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Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs). The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Mina Yasaki, Yasushi Hirano, Hiroyuki Uga, Kaoru Hanada, Tamaki Uehara-Ichiki, Takeshi Toda, Hiromitsu Furuya, Shin-Ichi Fuji
An isometric virus was isolated from a cultivated Adonis plant (A. ramosa). The purified virus particle is 28 nm in diameter and is composed of a single coat protein and a single RNA genome of 3,991 nucleotides. Sequence analysis showed that the virus is closely related to carnation mottle virus. The virus was used to mechanically infect healthy A. ramosa plants, resulting in mosaic and leaf curl symptoms; however, attempts to inoculate carnation plants did not result in infection. We propose the virus as a new carmovirus and have named it adonis mosaic virus (AdMV)...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Virology
Luisa Rubino, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Sergio Giannattasio
A universal feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the association with intracellular membranes. Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) replication in plants occurs in vesicles derived from the mitochondrial outer membrane. The product encoded by CIRV ORF1, p36, is required for targeting the virus replication complex to the outer mitochondrial membrane both in plant and yeast cells. Here the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a model host to study the effect of CIRV p36 on cell survival and death...
September 13, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Vitaliy Kirillov, Tamara Stikhareva, Yerlan Suleimen, Mariya Serafimovich, Svetlana Kabanova, Bolat Mukanov
The aim of the study was to investigate volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Dianthus acicularis of the genus Dianthus of the family Caryophyllaceae grown wild in Northern Kazakhstan for the first time. D. acicularis is a typical Trans-Volga-Kazakhstani endemic. D. acicularis has high resistance to the bacterial wilt, a serious disease caused by Burkholderia caryophylli. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the specimens of the essential oils were analysed by the method of GC-MS. The main constituents of D...
July 28, 2016: Natural Product Research
Junjun Chang, Luyao Ma, Yuanyang Zhou, Shenghua Zhang, Weilu Wang
Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Shantala Hegde, Rose Dawn Bharath, Malla Bhaskara Rao, Karthik Shiva, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, Sanjib Sinha, Jamuna Rajeswaran, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects a range of cognitive functions and musical abilities. We report a 16-year-old boy diagnosed with drug-resistant right-medial TLE. He is a professional musician, trained in Carnatic classical music. Clinical, electrophysiological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography evaluation localized the seizure focus to the right medial temporal lobe. Patient underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluation and functional MRI (fMRI) for musical abilities prior to surgery...
July 1, 2016: Neurocase
Manu Pant
In tissue culture, high production cost of the products restricts their reach. Though tissue culture is a major strength in floriculture it is marred by pricing issues. Hence, we developed a complete regeneration low cost micropropagation protocol for an economically important floriculture crop, carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Successful regeneration of carnation from nodal explants on cost-efficient medium indicates that psyllium husk, sugar and RO water can effectively replace the conventional medium comprising agar, sucrose and distilled water...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Kousuke Seki
BACKGROUND: The development of a cultivar resistant to the two-spotted spider mite has provided both ecological and economic benefits to the production of cut flowers. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mites using an inbred population of carnations. RESULTS: In the resistant and susceptible plants selected from an inbred population, a difference was recognised in the thickness of the abaxial palisade tissue by microscopic examination of the damaged leaf...
October 2016: Pest Management Science
Chandni Jain, Hijas Mohamed, Ajith U Kumar
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise. In the present study speech perception in noise was measured pre- and post- short-term musical training. The musical training involved auditory perceptual training for raga identification of two Carnatic ragas. The training was given for eight sessions. A total of 18 normal hearing adults in the age range of 18-25 years participated in the study wherein group 1 consisted of ten individuals who underwent musical training and group 2 consisted of eight individuals who did not undergo any training...
January 21, 2015: Audiology Research
Xuhong Zhou, Xijun Mo, Min Gui, Xuewei Wu, Yalian Jiang, Lulin Ma, Ziming Shi, Ying Luo, Wenru Tang
In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1)...
