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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124983/comparative-toxicological-evaluation-of-nonylphenol-and-nonylphenol-polyethoxylates-using-human-keratinocytes
#1
Hyungjoo Kim, Sunhwa Oh, Myung Chan Gye, Incheol Shin
Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a major group of nonionic surfactants widely used in various detergents, cleaners, plastics, papers, and agro-chemical products. Nonylphenol (NP), which is a final degraded metabolite derived from NPEOs, has been reported as an endocrine disrupter, known to mimic or disturb reproductive hormone functions. Concern about the hazards of NP and NPEOs has generated legal restrictions and action plans worldwide. Considering the fact that NP and NPEOs are majorly used in the production of products such as detergents, shampoos, and cosmetics which frequently come into contact with the skin, we investigated the effects of NP and NPEOs on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT)...
November 10, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115478/torin2-enhances-the-radiosensitivity-of-mcf%C3%A2-7-breast-cancer-cells-by-downregulating-the-mtor-signaling-pathway-and-atm-phosphorylation
#2
Jia Luo, Guocheng Pi, He Xiao, Yunfei Ye, Qing Li, Lianhua Zhao, Huan Huang, Hong Luo, Qin Zhang, Dong Wang, Ge Wang
Radiotherapy has an important role in the comprehensive treatment of breast cancer. However, the clinical outcome of adjuvant radiotherapy may be limited due to intrinsic radioresistance, it is necessary to explore efficient radiosensitization methods that improve the clinical outcome of patients undergoing radiotherapy. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor Torin2 enhances the radiosensitivity of MCF‑7 breast cancer cells. A Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8) assay was performed to measure the effect of Torin2 on cell proliferation, while clonogenic assays were employed to determine the effect of Torin2 in combination with radiation on the proliferation of MCF‑7 cells...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113904/site-specific-disulfide-crosslinked-nucleosomes-with-enhanced-stability
#3
Timothy D Frouws, Philip D Barth, Timothy J Richmond
We engineered nucleosome core particles (NCPs) with two site-specific cysteine crosslinks that increase the stability of the particle. The first disulfide was introduced between the two copies of H2A via a H2A-N38C point mutation, effectively crosslinking the two H2A/H2B heterodimers together to stabilize the histone octamer against H2A/H2B dimer dissociation. The second crosslink was engineered between a R40C point mutation on the N-terminal tail of H3 and the NCP DNA ends by the introduction of a convertible nucleotide...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113332/lncrnas-downregulated-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-modulate-apoptosis-cell-migration-and-dna-damage-response
#4
Romain Gioia, Simon Drouin, Manon Ouimet, Maxime Caron, Pascal St-Onge, Chantal Richer, Daniel Sinnett
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL) accounts for 25% of pediatric cancers and is one of the leading causes of disease-related death in children. Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in cALL etiology, progression, and treatment response, little is known about their exact functional role. We had previously sequenced the whole transcriptome of 56 cALL patients and identified lncRNA transcripts specifically silenced in tumoral cells. Here we investigated the impact of restoring the expression of three of these (RP11-624C23...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092399/arecoline-n-oxide-upregulates-caspase-8-expression-in-oral-hyperplastic-lesions-of-mice
#5
Ying-Chin Ko, Pei-Ying Chang, Tzer-Min Kuo, Po-Ku Chen, You-Zhe Lin, Chun-Hung Hua, Yuan-Chien Chen
Areca nut is strongly associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) occurrence. Arecoline N-oxide (ANO), a metabolite of the areca alkaloid arecoline, exhibits an oral fibrotic effect in NOD/SCID mice. Caspase-8, a cysteine protease encoded by the CASP8 gene, is a central mediator in extrinsic apoptotic pathway via death receptors. Deregulation of caspase-8 in OSCC has been reported. This study investigates the regulation of caspase-8 in ANO-induced oral squamous epithelial hyperplasia which represents the initial highly-proliferative stage of oral carcinogenesis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077523/heterochromatin-and-dna-damage-repair-use-different-histone-variants-and-relax
#6
Zdravko J Lorković, Frédéric Berger
Repair of damaged DNA requires the activation of kinases, which in turn phosphorylate diverse proteins including histone H2A.X, an event conserved from yeast to human. By combining genetics, biochemical, and cytological approaches, we recently reported that, in addition to H2A.X, phosphorylation of histone variant H2A.W.7 is required for DNA damage response in Arabidopsis. This work provides direct evidence for the functional diversification of plant-specific H2A.W histone variants, which are tightly associated with heterochromatin...
