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep latency (SL) and sleep efficiency percentage (SE%)...
May 16, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761979/-remodeling-simulation-of-human-femur-under-bed-rest-and-spaceflight-circumstances-based-on-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#4
Wenting Yang, Dongmei Wang, Zhoujixin Lei, Chunhui Wang, Shanguang Chen
Astronauts who are exposed to weightless environment in long-term spaceflight might encounter bone density and mass loss for the mechanical stimulus is smaller than normal value. This study built a three dimensional model of human femur to simulate the remodeling process of human femur during bed rest experiment based on finite element analysis (FEA). The remodeling parameters of this finite element model was validated after comparing experimental and numerical results. Then, the remodeling process of human femur in weightless environment was simulated, and the remodeling function of time was derived...
December 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760957/simulated-microgravity-induces-a-cellular-regression-of-the-mature-phenotype-in-human-primary-osteoblasts
#5
Magda Gioia, Anna Michaletti, Manuel Scimeca, Mario Marini, Umberto Tarantino, Lello Zolla, Massimo Coletta
Decreased mechanical loading on bones, such as prolonged bed rest and microgravity during space flights, leads to the development of an osteoporotic-like phenotype. Although osteoblast hypo-functionality is reported to be involved in the progression of bone pathological conditions, the cellular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown. The combined application of mass spectrometry "-omics" and histochemical and ultrastructural approaches have been employed to investigate the effects of the gravitational unloading on human bone-cell biology...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754115/delusional-misidentifications-in-a-procrustean-bed
#6
EDITORIAL
G N Christodoulou, M Margariti, N Christodoulou
The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally The Delusional Misidentification Syndromes (DMSs) are characterized by defective integration of the normally fused functions of perception and recognition. The classical sub-types are: the syndromes of Capgras, Fregoli,Intermetamorphosis (mentioned in 3) and Subjective doubles. These syndromes occur in a clear sensorium and shouldbe differentiated from the banal transient misidentifications occurring in confusional states and in mania and from thenon-delusional misidentifications (e...
January 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739680/alkalinization-with-potassium-bicarbonate-improves-glutathione-status-and-protein-kinetics-in-young-volunteers-during-21-day-bed-rest
#7
Gianni Biolo, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Martina Heer, Mariella Sturma, Sara Mazzucco, Francesco Agostini, Roberta Situlin, Pierandrea Vinci, Mauro Giordano, Judith Buehlmeier, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Filippo Mearelli, Nicola Fiotti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Physical inactivity is associated with lean body mass wasting, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory changes of cell membrane lipids. Alkalinization may potentially counteract these alterations. We evaluated the effects of potassium bicarbonate supplementation on protein kinetics, glutathione status and pro- and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in erythrocyte membranes in humans, during experimental bed rest. METHODS: Healthy, young, male volunteers were investigated at the end of two 21-day bed rest periods, one with, and the other without, daily potassium bicarbonate supplementation (90 mmol × d-1 ), according to a cross-over design...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739334/exploring-gene-expression-biomarker-candidates-for-neurobehavioral-impairment-from-total-sleep-deprivation
#8
Hilary A Uyhelji, Doris M Kupfer, Vicky L White, Melinda L Jackson, Hans P A Van Dongen, Dennis M Burian
BACKGROUND: Although sleep deprivation is associated with neurobehavioral impairment that may underlie significant risks to performance and safety, there is no reliable biomarker test to detect dangerous levels of impairment from sleep loss in humans. This study employs microarrays and bioinformatics analyses to explore candidate gene expression biomarkers associated with total sleep deprivation (TSD), and more specifically, the phenotype of neurobehavioral impairment from TSD. Healthy adult volunteers were recruited to a sleep laboratory for seven consecutive days (six nights)...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727334/primary-and-secondary-total-knee-arthroplasty-for-tibial-plateau-fractures
#9
Iain Stevenson, Tristan E McMillan, Santosh Baliga, Emil H Schemitsch
