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Diana Jose, N Lekshmi, A K Goel, R Ajay Kumar, Sabu Thomas
Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of the waterborne disease cholera, still threatens a large proportion of world's population. The role of biofilm formation in V. cholerae pathogenesis is well established, as it provides the bacterium enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial agents and increased transmission. In the present study, four medicinal plants used in traditional medicines with antidiarrheal properties were evaluated for its antibiofilm activity. Methanol extracts of these plants (Centella asiatica, Elephantopus scaber, Camellia sinensis, and Holarrhena antidysenterica) showed promising antibiofilm activity against V...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Wenjun Jiang, Baochang Zhang, Chuyao Fan, Min Wang, Jiaxing Wang, Qiang Deng, Xianyu Liu, Ji Chen, Jishen Zheng, Lei Liu, Ting F Zhu
The construction of mirror-image biological systems may open the next frontier for biomedical technology development and discovery. Here we have designed and chemically synthesized a mutant version of the thermostable Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) consisting of d-amino acids. With a total peptide length of 358 amino acid residues, it is the largest chemically synthesized d-amino acid protein reported to date. We show that the d-polymerase is able to amplify a 120-bp l-DNA sequence coding for the Escherichia coli 5S ribosomal RNA gene rrfB by mirror-image polymerase chain reaction, and that both the natural and mirror-image systems operate with strict chiral specificity...
2017: Cell Discovery
Évilin G DE Marco, Karina Heck, Emerson T Martos, Sueli T VAN DER Sand
During composting processes, the degradation of organic waste is accomplished and driven by a succession of microbial populations exhibiting a broad range of functional competencies. A total of 183 bacteria, isolated from a composting process, were evaluated for cellulase activity at different temperatures (37, 50, 60, and 70°C) and pH values. Out of the 22 isolates that showed activity, isolate 380 showed the highest cellulase activity. Its ability to produce cellulase was evaluated in culture medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, wheat straw, and rice husk...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Min Jiang, Lujia Zhang, Fengqing Wang, Jie Zhang, Guosong Liu, Bei Gao, Dongzhi Wei
Recently, a magnetic protein was discovered, and a multimeric magnetosensing complex was validated, which may form the basis of magnetoreception. In this study, the magnetic protein was firstly used in biotechnology application, and a novel convenient one-step purification and immobilization method was established. A universal vector and three linker patterns were developed for fusion expression of magnetic protein and target protein. The magnetic protein was absorbed by iron beads, followed by target protein aggregation, purification, and immobilization...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yongli Shi, Jintao Xue, Liyun Jia, Qian Du, Jie Niu, Dongyang Zhang
The main purpose of present study was to develop novel chitosan-modified polylactic-co-glycolicacid nanoparticles (CS@PLGA NPs) for improving the bio-availability of tolbutamide (TOL). The TOL-loaded CS@PLGA NPs (TOL-CS@PLGA NPs) were fabricated with the solvent evaporation method. The cargo-free CS@PLGA NPs showed a diameter of 228.3±2.5nm monitored with a laser light particlesizer, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) photographs revealed their "core-shell" structures. The Zeta potential of the original PLGA NPs and the cargo-free CS@PLGA NPs was measured to be -20...
October 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Daria Krefft, Aliaksei Papkov, Agnieszka Zylicz-Stachula, Piotr M Skowron
Obtaining thermostable enzymes (thermozymes) is an important aspect of biotechnology. As thermophiles have adapted their genomes to high temperatures, their cloned genes' expression in mesophiles is problematic. This is mainly due to their high GC content, which leads to the formation of unfavorable secondary mRNA structures and codon usage in Escherichia coli (E. coli). RM.TthHB27I is a member of a family of bifunctional thermozymes, containing a restriction endonuclease (REase) and a methyltransferase (MTase) in a single polypeptide...