October 30, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065794/prolonged-exposure-of-resveratrol-induces-reactive-superoxide-species-independent-apoptosis-in-murine-prostate-cells
#7
Sanjay Kumar, James Stokes, Udai P Singh, Karyn Scissum-Gunn, Rajesh Singh, Upender Manne, Manoj K Mishra
Nitric oxide, a signaling molecule, inhibits mitochondrial respiration by binding with cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in elevated production of reactive superoxide species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen) in the mitochondria and increased susceptibility to cell death. Generation of mitochondrial superoxide species can be suppressed by natural compounds such as resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol found in the skin of red fruits. In various cancer cells, resveratrol shows anti-oxidant and cancer preventive properties...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034626/-sequence-analysis-and-expression-patterns-of-histone-h2a-variants-in-phytophthora-infestans
#8
Xiaowen Wang, Liyun Guo
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is packaged inside the nucleus together with histones to form nucleosomes. Each histone molecule contains two of each core histone subunits H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Among core histones, the H2A family is of great interest due to the high diversity of specialized variants. These variants have shown important role in critical cellular processes. Epigenetic mechanism in oomycetes is barely known. Phytophthora infestans is a severe pathogen and a model species in oomycetes. In this study, we studied the sequence and expression pattern of H2A variants of P...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993908/ros-generation-and-jnk-activation-contribute-to-4-methoxy-tempo-induced-cytotoxicity-autophagy-and-dna-damage-in-hepg2-cells
#9
Zhuhong Zhang, Zhen Ren, Si Chen, Xiaoqing Guo, Fang Liu, Lei Guo, Nan Mei
4-Methoxy-TEMPO, a derivative of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), is a stable nitroxide radical and is generally used in organic and pharmaceutical syntheses for the oxidation of alcohols. Previously, we reported the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in TEMPO-induced apoptosis in mouse L5178Y cells. In this study, we investigated 4-methoxy-TEMPO induced toxicity in human HepG2 hepatoma cells and its underlying mechanisms. Treatments with 4-methoxy-TEMPO (0...
October 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986581/nucleosome-stability-measured-in-situ-by-automated-quantitative-imaging
#10
László Imre, Zoltán Simándi, Attila Horváth, György Fenyőfalvi, Péter Nánási, Erfaneh Firouzi Niaki, Éva Hegedüs, Zsolt Bacsó, Urbain Weyemi, Rebekka Mauser, Juan Ausio, Albert Jeltsch, William Bonner, László Nagy, Hiroshi Kimura, Gábor Szabó
Current approaches have limitations in providing insight into the functional properties of particular nucleosomes in their native molecular environment. Here we describe a simple and powerful method involving elution of histones using intercalators or salt, to assess stability features dependent on DNA superhelicity and relying mainly on electrostatic interactions, respectively, and measurement of the fraction of histones remaining chromatin-bound in the individual nuclei using histone type- or posttranslational modification- (PTM-) specific antibodies and automated, quantitative imaging...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962138/radioresistance-of-chordoma-cells-is-associated-with-the-atm-atr-pathway-in-which-rad51-serves-as-an-important-downstream-effector
#11
Chao Zhang, Bing Wang, Lei Li, Yawei Li, Pengzhi Li, Guohua Lv
Surgery followed by radiotherapy is the standard treatment for chordomas, which are a rare but low-grade type of bone cancer arising from remnants of the embryonic notochord. However, disease recurrence following radiotherapy is common, most likely due to endogenous DNA repair mechanisms that promote cell survival upon radiation strikes. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated/ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATM/ATR)-mediated pathway has a critical role in DNA repair mechanisms; however, it has rarely been investigated in chordomas...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947664/polycomb-complexes-in-x-chromosome-inactivation
#12
REVIEW
Neil Brockdorff
Identifying the critical RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that elicit Xist mediated silencing has been a key goal in X inactivation research. Early studies implicated the Polycomb proteins, a family of factors linked to one of two major multiprotein complexes, PRC1 and PRC2 (Wang 2001 Nat. Genet.28, 371-375 (doi:10.1038/ng574); Silva 2003 Dev. Cell4, 481-495 (doi:10.1016/S1534-5807(03)00068-6); de Napoles 2004 Dev. Cell7, 663-676 (doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2004.10.005); Plath 2003 Science300, 131-135 (doi:10.1126/science...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936177/withaferin-a-induces-oxidative-stress-mediated-apoptosis-and-dna-damage-in-oral-cancer-cells
#13
Hsueh-Wei Chang, Ruei-Nian Li, Hui-Ru Wang, Jing-Ru Liu, Jen-Yang Tang, Hurng-Wern Huang, Yu-Hsuan Chan, Ching-Yu Yen
Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898261/aged-blood-factors-decrease-cellular-responses-associated-with-delayed-gingival-wound-repair
#14
María Paz Saldías, Christian Fernández, Alejandra Morgan, Catalina Díaz, Diego Morales, Fabián Jaña, Alvaro Gómez, Alonso Silva, Fernanda Briceño, Alejandro Oyarzún, Felipe Maldonado, Oscar Cerda, Patricio C Smith, Mónica Cáceres