December 2015: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Carlos Villacorta-Martín, Ana Belén Sánchez-García, Joan Villanova, Antonio Cano, Miranda van de Rhee, Jorn de Haan, Manuel Acosta, Paul Passarinho, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical step in vegetative propagation of most ornamental plants, such as carnation. AR formation from stem cuttings is usually divided into several stages according to physiological and metabolic markers. Auxin is often applied exogenously to promote the development of ARs on stem cuttings of difficult-to-root genotypes. RESULTS: By whole transcriptome sequencing, we identified the genes involved in AR formation in carnation cuttings and in response to exogenous auxin...
2015: BMC Genomics
Susie Davenport, Pascaline Le Lay, Juan Pablo Sanchez-Tamburrrino
Primary nitrogen assimilation in plants includes the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the chloroplasts by the enzyme nitrite reductase (NiR EC: or in the plastids of non-photosynthetic organs. Here we report on a study overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana NiR (AtNiR) gene in tobacco plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CERV - Carnation Etched Ring Virus). The aim was to overexpress AtNiR in an attempt to alter the level of residual nitrite in the leaf which can act as precursor to the formation of nitrosamines...
December 2015: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chun-Yan Wang, Qin-Fen Zhang, Yuan-Zhu Gao, Li Xie, Hong-Mei Li, Jian Hong, Chuan-Xi Zhang
Genome uncoating is a prerequisite for the successful infection of plant viruses in host plants. Thus far, little is known about the genome uncoating of the Carnation mottle virus (CarMV). Here, we obtained two reconstructions of CarMV at pH7 in the presence (Ca-pH7) and absence (EDTA-pH7) of calcium ions by Cryo-EM single particle analysis, which achieved 6.4 Å and 8 Å resolutions respectively. Our results showed that chelation of the calcium ions under EDTA-pH7 resulted in reduced interaction between the subunits near the center of the asymmetric unit but not overall size change of the viral particles, which indicated that the role of the calcium ions in CarMV was not predominantly for the structural preservation...
2015: Scientific Reports
Xue Li Wan, Qiao Zhou, Yuan Yuan Wang, Wen En Wang, Man Zhu Bao, Jun Wei Zhang
Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colors and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Virginia Birlanga, Joan Villanova, Antonio Cano, Emilio A Cano, Manuel Acosta, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez
Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting...
2015: PloS One
J Herrera, F Balao
Floral phenotypes are considered a product of pollinator-mediated selection, which also has the side effect of decreasing floral variation within species. Correlates of flower visibility and function were studied in a carnation species (Dianthus inoxianus), which has crepuscular anthesis and scent-based pollination by the hawkmoth Hyles livornica. We also assessed constancy of flower form in nature and in cultivation and, using fruit set as an estimate of plant relative fitness, tested whether the main pollinator exerted phenotypic selection on floral traits...
November 2015: Plant Biology
Yeonhwa Jo, Hoseong Choi, Won Kyong Cho
The Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a single positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Carmovirus. The major natural host for CarMV is the carnation. In this study, using transcriptome data, we provide for the first time a nearly complete genome sequence of CarMV infecting hop plants.
2015: Genome Announcements
Mirai Azuma, Reina Morimoto, Mana Hirose, Yasumasa Morita, Atsushi Hoshino, Shigeru Iida, Yoshimi Oshima, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Katsuhiro Shiratake
Production of novel transgenic floricultural crops with altered petal properties requires transgenes that confer a useful trait and petal-specific promoters. Several promoters have been shown to control transgenes in petals. However, all suffer from inherent drawbacks such as low petal specificity and restricted activity during the flowering stage. In addition, the promoters were not examined for their ability to confer petal-specific expression in a wide range of plant species. Here, we report the promoter of InMYB1 from Japanese morning glory as a novel petal-specific promoter for molecular breeding of floricultural crops...
January 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Radish Kumar Balasubramanium, Anuradha Shastry, Mausam Singh, Jayashree S Bhat
BACKGROUND: The cepstral measures are gaining attention in the voice analysis as it is reported to be strong predictor of voice impairments. As singer's voice is reported to be present with more harmonics, it can be hypothesized that there would be an increase in the value of cepstral parameters. Also, little is known about the cepstral characteristics of voices in Indian classical Carnatic singers; and hence, the present study was undertaken with an aim to characterize the singer's voice using cepstral measures...
November 2015: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Akemi Ohmiya, Masumi Hirashima, Masafumi Yagi, Koji Tanase, Chihiro Yamamizo
Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L...
2014: PloS One
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