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Antonio Cano, Ana Belén Sánchez-García, Alfonso Albacete, Rebeca González-Bayón, María Salud Justamante, Sergio Ibáñez, Manuel Acosta, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez
Commercial carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ) cultivars are vegetatively propagated from axillary stem cuttings through adventitious rooting; a process which is affected by complex interactions between nutrient and hormone levels and is strongly genotype-dependent. To deepen our understanding of the regulatory events controlling this process, we performed a comparative study of adventitious root (AR) formation in two carnation cultivars with contrasting rooting performance, "2101-02 MFR" and "2003 R 8", as well as in the reference cultivar "Master"...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Henry I Miller, Brenda Silva
The genetic engineering of plants over the past two decades has led to significant scientific, commercial and humanitarian successes, with more than 2.1 billion hectares cultivated worldwide. The vast majority of cultivation has been huge-scale commodity crops - corn, cotton, canola, soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa - while specialty crops such as fruits, nuts, vegetables and ornamental plants have been underrepresented. The commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) flowers has been especially neglected...
May 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi, Ryutaro Aida, Katsutomo Sasaki
Ornamental plants, like roses, carnations, and chrysanthemums, are economically important and are sold all over the world. In addition, numerous cut and garden flowers add colors to homes and gardens. Various strategies of plant breeding have been employed to improve traits of many ornamental plants. These approaches span from conventional techniques, such as crossbreeding and mutation breeding, to genetically modified plants. Recently, genome editing has become available as an efficient means for modifying traits in plant species...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ana Belén Sánchez-García, Sergio Ibáñez, Antonio Cano, Manuel Acosta, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez
Understanding the functional basis of auxin homeostasis requires knowledge about auxin biosynthesis, auxin transport and auxin catabolism genes, which is not always directly available despite the recent whole-genome sequencing of many plant species. Through sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analyses on a selection of 11 plant species with high-quality genome annotation, we identified the putative gene homologs involved in auxin biosynthesis, auxin catabolism and auxin transport pathways in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L...
2018: PloS One
Akane Totsuka, Emi Okamoto, Taira Miyahara, Takanobu Kouno, Emilio A Cano, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Aiko Watanabe, Keisuke Tasaki, Masahiro Nishihara, Yoshihiro Ozeki
In a previous study, two genes responsible for white flower phenotypes in carnation were identified. These genes encoded enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis, namely, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and showed reduced expression in the white flower phenotypes. Here, we identify another candidate gene for white phenotype in carnation flowers using an RNA-seq analysis followed by RT-PCR. This candidate gene encodes a transcriptional regulatory factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Naonobu Noda
Flower color is the most important trait in the breeding of ornamental plants. In the floriculture industry, however, bluish colored flowers of desirable plants have proved difficult to breed. Many ornamental plants with a high production volume, such as rose and chrysanthemum, lack the key genes for producing the blue delphinidin pigment or do not have an intracellular environment suitable for developing blue color. Recently, it has become possible to incorporate a blue flower color trait through progress in molecular biological analysis of pigment biosynthesis genes and genetic engineering...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Takashi Onozaki
Carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the main floricultural crops in Japan and worldwide. The vase life of cut ornamental flowers, including carnations, is important in determining their quality and consumers' preference. To improve the vase life of carnation flowers, my group started a breeding research program in 1992 using conventional cross-breeding techniques. We repeatedly crossed and selected promising offspring with long vase life for seven generations, from 1992 to 2008. In 2005, we developed two cultivars, 'Miracle Rouge' and 'Miracle Symphony', with genetically determined long vase lives of 17...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Xiaoni Zhang, Qijian Wang, Shaozong Yang, Shengnan Lin, Manzhu Bao, Mohammed Bendahmane, Quanshu Wu, Caiyun Wang, Xiaopeng Fu
Dianthus is a large genus containing many species with high ornamental economic value. Extensive breeding strategies permitted an exploration of an improvement in the quality of cultivated carnation, particularly in flowers. However, little is known on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in carnation. Here, we report the identification and description of MADS-box genes in carnation ( DcaMADS ) with a focus on those involved in flower development and organ identity determination. In this study, 39 MADS-box genes were identified from the carnation genome and transcriptome by the phylogenetic analysis...
April 4, 2018: Genes
Carlos German Lemus-Minor, Carmen Cañizares-Nolasco, Maria D D García-Pedrajas, Encarnación Pérez-Artés
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1 (FodV1) was detected in isolate Fod 116 (Fod 116V+ ) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod), reaching such a high accumulation level that it was clearly visible after agarose gel electrophoresis of total DNA extracts. FodV1 consists of four double-stranded RNA segments, that correspond to a new mycovirus in the Chrysoviridae family. We obtained an isolate of Fod 116 (Fod 116V- ) with only a residual level of FodV1 RNA accumulation by single-conidia selection. Compared to the Fod 116V- , isolate Fod 116V+ showed significant phenotypic alterations in vegetative growth and virulence...
March 8, 2018: Phytopathology
Giovanni Scopece, Lucia Campese, Karl J Duffy, Salvatore Cozzolino
Plants involved in specialized pollinator interactions, such as nursery pollination, may experience trade-offs in their female fitness, as the larvae of their pollinators may also consume seeds produced by the flowers they pollinate. These interactions could potentially shift between mutualism and parasitism, depending on the presence and abundance of both the nursery pollinator and of other pollinators. We investigated the fitness trade-off in a Mediterranean plant ( Silene latifolia ), which has a specialist nocturnal nursery pollinator moth ( Hadena bicruris ) and is also visited by several diurnal pollinators...
