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Christoph Loderer, David Wagner, Frances Morgenstern, Antje Spieß, Marion B Ansorge-Schumacher
AIMS: The purpose of the study was to demonstrate feasibility of the Conserved Domains Database (CDD) for identification of novel biocatalysts with desirable properties from a class of well-characterized biocatalysts. METHODS AND RESULTS: The thermostable ADH from Sulfolobus solfataricus with a broad substrate range was applied as a template for the search for novel thermostable ADHs via Conserved Domains Database. From the resulting hits, a putative ADH gene from the thermophilic organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus was cloned and expressed in E...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Paula Higasi, Mariana Ortiz de Godoy, Rolf A Prade, Igor Polikarpov
Cellobiohydrolases hydrolyze cellulose, a linear polymer with glucose monomers linked exclusively by β-1,4 glycosidic linkages. The widespread hydrogen bonding network tethers individual cellulose polymers forming crystalline cellulose, which prevent the access of hydrolytic enzymes and water molecules. The most abundant enzyme secreted by Myceliophthora thermophila M77 in response to the presence of biomass is the cellobiohydrolase MtCel7A, which is composed by a GH7-catalytic domain (CD), a linker and a CBM1-type carbohydrate binding module...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
Mingnan Qu, James A Bunce, Richard C Sicher, Xiaocen Zhu, Bo Gao, Genyun Chen
Detached leaves at top canopy structures always experience higher solar irradiance and leaf temperature under natural conditions. The ability of tolerance to high temperature represents thermotolerance potential of whole-plants, but was less of concern. In this study, we used a heat-tolerant (B76) and a heat-susceptible (B106) maize inbred line to assess the possible mitigation of sudden heat shock (SHS) effects on photosynthesis (PN) and C4 assimilation pathway by elevated [CO2]. Two maize lines were grown in field-based open top chambers (OTCs) at ambient and elevated (+180 ppm) [CO2]...
2017: PloS One
Domenica Farci, Chavdar Slavov, Dario Piano
Deinococcus radiodurans is well known for its unusual resistance to different environmental stresses. Recently, we have described a novel complex composed of the surface (S)-layer protein DR_2577 and the carotenoid deinoxanthin. We also showed a role of this complex in the UV resistance under desiccation. Both these properties, UV and desiccation resistance, suggest a selective pressure generated by Sun irradiation. In order to confirm this hypothesis we checked whether this S-layer Deinoxanthin Binding Complex (SDBC) has features of thermo-resistance, a property also expected in proteins evolved under solar irradiative pressure...
December 8, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Sebastian Nagelmüller, Erika Hiltbrunner, Christian Körner
Plant growth in cold climates is not limited by carbon assimilation (source activity) but rather by reduced carbon investment into new tissues (sink limitation). It has been hypothesized that all cold-adapted plants face similar growth constraints at low temperature mainly associated with the formation of new tissues. To explore the thermal limitation of plant tissue formation, we studied root growth and anatomical root tissue characteristics in four cold-adapted alpine species (Ranunculus glacialis, Rumex alpinus, Tussilago farfara, Poa alpina), grown in thermostated soils with a vertical temperature gradient approaching 1 °C...
November 2017: AoB Plants
Aleksandra Woznicka-Misaila, Céline Juillan-Binard, Delphine Baud, Eva Pebay-Peyroula, Stéphanie Ravaud
Mitochondrial Carriers (MCs) are responsible for fluent traffic of a variety of compounds that need to be shuttled via mitochondrial inner membranes to maintain cell metabolism. The ADP/ATP Carriers (AACs) are responsible for the import of ADP inside the mitochondria and the export of newly synthesized ATP. In human, four different AACs isoforms are described which are expressed in tissue-specific manner. They are involved in different genetic diseases and play a role in cancerogenesis. Up to now only the structures of the bovine (isoform 1) and yeast (isoforms 2 and 3) AAC have been determined in one particular conformation, obtained in complex with the CATR inhibitor...