The surgical management of tibial plateau fractures can be technically demanding. In younger patients, the mainstay is fixation with cartilage preservation. In older patients with osteoporotic bone, this method has higher rates of fixation failure; in addition, it requires prolonged bed rest or protected weight bearing, which are major challenges in this group. In contrast, total knee arthroplasty performed acutely for primary treatment of tibial plateau fractures has potential advantages for elderly patients, such as immediate stability, early mobilization, and positive functional outcomes with decreased rates of reoperation...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722847/dietary-acid-load-and-bone-turnover-during-long-duration-spaceflight-and-bed-rest
#10
Sara R Zwart, Barbara L Rice, Holly Dlouhy, Linda C Shackelford, Martina Heer, Matthew D Koslovsky, Scott M Smith
Background: Bed rest studies document that a lower dietary acid load is associated with lower bone resorption. Objective: We tested the effect of dietary acid load on bone metabolism during spaceflight. Design: Controlled 4-d diets with a high or low animal protein-to-potassium (APro:K) ratio (High and Low diets, respectively) were given to 17 astronauts before and during spaceflight. Each astronaut had 1 High and 1 Low diet session before flight and 2 High and 2 Low sessions during flight, in addition to a 4-d session around flight day 30 (FD30), when crew members were to consume their typical in-flight intake...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717293/percutaneous-renal-biopsy-comparison-of-blind-and-real-time-ultrasound-guided-technique
#11
Anil Pokhrel, Rajendra Kumar Agrawal, Anil Baral, Ajaya Rajbhandari, Rajani Hada
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous renal biopsy is performed for diagnosis and prediction of prognosis of renal diseases. Adequacy of tissue and clinically significant bleeding are the main issues of the procedure. We aimed to compare these issues in renal biopsy by blind and real time ultrasound guided technique. METHODS: It was a cross sectional, randomized study conducted between June 2016 to December 2016. In blind technique, marking for biopsy was done by ultrasound...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704184/venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-mental-health-in-patient-services-a-qualitative-study
#12
Audrey Purcell, Mary Clarke, Ian Maidment
Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important and potentially preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalised patients. It is a significant, international patient safety issue affecting medical, surgical and mental health in-patients. There is a paucity of published evidence on the incidence of VTE, and the role of VTE risk-assessment and prophylaxis, in mental healthcare settings. Epidemiological evidence indicates that antipsychotic medications are an independent risk factor for VTE...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699986/resting-nailfold-capillary-blood-flow-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#13
Clara C Cousins, Jonathan C Chou, Scott H Greenstein, Stacey C Brauner, Lucy Q Shen, Angela V Turalba, Patricia Houlihan, Robert Ritch, Janey L Wiggs, Paul A Knepper, Louis R Pasquale
BACKGROUND/AIMS: An altered haemodynamic profile for various ocular posterior segment capillary beds has been documented in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). POAG may also involve abnormal non-ocular blood flow, and the nailfold capillaries, which are not affected by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), are readily assessable. METHODS: We measured resting nailfold capillary blood flow in 67 POAG and 63 control subjects using video capillaroscopy. Masked readers tracked blood column voids between consecutive, registered image sequence frames, measured vessel diameter and calculated blood flow...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688942/closure-of-large-percutaneous-femoral-venous-access-using-a-modified-figure-of-eight-suture
#14
Christophe A Wyss, Oliver Anliker, Oliver Gämperli, Daniel Sürder, Patric Biaggi, Ines Buhler, Sacha P Salzberg, Jürg Grünenfelder, Roberto Corti
Recent advances in different percutaneous treatments made insertion of large-caliber sheaths in the femoral veins more common. Venous punctures are historically managed by initial manual compression with subsequent application of a compression bandage and bed rest. We describe a modified "figure-of-eight" suture technique for minimizing the risk of accidental puncture of the vein while grabbing the subcutaneous tissue. We examined the safety and feasibility of this technique combined with early mobilization in a real-world setting...