2017: PloS One
Feng Han, Run-Run Gu, Xiao-Sheng Shen, Yuan-Ge Chen, Liang-Liang Tian, Wei-Feng Zhou, You-Qiong Cai
This study was conducted to monitor the densities of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 300 samples of nine shellfish species harvested from the coasts of the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (N 23° to 34°, E 116° to 124°), People's Republic of China, between May and October 2015. Total V. parahaemolyticus densities were measured, and V. parahaemolyticus isolates were biochemically identified with probes for the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) and the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin gene (trh)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Samuel T Carrell, Zhenzhi Tang, Sabine Mohr, Alan M Lambowitz, Charles A Thornton
Cellular accumulation of repetitive RNA occurs in several dominantly-inherited genetic disorders. Expanded CUG, CCUG or GGGGCC repeats are expressed in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2), or familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively. Expanded repeat RNAs (ER-RNAs) exert a toxic gain-of-function and are prime therapeutic targets in these diseases. However, efforts to quantify ER-RNA levels or monitor knockdown are confounded by stable structure and heterogeneity of the ER-RNA tract and background signal from non-expanded repeats...
October 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Valentina Tosato, Nicole West, Jan Zrimec, Dmitri V Nikitin, Giannino Del Sal, Roberto Marano, Michael Breitenbach, Carlo V Bruschi
In mammalian organisms liquid tumors such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are related to spontaneous chromosomal translocations ensuing in gene fusions. We previously developed a system named bridge-induced translocation (BIT) that allows linking together two different chromosomes exploiting the strong endogenous homologous recombination system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The BIT system generates a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and severe aberrant phenotypes reminiscent of a cancerogenic transformation...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
Qin Li, Baoguo Sun, Xiuting Li, Ke Xiong, Youqiang Xu, Ran Yang, Jie Hou, Chao Teng
A GH10 xylanase Srxyn10 from Streptomyce rochei L10904, and its truncated derivative, Srxyn10M, were investigated. Both displayed great salt-tolerant ability, retaining more than 95% and 91% activity after incubation at 37°C for 1h in 3.0M and 5.0M NaCl, respectively. They exhibited a special hydrolytic property of forming xylobiose as the major product and produced fewer xylose compounds when combined with a reported xylanase while digesting corncob xylans. The mutant, Srxyn10M, was constructed from Srxyn10 by deleting the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xiaofeng Ban, Yiting Liu, Yuzhu Zhang, Zhengbiao Gu, Caiming Li, Li Cheng, Yan Hong, Abhishek S Dhoble, Zhaofeng Li
Thermophilic proteins are useful for the detailed investigation of thermostability because they function efficiently at high temperatures. Comparison of the amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of mesophilic and thermophilic 1,4-α-glucan branching enzymes (GBEs) shows that the amino acid sequence of the last 26 residues at the C-terminal end of the GBE from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius STB02 (GBEGt, GenBank accession no. KJ660983) are not conserved, and that their 3-dimensional structure is flexible...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rezvan Shaddel, Javad Hesari, Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi, Hamed Hamishehkar, Bahram Fathi-Achachlouei, Qingrong Huang
Protein-polysaccharide interactions offer opportunities for designing the new functional foods with applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, we microencapsulated black raspberry water extracts by double emulsion technique prior to complex coacervation using gelatin and gum Arabic to diminish the instability of their anthocyanins (ANCs) as water soluble compounds, particularly under harsh processing and storage conditions. Subsequently, optical microscopy, moisture, hygroscopicity, solubility, particle size, loading capacity, zeta potential, color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C, H° and TCD), stability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal behavior were evaluated...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Muthu Amala, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The present study reports the purification of novel immune molecule β-1, 3 glucan binding protein from the heamolymph of the Indian white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus (Fiβ-GBP). The purified Fiβ-GBP had 95kDa molecular weight in SDS-PAGE analysis. MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis revealed that the purified Fiβ-GBP showed similarity to various crustacean proteins; 48 and 46% similarity was observed for β-1, 3 glucan binding protein of Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis, with MOWSE score of 3...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
Lijuan Ma, Qing Ma, Rui Cai, Zhiyou Zong, Liping Du, Gaojie Guo, Yingying Zhang, Dongguang Xiao
BACKGROUND: β-mannanase is a key enzyme for hydrolyzing mannan, a major composition of hemicellulose which is the second most abundant polysaccharides in nature. Different structural domains greatly affect its biochemical characters and catalytic efficiency. But the effects of linker and CBM on β-mannanase from Trichoderma reesei (Man1) have not yet been fully described. This study aimed to elucidate the influence of different domains on expression efficiency, biochemical characteristics and hemicellulosic deconstruction of Man1...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zhangcai Luo, Jing Miao, Wei Luo, Guoying Li, Yao Du, Xiaobin Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore an efficient use of crude glycerol for the production of a highly thermostable β-mannanase (ReTMan26) by Pichia pastoris X33. RESULTS: Cell growth was significantly inhibited by 4 and 6% (w/v) crude glycerol in 250 ml shake-flasks and in 5 l bioreactor batch cultures, respectively, but not affected by pure glycerol at the same concentrations. For further study, the impact of various impurities in crude glycerol on the cell growth of, and ReTMan26 production by, Pichia pastoris was investigated...