December 4, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Lothar Stitz, Annette Vogel, Margit Schnee, Daniel Voss, Susanne Rauch, Thorsten Mutzke, Thomas Ketterer, Thomas Kramps, Benjamin Petsch
Although effective rabies virus vaccines have been existing for decades, each year, rabies virus infections still cause around 50.000 fatalities worldwide. Most of these cases occur in developing countries, where these vaccines are not available. The reasons for this are the prohibitive high costs of cell culture or egg grown rabies virus vaccines and the lack of a functional cold chain in many regions in which rabies virus is endemic. Here, we describe the excellent temperature resistance of a non-replicating mRNA based rabies virus vaccine encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G)...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zheng Zhou, Min Li, Jian-He Xu, Zhi-Jun Zhang
Nitrile reductase is considered as a promising and environmentally benign nitrile-reducing biocatalyst to replace traditional metal catalysts. Unfortunately, the catalytic efficiencies of nitrile reductases reported so far are very low. To date, any attempts by protein engineering to increase the catalytic activity of nitrile reductase have failed. In this work, we successfully increased the specific activity of a nitrile reductase from Pectobacterium carotovorum from 354 U·gprot-1 to 526 U·gprot-1 by engineering the substrate binding pocket, meanwhile the thermostability was also improved (ca...
December 7, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Jingwei Wang, Rong Zheng, Huan Chen, Huimei Yao, Liyu Yan, Jie Wei, Zhenghuan Lin, Qidan Ling
Maleimide and benzene are employed as a dendron and a core, respectively, to construct two series of non-conjugate branched oligomers (B3G1 and B1G2) based on diarylmaleimide fluorophores by an alkylation reaction. Surface aryl groups are changed to tune the emissive color of branched oligomers from blue (λem = 480 nm) to red (λem = 651 nm), realizing full-color emission. The investigation on the photophysical properties of the oligomers indicates that they display intense emission in both solution and solid films, due to the suppression of intramolecular rotation and intermolecular interaction...
December 7, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Roman Brunecky, Markus Alahuhta, Deanne W Sammond, Qi Xu, Mo Chen, David B Wilson, John W Brady, Michael E Himmel, Yannick J Bomble, Vladimir V Lunin
Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 48 is an understudied and increasingly important exoglucanase family found in the majority of bacterial cellulase systems. Moreover, many thermophilic enzyme systems contain GH48 enzymes. Deletion of GH48 enzymes in these microorganisms results in drastic reduction in biomass deconstruction. Surprisingly, given their importance for these microorganisms, GH48s have intrinsically low cellulolytic activity but even in low ratios synergize greatly with GH9 endoglucanases. In this study, we explore the structural and enzymatic diversity of these enzymes across a wide range of temperature optima...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Somayeh Pouyanfard, Gloria Spagnoli, Lorenzo Bulli, Kathrin Balz, Fan Yang, Caroline Odenwald, Hanna Seitz, Filipe C Mariz, Angelo Bolchi, Simone Ottonello, Martin Müller
The amino terminus of the human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2 contains a major cross-neutralization epitope which provides the basis for the development of a broadly protecting HPV vaccine. Wide range of protection against different HPV types would eliminate one of the major drawbacks of the commercial, L1 based prophylactic vaccines. Previously, we have reported that insertion of the L2 epitope into a scaffold composed of bacterial thioredoxin protein generates a potent antigen inducing comprehensive protection against different animal and human papillomaviruses...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
Angela K Berger, Hong Yi, Daniel B Kearns, Bernardo A Mainou
Enteric viruses encounter diverse environments as they migrate through the gastrointestinal tract to infect their hosts. The interaction of eukaryotic viruses with members of the host microbiota can greatly impact various aspects of virus biology, including the efficiency with which viruses can infect their hosts. Mammalian orthoreovirus, a human enteric virus that infects most humans during childhood, is negatively affected by antibiotic treatment prior to infection. However, it is not known how components of the host microbiota affect reovirus infectivity...
December 6, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Yujuan Han, Peixin Gao, Wengong Yu, Xinzhi Lu
In Table 1 as published, some of the data were wrong. The corrected Table 1 is shown below.
