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Dominique Manikowski, Philipp Kastl, Kay Grobe
All Hedgehog (Hh) proteins signal from producing cells to distant receiving cells despite being synthesized as N-and C-terminally lipidated, membrane-tethered molecules. To explain this paradoxical situation, over the past 15 years, several hypotheses have been postulated that tie directly into this property, such as Hh transport on cellular extensions called cytonemes or on secreted vesicles called lipophorins and exosomes. The alternative situation that tight membrane association merely serves to prevent unregulated Hh solubilization has been addressed by biochemical and structural studies suggesting Hh extraction from the membrane or proteolytic Hh release...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
Paul C Bressloff, Hyunjoong Kim
Morphogen protein gradients play an important role in the spatial regulation of patterning during embryonic development. The most commonly accepted mechanism for gradient formation is diffusion from a source combined with degradation. Recently, there has been growing interest in an alternative mechanism, which is based on the direct delivery of morphogens along thin, actin-rich cellular extensions known as cytonemes. In this paper, we develop a bidirectional motor transport model for the flux of morphogens along cytonemes, linking a source cell to a one-dimensional array of target cells...
February 8, 2018: Physical Biology
Thomas B Kornberg
Evidence in many experimental systems supports the idea that non-uniform distributions of morphogen proteins encode positional information in developing tissues. There is also strong evidence that morphogen dispersal is mediated by cytonemes and that morphogen proteins transfer from producing to receiving cells at morphogenetic synapses that form at sites of cytoneme contacts. This essay considers some implications of this mechanism and its relevance to various contexts including large single cells such as the pre-cellular Drosophila embryo and the ciliate Stentor...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Biology
William J Bodeen, Suresh Marada, Ashley Truong, Stacey K Ogden
During development, extracellular cues guiding cell fate determination are provided by morphogens. One mechanism by which morphogens are proposed to traverse extracellular space is by traveling along specialized filopodia called cytonemes. These cellular highways extend between signal-producing and -receiving cells to enable direct morphogen delivery. Although genetic studies support cytoneme involvement in morphogen transport, mechanistic insight into how they are regulated is limited owing to technical challenges associated with performing cell biological analysis of the delicate filopodial structures...
October 1, 2017: Development
Laura González-Méndez, Irene Seijo-Barandiarán, Isabel Guerrero
Morphogens regulate tissue patterning through their distribution in concentration gradients. Emerging research establishes a role for specialized signalling filopodia, or cytonemes, in morphogen dispersion and signalling. Previously we demonstrated that Hedgehog (Hh) morphogen is transported via vesicles along cytonemes emanating from signal-producing cells to form a gradient in Drosophila epithelia. However, the mechanisms for signal reception and transfer are still undefined. Here, we demonstrate that cytonemes protruding from Hh-receiving cells contribute to Hh gradient formation...
August 21, 2017: ELife
Weitao Chen, Hai Huang, Ryo Hatori, Thomas B Kornberg
Morphogen concentration gradients that extend across developmental fields form by dispersion from source cells. In the Drosophila wing disc, Hedgehog (Hh) produced by posterior compartment cells distributes in a concentration gradient to adjacent cells of the anterior compartment. We monitored Hh:GFP after pulsed expression, and analyzed the movement and colocalization of Hh, Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) proteins tagged with GFP or mCherry and expressed at physiological levels from bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes...
September 1, 2017: Development
Svetlana I Galkina, Natalia V Fedorova, Marina V Serebryakova, Evgenii A Arifulin, Vladimir I Stadnichuk, Ludmila A Baratova, Galina F Sud'ina
Neutrophils play an essential role in innate immunity due to their ability to migrate into infected tissues and kill microbes with bactericides located in their secretory granules. Neutrophil transmigration and degranulation are tightly regulated by actin cytoskeleton. Invading pathogens produce alkaloids that cause the depolymerization of actin, such as the mold alkaloid cytochalasin D. We studied the effect of cytochalasin D on the morphology and secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-stimulated human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
Thomas B Kornberg
During development, cells use specialized filopodia called cytonemes to deploy the signaling proteins that coordinate growth and direct morphogenesis. Cytonemes are dynamic structures that can extend long distances across tissues to either deliver or take up signaling proteins. Signaling proteins transfer between cells at the tips of cytonemes where specific contacts termed morphogenetic synapses form. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles and functions of cytonemes, and it explores some of the conceptual issues relevant to the cytoneme mechanism of contact-dependent cell-cell signaling...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Mayo Iwasaki, Yoshikazu Ohno, Joji M Otaki
Butterfly wing eyespot patterns are determined in pupal tissues by organisers located at the centre of the prospective eyespots. Nevertheless, organiser cells have not been examined cytochemically in vivo, partly due to technical difficulties. Here, we directly observed organiser cells in pupal forewing epithelium via an in vivo confocal fluorescent imaging technique, using 1-h post-pupation pupae of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. The prospective eyespot centre was indented from the plane of the ventral tissue surface...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hai Huang, Thomas B Kornberg
Drosophila dorsal air sac development depends on Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) proteins produced by the wing imaginal disc and transported by cytonemes to the air sac primordium (ASP). Dpp and FGF signaling in the ASP was dependent on components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) system in the disc, and neither Dpp- nor FGF-receiving cytonemes extended over mutant disc cells that lacked them. ASP cytonemes normally navigate through extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of collagen, laminin, Dally and Dally-like (Dlp) proteins that are stratified in layers over the disc cells...
