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András Telekes, Dániel Deme
Ramucirumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, which inhibits the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, -C and -D ligands. Furthermore it blocks the ligand stimulated activation of p44/p42 mitogen activated protein kinases, thus neutralizing the ligand induced proliferation and migration of human endothelial cells. Based on the results of the REGARD (Ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma) and the RAINBOW (Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma) studies ramucirumab was approved for 2nd line treatment as monotherapy and in combination with paclitaxel for patients with local relapse and unresectable or metastatic gastric cancer (including gastro-esophegal junction adenocarcinoma)...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
María Espinosa Bosch, Rocío Asensi Diez, Sara García Agudo, Ana Clopes Estela
Nintedanib is a triple angiokinase inhibitor that has been approved by the European Agency Medicines (EMA) in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced, metastatic or locally recurrent non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of adenocarcinoma tumour histology, after first-line chemotherapy. In LUME-Lung 1 clinical trial, the combination of nintedanib plus docetaxel vs. placebo plus docetaxel improved progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients, and improved overall survival in the population of adenocarcinoma patients, particularly in those with progression within 9 months after first line treatment initiation, median 10...
July 2016: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Huan Song, Jianwei Zhu, DongHao Lu
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Complete resection of the whole tumor remains the only approach to treat this malignant disease. Since gastric cancer is usually asymptomatic in its early stages, many people are diagnosed at an advanced stage when the tumor is inoperable. In addition, because other conventional treatments (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) have only modest efficacy for those with advanced/metastatic gastric cancer, the prognosis in such cases is poor...
July 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yajun Zhang, Lingfei Wang, Xiaodan Chong, Xiaojie Yu, Yanchun Meng, Jian Dong, Chao Wang, Huajing Wang, Yang Yang, Tian Xia, Jian Zhao, Bohua Li
The anti-ErbB2 humanized antibody trastuzumab was approved for ErbB2-positive metastatic gastric and gastro-esophageal junction cancer in 2010. Despite the effectiveness of trastuzumab, its efficacy remains variable and often modest. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve ErbB2-targeting therapy. Down-regulation of surface receptors induced by monoclonal antibody (mAb) contributes to its antitumor efficacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that if two anti-ErbB2 mAbs did not compete with each other for binding to ErbB2, the combination of them can enhance ErbB2 internalization...
September 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lu-jiao Gao, Xing-hua Bai
OBJECTIVE: To observe the curative effect of needling stimulation of the dorsal segment (7 spots below the spinous processes from T3 to T9) of the Governor Vessel for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: A total of 60 cases of GERD patients were randomly divided into acupuncture group and medication group (n = 30 in each group). For patients of the acupuncture group, the depression spots below the spinous processes from T3 to T9, including both acupoints [Shenzhu (GV 12), Shendao (GV 11), Lingtai (GV 10), Zhiyang (GV 9), Jinsuo (GV 8)] and non-acupoints (T4, T8) were punctured with filiform needles, once every other day for 8 weeks...
April 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Chingching Foocharoen, Kitti Chunlertrith, Pisaln Mairiang, Ajanee Mahakkanukrauh, Siraphop Suwannaroj, Suwassa Namvijit, Orathai Wantha, Ratanavadee Nanagara
OBJECTIVES: Twice-daily dosing of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), the standard therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is an effective therapy for GERD in SSc. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of omeprazole in combination with domperidone vs in combination with algycon in reducing the severity and frequency of reflux symptoms of PPI partial response (PPI-PR) GERD in SSc. METHODS: Adult SSc patients having PPI-PR GERD were randomly assigned to receive domperidone plus algycon placebo or algycon plus domperidone placebo in a 1:1 ratio plus omeprazole for 4 weeks...
May 13, 2016: Rheumatology
Arumugam Ramamoorthy Vijayakumar, Epison Prabu Daniel, Raju Ilavarasan, S Venkataraman, S Vijayakumar
BACKGROUND: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b...