Aging is a gradual biological process characterized by a decrease in cell and organism functions. Gingival wound healing is one of the impaired processes found in old rats. Here, we studied the in vivo wound healing process using a gingival repair rat model and an in vitro model using human gingival fibroblast for cellular responses associated to wound healing. To do that, we evaluated cell proliferation of both epithelial and connective tissue cells in gingival wounds and found decreased of Ki67 nuclear staining in old rats when compared to their young counterparts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894150/melatonin-enhances-the-developmental-competence-of-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-by-preventing-dna-damage-induced-by-oxidative-stress
#15
Shuang Liang, Yong-Xun Jin, Bao Yuan, Jia-Bao Zhang, Nam-Hyung Kim
Melatonin has antioxidant and scavenger effects in the cellular antioxidant system. This research investigated the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of melatonin action in porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. The results suggested that the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos was considerably enhanced after melatonin treatment. In addition, melatonin attenuated the increase in reactive oxygen species levels induced by oxidative stress, the decrease in glutathione levels, and the mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871473/role-of-peroxiredoxin-2-in-the-protection-against-ferrous-sulfate-induced-oxidative-and-inflammatory-injury-in-pc12-cells
#16
Wenzhe Xu, Feng Li, Zhenkuan Xu, Bin Sun, Jingwei Cao, Yuguang Liu
Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2) is a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme in mammalian brain. Although a protective role of Prdx2 has been established in cerebral ischemia and several neurodegenerative diseases, its contribution against iron-induced neurocytotoxicity still remains to be determined. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Prdx2 on iron-induced cytotoxicity using an in vitro model in which PC12 cells are exposed to ferrous sulfate (FS). The FS treatment increased Prdx2 expression, and promoted lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell apoptosis in PC12 cells, accompanied by the increase in the Bax/Bcl2 ratio, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 cleavage...
September 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867704/evaluation-of-retinal-function-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-by-using-the-electroretinography-and-immunohistochemistry-methods
#17
Noriko Hiramatsu, Saori Deguchi, Chiaki Yoshioka, Hiroko Otake, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriaki Nagai
Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ rat) was used in many studies for the diabetic mellitus. In this study, we demonstrated whether the electroretinograms (ERG) was changed in the retina of STZ rats. In addition, we investigated the histopathological alteration in the retina of STZ rats by using the immunological method. The 100 mg/kg of STZ was injected continuously for 2 d (100 mg/kg×2). The insulin level was decreased, and the glucose level was enhanced 14 d after the injection of STZ. Moreover, the levels of a-wave, b-wave and OP amplitude were decreased in the rat at 14 d after the injection of STZ...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854417/effects-of-blue-light-emitting-diode-irradiation-on-the-proliferation-apoptosis-and-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Ye Yuan, Gege Yan, Rui Gong, Lai Zhang, Tianyi Liu, Chao Feng, Weijie Du, Ying Wang, Fan Yang, Yuan Li, Shuyuan Guo, Fengzhi Ding, Wenya Ma, Elina Idiiatullina, Valentin Pavlov, Zhenbo Han, Benzhi Cai, Lei Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been proven to affect the growth of several types of cells. The effects of blue LEDs have not been tested on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), which are important for cell-based therapy in various medical fields. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of blue LED on the proliferation, apoptosis and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. METHODS: BMSCs were irradiated with a blue LED light at 470 nm for 1 min, 5 min, 10 min, 30 min and 60 min or not irradiated...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835017/cariporide-enhances-the-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-acid-tolerable-malignant-mesothelioma-h-2452-cells
#19
Yoon-Jin Lee, Jin-Ho Bae, Soo-A Kim, Sung-Ho Kim, Kee-Min Woo, Hae-Seon Nam, Moon-Kyun Cho, Sang-Han Lee
The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger is responsible for maintaining the acidic tumor microenvironment through its promotion of the reabsorption of extracellular Na(+) and the extrusion of intracellular H(+). The resultant increase in the extracellular acidity contributes to the chemoresistance of malignant tumors. In this study, the chemosensitizing effects of cariporide, a potent Na(+)/H(+)-exchange inhibitor, were evaluated in human malignant mesothelioma H-2452 cells preadapted with lactic acid. A higher basal level of phosphorylated (p)-AKT protein was found in the acid-tolerable H-2452AcT cells compared with their parental acid-sensitive H-2452 cells...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830012/early-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-inflammation-resulting-from-subcutaneous-injection-of-sulfur-mustard-into-mice
#20
Xiaorui Zhang, Yizhou Mei, Tongxing Wang, Feng Liu, Ning Jiang, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
Oxidative stress, DNA damage repair, and inflammation are three important reactions of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. But molecular related chronological events in the earlier stage of SM exposure model are still unclear. In the research, reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by using flow cytometry. Cytokines were tested in Luminex method. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and glutathione (GSH) activity or levels in serum were determined by commercially available kits...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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