October 12, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Stephanie Longet, Vincenzo Aversa, Daire O'Donnell, Joshua Tobias, Monica Rosa, Jan Holmgren, Ivan S Coulter, Ed C Lavelle
Oral vaccines present an attractive alternative to injectable vaccines for enteric diseases due to ease of delivery and the induction of intestinal immunity at the site of infection. However, susceptibility to gastrointestinal proteolysis, limited transepithelial uptake and a lack of clinically acceptable adjuvants present significant challenges. A further challenge to mass vaccination in developing countries is the very expensive requirement to maintain the cold chain. We recently described the effectiveness of a Single Multiple Pill(®) (SmPill(®)) adjuvanted capsule approach to enhance the effectiveness of a candidate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) oral vaccine...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Zoltán-István Szabó, Mohammadhassan Foroughbakhshfasaei, Béla Noszál, Gergő Tóth
Enantioseparation of the antidiarrheal drug, racecadotril, was investigated by liquid chromatography using polysaccharide-type chiral stationary phases in polar organic mode. The enantiodiscrimininating properties of 4 different chiral columns (Chiralpak AD, Chiralcel OD, Chiralpak AS, Chiralcel OJ) with 5 different solvents (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at 5 different temperatures (5-40 °C) were investigated. Apart from Chiralpak AS column the other 3 columns showed significant enantioseparation capabilities...
October 11, 2017: Chirality
Matthew Merski, Cátia Moreira, Rui Mv Abreu, Maria João Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, L Miguel Martins, Pedro José Barbosa Pereira, Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro
HtrA2 (high-temperature requirement 2) is a human mitochondrial protease that has a role in apoptosis and Parkinson's disease. The structure of HtrA2 with an intact catalytic triad was determined, revealing a conformational change in the active site loops, involving mainly the regulatory LD loop, which resulted in burial of the catalytic serine relative to the previously reported structure of the proteolytically inactive mutant. Mutations in the loops surrounding the active site that significantly restricted their mobility, reduced proteolytic activity both in vitro and in cells, suggesting that regulation of HtrA2 activity cannot be explained by a simple transition to an activated conformational state with enhanced active site accessibility...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Raza Ashraf, Naeem Rashid, Tamotsu Kanai, Tadayuki Imanaka, Muhammad Akhtar
Genome sequence of Pyrobaculum calidifontis, a hyperthermophilic archaeon, harbors three open-reading frames annotated as alcohol dehydrogenases. One of them, Pcal_1311, does not display a significantly high homology with any of the characterized alcohol dehydrogenases. Highest homology of 38% was found with the characterized counterpart from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. To examine the biochemical properties of Pcal_1311, we have cloned and functionally expressed the gene in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant Pcal_1311 catalyzed the NAD(H)-dependent oxidation of various alcohols and reduction of aldehydes, with a marked preference for substrates with functional group at the terminal carbon...
October 11, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Thiet Van Nguyen, A V Osipov
BACKGROUND: Ribonuclease (RNase) is one of the few toxic proteins that are present constantly in snake venoms of all types. However, to date this RNase is still poorly studied in comparison not only with other toxic proteins of snake venom, but also with the enzymes of RNase group. The objective of this paper was to investigate some properties of RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra Naja atra. METHODS: Kinetic methods and gel filtration chromatography were used to investigate RNase from venom of Vietnam cobra...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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