March 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Eva Segelov, Subotheni Thavaneswaran, Paul M Waring, Jayesh Desai, Kristy P Robledo, Val J Gebski, Elena Elez, Louise M Nott, Christos S Karapetis, Sebastian Lunke, Lorraine A Chantrill, Nick Pavlakis, Mustafa Khasraw, Craig Underhill, Fortunato Ciardiello, Michael Jefford, Harpreet Wasan, Andrew Haydon, Timothy J Price, Guy van Hazel, Kate Wilson, John Simes, Jeremy D Shapiro
PURPOSE: RAS mutations predict lack of response to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but preclinical studies and retrospective clinical data suggest that patients with tumors harboring the exon 2 KRAS G13D mutation may benefit from cetuximab. We aimed to assess cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in patients with molecularly selected (G13D mutation) chemotherapy-refractory mCRC in a randomized phase II trial of this rare molecular subtype...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Fleur T van de Wetering, Leen Verleye, H Jervoise N Andreyev, Jane Maher, Joan Vlayen, Bradley R Pieters, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Rob J P M Scholten
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. Late radiation rectal problems (proctopathy) include bleeding, pain, faecal urgency, and incontinence and may develop after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of non-surgical interventions for managing late radiation proctopathy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 11, 2015); MEDLINE (Ovid); EMBASE (Ovid); CANCERCD; Science Citation Index; and CINAHL from inception to November 2015...
April 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kunihiko Izuishi, Hirohito Mori
Recently, many strategies have been reported for the effective treatment of gastric cancer. However, the strategy for treating stage IV gastric cancer remains controversial. Conducting a prospective phase III study in stage IV cancer patients is difficult because of heterogeneous performance status, age, and degree of cancer metastasis or extension. Due to poor prognosis, the variance in physical status, and severe symptoms, it is important to determine the optimal strategy for treating each individual stage IV patient...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
João M S de Barros, Adele Costabile, Dimitrios Charalampopoulos, Vitaliy V Khutoryanskiy, Alexander D Edwards
Gastrointestinal (GI) models that mimic physiological conditions in vitro are important tools for developing and optimizing biopharmaceutical formulations. Oral administration of live attenuated bacterial vaccines (LBV) can safely and effectively promote mucosal immunity but new formulations are required that provide controlled release of optimal numbers of viable bacterial cells, which must survive gastrointestinal transit overcoming various antimicrobial barriers. Here, we use a gastro-small intestine gut model of human GI conditions to study the survival and release kinetics of two oral LBV formulations: the licensed typhoid fever vaccine Vivotif comprising enteric coated capsules; and an experimental formulation of the model vaccine Salmonella Typhimurium SL3261 dried directly onto cast enteric polymer films and laminated to form a polymer film laminate (PFL)...
May 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Gérard Lledo, Florence Huguet, Benoist Chibaudel, Frédéric Di Fiore, Laurent Mineur, Marie-Pierre Galais, Pascal Artru, Valérie Blondin, Olivier Dupuis, Menouar Samir Abdiche, Nicolas Jovenin, Astrid Pozet, Franck Bonnetain, Mohamed Attia, Laetitia Dahan, Aimery de Gramont
BACKGROUND: To determine efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy combined with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and folinic acid (FOLFOX) and cetuximab in patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage III oesophageal or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer were enrolled in a Simon's two-stage phase II study. Patients received FOLFOX and weekly cetuximab on week 1-10 with concurrent radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 30 fractions) on week 5-10...
March 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Daniel Simancas-Racines, Dimelza Osorio, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, implemented to solve life and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. However, blood transfusions have adverse events, some of them potentially related to immune modulation or to a direct transmission of infectious agents (e.g. cytomegalovirus). Leukoreduction is a process in which the white blood cells are intentionally reduced in packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in order to reduce the risk of adverse reactions. The potential benefits of leukoreduced PRBCs in all types of transfused patients for decreasing infectious and non-infectious complications remain unclear...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marianela Lorier, Laura Magallanes, Manuel Ibarra, Natalia Guevara, Marta Vázquez, Pietro Fagiolino
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ketoprofen, a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is clinically administered as a racemic mixture. One of the possible metabolism routes of ketoprofen is the inversion of the R- to S-enantiomer in the gastrointestinal tract. Ketoprofen, as a weak acid drug, might undergo recirculation through pancreatic/intestinal juices. The aim of the work was to investigate if a plasma-gastrointestinal tract recirculation of ketoprofen could explain its R-to-S chiral inversion after the oral administration of two modified-release formulations: a gastro-resistant delayed-release tablet (Reference) and an extended-release-plus-immediate-release bilayer tablet (Test)...