March 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682664/liquid-marble-coalescence-via-vertical-collision
#15
Jing Jin, Chin Hong Ooi, Dzung Viet Dao, Nam-Trung Nguyen
The coalescence process of liquid marbles is vital to their promising roles as reactors or mixers in digital microfluidics. However, the underlying mechanisms and critical conditions of liquid marble coalescence are not well understood. This paper studies the coalescence process of two equally-sized liquid marbles via vertical collision aided by dielectrophoretic handling. A liquid marble was picked up using the dielectrophoretic force and then dropped vertically onto another liquid marble resting on a hydrophobic powder bed...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681582/subchondral-insufficiency-fracture-of-the-femoral-head-in-a-pregnant-woman-with-pre-existing-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Kyoko Kasahara, Tomohiro Mimura, Suzuko Moritani, Taku Kawasaki, Shinji Imai, Shunichiro Tsuji, Fuminori Kimura, Takashi Murakami
Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is a fragility fracture secondary to osteoporosis that leads to collapse of the femoral head with no evidence of osteonecrosis. SIF of the femoral head has been reported in adults of varying ages and both sexes, but it has never been reported to occur in pregnant women. Herein, we describe a 40-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who developed SIF of the femoral head in the third trimester. At 29 weeks of gestation, the patient complained of sudden pain on walking in both hips...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676493/the-physical-environment-and-patients-activities-and-care-a-comparative-case-study-at-three-newly-built-stroke-units
#17
Anna Anåker, Lena Von Koch, Christina Sjöstrand, Ann Heylighen, Marie Elf
AIM: To explore and compare the impact of the physical environment on patients' activities and care at three newly built stroke units. BACKGROUND: Receiving care in a stroke unit instead of in a general ward reduces the odds of death, dependency and institutionalized care. In stroke units, the design of the physical environment should support evidence-based care. Studies on patients' activities in relation to the design of the physical environment of stroke units are scarce...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671756/mapping-and-modelling-malaria-risk-areas-using-climate-socio-demographic-and-clinical-variables-in-chimoio-mozambique
#18
Joao L Ferrao, Sergio Niquisse, Jorge M Mendes, Marco Painho
Background : Malaria continues to be a major public health concern in Africa. Approximately 3.2 billion people worldwide are still at risk of contracting malaria, and 80% of deaths caused by malaria are concentrated in only 15 countries, most of which are in Africa. These high-burden countries have achieved a lower than average reduction of malaria incidence and mortality, and Mozambique is among these countries. Malaria eradication is therefore one of Mozambique’s main priorities. Few studies on malaria have been carried out in Chimoio, and there is no malaria map risk of the area...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666718/an-autopsy-case-of-misdiagnosed-wernicke-s-syndrome-after-intragastric-balloon-therapy
#19
Paola Vellante, Aldo Carnevale, Cristian D'Ovidio
Intragastric balloon (IGB) therapy is a widely used technique to counter obesity, and it is known to be safe and effective. Although there can be a high rate of side effects following IGB therapy, most are self-healing and they are mainly accommodative in nature. Few cases of Wernicke's syndrome under IGB therapy have been described in the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, none have been fatal. We present here a case of a 51-year-old woman who underwent IGB therapy over 8 months. Late diagnosed Wernicke's syndrome that first appeared as lower limb neuropathy progressively immobilized the patient, until she required bed rest...
2018: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665013/planhab-hypoxia-does-not-worsen-the-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-induced-by-bed-rest-alone
#20
Desy Salvadego, Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Lorenza Brocca, Stefano Lazzer, Irene Mavelli, Jörn Rittweger, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Bruno Grassi
KEY POINTS: Superposition of hypoxia on 21 day bed rest did not worsen the impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative function induced by bed rest alone. A significant impairment of maximal oxidative performance was identified downstream of cardiovascular O2 delivery, involving both the intramuscular matching between O2 supply and utilization and mitochondrial respiration. These chronic adaptations appear to be relevant in terms of exposure to spaceflights and reduced gravity habitats (Moon or Mars), as characterized by low gravity and hypoxia, in patients with chronic diseases characterized by hypomobility/immobility and hypoxia, as well as in ageing...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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