September 3, 2016: ELife
Kathrin Glaeser, Michael Boutros, Julia Christina Gross
Wnt proteins act as potent morphogens in various aspects of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. However, in addition to its physiological importance, aberrant Wnt signaling has been linked to the onset and progression of different types of cancer. On the cellular level, the secretion of Wnt proteins involves trafficking of lipid-modified Wnts from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and further compartments via the Wnt cargo receptor evenness interrupted. Others and we have recently shown that Wnt proteins are secreted on extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as microvesicles and exosomes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Margot Karlikow, Bertsy Goic, Vanesa Mongelli, Audrey Salles, Christine Schmitt, Isabelle Bonne, Chiara Zurzolo, Maria-Carla Saleh
Tunnelling nanotubes and cytonemes function as highways for the transport of organelles, cytosolic and membrane-bound molecules, and pathogens between cells. During viral infection in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a systemic RNAi antiviral response is established presumably through the transport of a silencing signal from one cell to another via an unknown mechanism. Because of their role in cell-cell communication, we investigated whether nanotube-like structures could be a mediator of the silencing signal...
June 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eliana Stanganello, Steffen Scholpp
Wnt signaling regulates a broad variety of processes during embryonic development and disease. A hallmark of the Wnt signaling pathway is the formation of concentration gradients by Wnt proteins across responsive tissues, which determines cell fate in invertebrates and vertebrates. To fulfill its paracrine function, trafficking of the Wnt morphogen from an origin cell to a recipient cell must be tightly regulated. A variety of models have been proposed to explain the extracellular transport of these lipid-modified signaling proteins in the aqueous extracellular space; however, there is still considerable debate with regard to which mechanisms allow the precise distribution of ligand in order to generate a morphogenetic gradient within growing tissue...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Georgios Vasilopoulos, Kevin J Painter
Pattern formation via direct cell to cell contact has received considerable attention over the years. In particular the lateral-inhibition mechanism observed in the Notch signalling pathway can generate a regular periodic pattern of differential cell activity, and has been proposed to explain the emergence of patterns in various tissues and organs. The majority of models of this system have focussed on short-range contacts: a cell signals only to its nearest neighbours and the resulting patterns tend to be of fine-scale "salt and pepper" nature...
March 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Óscar Sánchez, Juan Calvo, Carmen Ibáñez, Isabel Guerrero, Juan Soler
Hedgehog (Hh) molecules act as morphogens directing cell fate during development by activating various target genes in a concentration dependent manner. Hitherto, modeling morphogen gradient formation in multicellular systems has employed linear diffusion, which is very far from physical reality and needs to be replaced by a deeper understanding of nonlinearities. We have developed a novel mathematical approach by applying flux-limited spreading (FLS) to Hh morphogenetic actions. In the new model, the characteristic velocity of propagation of each morphogen is a new key biological parameter...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Irene Seijo-Barandiarán, Isabel Guerrero, Marcus Bischoff
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a regulator of patterning, cell migration and axon guidance during development as well as of homeostatic events in adult organs. It is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans. In many contexts during development, Hh appears to function as a morphogen; it spreads from producing cells to trigger concentration dependent responses in target cells, leading to their specification. During production, Hh undergoes two lipid modifications resulting in a highly hydrophobic molecule...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hai Huang, Thomas B Kornberg
The flight muscles, dorsal air sacs, wing blades, and thoracic cuticle of the Drosophila adult function in concert, and their progenitor cells develop together in the wing imaginal disc. The wing disc orchestrates dorsal air sac development by producing decapentaplegic and fibroblast growth factor that travel via specific cytonemes in order to signal to the air sac primordium (ASP). Here, we report that cytonemes also link flight muscle progenitors (myoblasts) to disc cells and to the ASP, enabling myoblasts to relay signaling between the disc and the ASP...
2015: ELife
Svetlana I Galkina, Natalia V Fedorova, Marina V Serebryakova, Evgenii A Arifulin, Vladimir I Stadnichuk, Tatjana V Gaponova, Ludmila A Baratova, Galina F Sud'ina
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: In a previous study, we demonstrated that human neutrophils can develop membrane tubulovesicular extensions (TVEs) that are 160-250 nm in width and several micrometres long. These extensions, or cytonemes, are capable of establishing long-range contacts with other cells or bacteria. Cytonemes consist of membrane tubules and vesicles of a uniform diameter aligned in a row. The mechanism of membrane tubulation/vesiculation to form cytonemes remains unknown. Upon endocytosis, the GTPase dynamin and an intact actin cytoskeleton are required for endocytic vesicles scission from the plasma membrane...
May 2015: Biology of the Cell
Joshua C Snyder, Lauren K Rochelle, Sébastien Marion, H Kim Lyerly, Larry S Barak, Marc G Caron
Embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis require precise information exchange between cells and their microenvironment to coordinate cell behavior. A specialized class of ultra-long actin-rich filopodia, termed cytonemes, provides one mechanism for this spatiotemporal regulation of extracellular cues. We provide here a mechanism whereby the stem-cell marker Lgr5, and its family member Lgr4, promote the formation of cytonemes. Lgr4- and Lgr5-induced cytonemes exceed lengths of 80 µm, are generated through stabilization of nascent filopodia from an underlying lamellipodial-like network and functionally provide a pipeline for the transit of signaling effectors...
March 15, 2015: Journal of Cell Science
Sougata Roy, Thomas B Kornberg
Recent findings in several organ systems show that cytoneme-mediated signaling transports signaling proteins along cellular extensions and targets cell-to-cell exchanges to synaptic contacts. This mechanism of paracrine signaling may be a general one that is used by many (or all) cell types in many (or all) organs. We briefly review these findings in this perspective. We also describe the properties of several signaling systems that have previously been interpreted to support a passive diffusion mechanism of signaling protein dispersion, but can now be understood in the context of the cytoneme mechanism...
January 2015: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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