February 2018: AoB Plants
D Lazzeri, P Pozzilli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Sowbiya Muneer, Hao Wei, Yoo Gyeong Park, Hai Kyoung Jeong, Byoung Ryong Jeong
The present study depicted the role of silicon in limiting the hyperhydricity in shoot cultures of carnation through proteomic analysis. Four-week-old healthy shoot cultures of carnation "Purple Beauty" were sub-cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium followed with four treatments, viz. control (-Si/-Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with no silicon treatment (-Si/+Hyperhydricity), hyperhydric with silicon treatment (+Si/+Hyperhydricity), and only silicon treated with no hyperhydricity (+Si/-Hyperhydricity)...
December 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Feng Wen, Yue Zhang, Xingyue Qian, Jianli Zhang, Rudan Hu, Xuemin Hu, Xin Wang, Junwu Zhu
Hierarchical nanostructures with heteroatom doping have been considered as an important component in electrode materials for advanced supercapacitors. Herein, with the aid of C, N, and S codoped Ni0.75 Co0.25 (CO3 )0.125 (OH)2 /C (NSH) with a hierarchical structure was synthesized through a facile one-step hydrothermal method. Notably, it is the first report on a carbon precursor as a structure inducer for designing a three-dimensional (3D) carnation-like hierarchical structure. Thanks to the carbon induction effect and the introduction of N/S dopants, the obtained NSH with a 3D architecture exhibits superior performances as electrode materials for supercapacitors...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Consuelo M Forero-Reyes, Angela M Alvarado-Fernández, Ana M Ceballos-Rojas, Lady C González-Carmona, Melva Y Linares-Linares, Rubiela Castañeda-Salazar, Adriana Pulido-Villamarín, Manuel E Góngora-Medina, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino, María X Rodríguez-Bocanegra
The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice...
January 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Da Y Park, Aung H Naing, Trinh N Ai, Jeung-Sul Han, In-Kyu Kang, Chang K Kim
We investigated the effects of sucrose and nano-silver (NAg) on extending the vase life of cut carnation flowers "Edun". Sucrose (pulse treatment) suppressed ethylene production by downregulating the genes that code for its biosynthesis. Relative to the control, however, sucrose significantly promoted xylem blockage on cut stem surfaces and reduced relative fresh weight, antioxidant activity, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene (DcCPi) expression. Consequently, the sucrose-treated flowers had shorter vase lives than the control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aung H Naing, Nay M Win, Jeung-Sul Han, Ki B Lim, Chang K Kim
We investigated the role of nano-silver (NAg) and the bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae in increasing the vase life of cut carnation flowers 'Omea.' NAg treatment extended vase life of the flowers by increasing relative fresh weight, antioxidant activities, and expression level of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene (DcCPi), and by suppressing bacterial blockage in stem segments, ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes and DcCP1 gene, compared with the control. Out of all the treatments, administration of 25 mg L(-1) NAg gave the best results for all the analyzed parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Aung Htay Naing, Kyoungsun Lee, Muthukrishnan Arun, Ki Byung Lim, Chang Kil Kim
BACKGROUND: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been previously shown to extend the vase life of various cut flowers; however, its positive effect on extending vase life of carnations has not been well documented. Moreover, the role of SNP in the mechanisms underlying determination of vase life of cut carnations has also not been well addressed. RESULTS: SNP increased vase life of Tico Viola carnations along with their relative fresh weight (RFW). Among the treatments, the flowers treated with 10 mg L-1 SNP had the longest vase life and maximum relative fresh weight (RFW)...
September 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Naonobu Noda, Satoshi Yoshioka, Sanae Kishimoto, Masayoshi Nakayama, Mitsuru Douzono, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ryutaro Aida
Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis...
July 2017: Science Advances
Shuai Han, Tao Chang, Haiping Zhao, Huanhuan Du, Shan Liu, Baoshuang Wu, Shenjun Qin
In this work, we present the fabrication of highly luminescent carbon dots (CDs) by a double passivation method with the assistance of Ca(OH)₂. In the reaction process, Ca(2+) protects the active functional groups from overconsumption during dehydration and carbonization, and the electron-withdrawing groups on the CD surface are converted to electron-donating groups by the hydroxyl ions. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yield of the CDs was found to increase with increasing Ca(OH)₂ content in the reaction process...
July 7, 2017: Nanomaterials
Hongliu An, Guanlin Tan, Guihong Xiong, Meirong Li, Shouguo Fang, Saif Ul Islam, Songbai Zhang, Fan Li
Two double stranded RNAs (dsRNA), likely representing the genome of a novel deltapartitivirus, provisionally named carnation cryptic virus 3 (CCV3), were recovered from Dianthus amurensis. The two dsRNAs were 1,573 (dsRNA1) and 1,561 (dsRNA2) bp in size, each containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 475- and 411-aa protein, respectively. The 475-aa protein contains a conserved RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain which shows significant homology to RdRps of established or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Deltapartitivirus...
September 2017: Archives of Virology
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