November 21, 2015: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Yu Hong Li, Miao Zhen Qiu, Jian Ming Xu, Guo Ping Sun, Hui Shan Lu, Yun Peng Liu, Mei Zuo Zhong, He Long Zhang, Shi Ying Yu, Wei Li, Xiao Hua Hu, Jie Jun Wang, Ying Cheng, Jun Tian Zhou, Zeng Qing Guo, Zhon Gzhen Guan, Rui Hua Xu
The safety and efficacy of S-1 plus cisplatin in Chinese advanced gastric cancer patients in first line setting is unknown. In this pilot study, patients with advanced gastric or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive S-1 plus cisplatin (CS group) or 5-FU plus cisplatin (CF group). The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and safety. This study was registered on ClinicalTrials. Gov, number NCT01198392...
October 27, 2015: Oncotarget
Ian L P Beales, Leanne Dearman, Inna Vardi, Yoon Loke
BACKGROUND: Use of statins has been associated with a reduced incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in population-based studies. However there are few studies examining statin use and the development of Barrett's esophagus. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between statin use and the presence of Barrett's esophagus in patients having their first gastroscopy. METHODS: We have performed a case-control study comparing statin use between patients with, and without, an incident diagnosis of non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus...
January 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Sarah L Greig, Gillian M Keating
Ramucirumab (Cyramza(®)), an intravenously administered, monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, is approved in the USA, EU and Japan (either as a single agent or in combination with paclitaxel) as second-line treatment in adults with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. In two phase III trials (REGARD and RAINBOW) in this indication, overall survival and progression-free survival were significantly prolonged with ramucirumab 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks compared with placebo, and with ramucirumab 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus weekly paclitaxel compared with placebo plus paclitaxel...
October 2015: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Kei Muro, Sang Cheul Oh, Yasuhiro Shimada, Keun-Wook Lee, Chia-Jui Yen, Yee Chao, Jae Yong Cho, Rebecca Cheng, Roberto Carlesi, Kumari Chandrawansa, Mauro Orlando, Atsushi Ohtsu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: East Asia has higher gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates than other regions. We present a subgroup analysis of East Asians in the positive study RAINBOW. METHODS: Patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma previously treated with platinum and fluoropyrimidine received ramucirumab 8 mg/kg or placebo on days 1 and 15 plus paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. RESULTS: Of 665 intention-to-treat patients, 223 were East Asian...
March 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nik S Ding, Tin Nguyen, David M Iser, Thai Hong, Emma Flanagan, Avelyn Wong, Lauren Luiz, Jonathan Y C Tan, James Fulforth, Jacinta Holmes, Marno Ryan, Sally J Bell, Paul V Desmond, Stuart K Roberts, John Lubel, William Kemp, Alexander J Thompson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic screening for high-risk gastro-oesophageal varices (GOV) is recommended for compensated cirrhotic patients with transient elastography identifying increasing numbers of patients with cirrhosis without portal hypertension. Using liver stiffness measurement (LSM) ± platelet count, the aim was to develop a simple clinical rule to exclude the presence of high-risk GOV in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 71 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis diagnosed by transient elastography (LSM >13...
February 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Trevor Leong, B Mark Smithers, Michael Michael, Val Gebski, Alex Boussioutas, Danielle Miller, John Simes, John Zalcberg, Karin Haustermans, Florian Lordick, Christoph Schuhmacher, Carol Swallow, Gail Darling, Rebecca Wong
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of patients with resectable gastric cancer continues to evolve in Western countries. Following publication of the US Intergroup 0116 and UK Medical Research Council MAGIC trials, there are now two standards of care for adjuvant therapy in resectable gastric cancer, at least in the Western world: postoperative chemoradiotherapy and perioperative epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) chemotherapy. We hypothesize that adding chemoradiation to standard perioperative ECF chemotherapy will achieve further survival gains...
2015: BMC Cancer
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