December 5, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Xiaodong Zhu, Yu Liu, Ningwen Dong, Zhao Li
Leuco dyes are widely used as functional materials for their thermosensitive chromogenic nature. The influences of thermochromic compounds and impregnation processing conditions on thermochromic wood veneer properties were investigated in this paper. The thermochromic compounds included thermochromic dye (ODB-2), color developer (bisphenol A) and solvent (1-tetradecanol). To achieve the maximum color change, the optimum mixing ratio of ODB-2 to bisphenol A to 1-tetradecanol was 1:2:60. Juglans mandshurica veneers were ultrasonically impregnated with reversible thermochromic compound suspensions...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yujuan Han, Peixin Gao, Wengong Yu, Xinzhi Lu
In Table 1 as published, some of the data were wrong. The corrected Table 1 is shown here. In addition, according to the corrected Table 1, the sentence "the k cat /K m of CsnA-CBM5 was higher than that of WT by 143%" in the part of "The kinetic parameters and specific activity" in the Results part should be changed to "the k cat /K m of CsnA-CBM5 was higher than that of WT by 110%".
December 4, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Ayesha Siddiqui, Mustafa Kamal, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Mohsin Ali, Mansoor Ahmed
Bacillus licheniformis RM44 was isolated from hot spring near Karachi and screened for the production of extracellular amylase Amy RM44. Amy RM44 was purified to homogeneity on a single step by affinity chromatography using insoluble corn starch. The molecular weight of Amy RM44 was estimated to be 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis. Nine fold purification was achieved with the specific activity of 870 U/mg that provides the total yield of the enzyme up to 31%. Studies on purified AmyRM44 characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of enzyme was 100 ºC...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Miao Liu, Siqi Li, Yongzhen Xie, Shiru Jia, Ying Hou, Yang Zou, Cheng Zhong
Oxygen plays a key role during bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. In this study, the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb)-encoding gene vgb, which has been widely applied to improve cell survival during hypoxia, was heterologously expressed in G. xylinus via the pBla-VHb-122 plasmid. G. xylinus and G. xylinus-vgb + were statically cultured under hypoxic (10 and 15% oxygen tension in the gaseous phase), atmospheric (21%), and oxygen-enriched conditions (40 and 80%) to investigate the effect of oxygen on cell growth and BC production...
December 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Wen-Kang Huo, Ming-Qi Liu, Xiao-Yan Weng, Xiao-Pei Qi
The rice xylanase inhibitor gene, rixi, was cloned from rice genome. The open reading frame of rixi was 915bp and encoded 304 amino acids with the theoretical molecular mass of 33.9kDa. The rixi was inserted into the new-type expression vector pCold TF, and was high-level expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the recombinant rice xylanase inhibitor, namely reERIXI, was approximately 89.8kDa. The reERIXI exhibited significant inhibitory activities against several family GH11 xylanases...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dongdong Mu, Jiaojiao Lu, Chang Shu, Haowen Li, Xingjiang Li, Jing Cai, Shuizhong Luo, Peizhou Yang, Shaotong Jiang, Zhi Zheng
Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is an enzyme widely used in the food industry. Mutiple-site mutagenesis of Streptomyces mobaraensis transglutaminase was performed in Escherichia coli. According to enzymatic assay and thermostability study, among three penta-site MTG mutants (DM01-03), DM01 exhibited the highest enzymatic activity of 55.7 ± 1.4 U/mg and longest half-life at 50 °C (418.2 min) and 60 °C (24.8 min).
December 4, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kalpana Pandey, Birgit Ploier, Michael A Goren, Joshua Levitz, George Khelashvili, Anant K Menon
The G protein-coupled receptor opsin is a phospholipid scramblase that facilitates rapid transbilayer phospholipid exchange in liposomes. The mechanism by which opsin scrambles lipids is unknown. It has been proposed that lipid translocation may occur at protein-protein interfaces of opsin dimers. To test this possibility, we rationally engineered QUAD opsin by tryptophan substitution of four lipid-facing residues in transmembrane helix 4 (TM4) that is known to be important for dimerization. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of wild type and QUAD opsins combined with continuum modeling revealed that the tryptophan substitutions lower the energetically unfavorable residual hydrophobic mismatch between TM4 and the membrane, reducing the drive of QUAD opsin to dimerize...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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