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Neurovascular complications

Andrea Veljkovic, Joshua Tennant, Chamnanni Rungprai, Kaniza Zahra Abbas, Phinit Phisitkul
BACKGROUND: Open calcaneal osteotomy using traditional methods is associated with complications such as sural nerve injury and potential wound healing problems. We hypothesized that by using novel minimally invasive techniques, these potential risks could be mitigated. This anatomic cadaveric study serves to assess the safety of percutaneous endoscopically assisted calcaneal osteotomy (PECO) compared to a traditional open osteotomy technique. METHODS: Anatomic safety of PECO was assessed using 8 fresh-frozen cadaver below-knee specimens...
October 20, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Cenk Özkan, Mehmet Ali Deveci, Mustafa Tekin, Ömer Sunkar Biçer, Kadir Gökçe, Mahir Gülşen
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed functional and radiographic outcomes of distraction osteogenesis treatment of post-traumatic elbow deformities in children. METHODS: Eight children were treated between 2008 and 2013 for post-traumatic elbow deformities using distraction osteogenesis. Mean age at time of operation was 10.9 years. Six patients had varus and 2 had valgus deformity. Magnitude of correction, fixator index, complications, carrying angle, and elbow range of motion were assessed...
October 17, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Andrea Becerra-Calixto, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular episode that generates a high incidence of death and physical and mental disabilities worldwide. Excitotoxicity, release of free radicals, and exacerbated immune response cause serious complications in motor and cognitive areas during both short and long time frames post-ischemia. CDK5 is a kinase that is widely involved in the functions of neurons and astrocytes, and its over-activation is implicated in neurodegenerative processes. In this study, we evaluated the brain parenchymal response to the transplantation of CDK5-knockdown astrocytes into the somatosensory cortex after ischemia in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Sangmi Lee, Menna Elaskandrany, Afruja Ahad, Brahim Chaqour
The retina is a complex neurovascular structure that conveys light/visual image through the optic nerve to the visual cortex of the brain. Neuronal and vascular activities in the retina are physically and functionally intertwined, and vascular alterations are consequential to the proper function of the entire visual system. In particular, alteration of the structure and barrier function of the retinal vasculature is commonly associated with the development of vasoproliferative ischemic retinopathy, a set of clinically well-defined chronic ocular microvascular complications causing blindness in all age groups...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Achmad Fauzi Kamal, Agus Waryudi, Zuhri Effendi, Evelina Kodrat
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of giant cell tumor (GCT) at atypical locations like bones of the feet are rare, seen in <1% of cases. GCT may have aggressive features, including cortical expansion or destruction with a soft-tissue component. Difficult diagnosis most often followed with complicated management and high recurrence rate remains a challenge that is rarely reported. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We presented a case of forty-six-year-old male patient with giant cell tumor of the right calcaneus Campanacci 3 with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC)...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Manuel Villanueva, Álvaro Iborra, Guillermo Rodríguez, Pablo Sanz-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Isolated gastrocnemius contracture is thought to lead to numerous conditions. Although many techniques have been described for gastrocnemius recession, potential anesthetic, cosmetic, and wound-related complications can lead to patient dissatisfaction. Open and endoscopic recession techniques require epidural anesthesia, lower limb ischemia, and stitches and may lead to damage of the sural nerve, which is not under the complete control of the surgeon at all stages of the procedure...
October 3, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Tejas Upasani, Abhinav Bhatnagar, Sonu Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Yad R Yadav, Vijay S Parihar, Mina Todorov, Yatin Kher, Ishwar D Chaurasia, Sonjjay Pande, Hemant Namdev
Hydrocephalus is one of the commonest complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). It can be purely obstructive, purely communicating, or due to combinations of obstruction in addition to defective absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) as an alternative to shunt procedures is an established treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus in TBM. ETV in TBM hydrocephalus can be technically very difficult, especially in acute stage of disease due to inflamed, thick, and opaque third ventricle floor...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
J Fan, B Jiang, F Yuan, S Z Li, J Q Zhou, J Mei, L M Cheng, G R Yu
Objective: To investigate the clinical character and treating strategy of extreme distal radial fractures. Methods: From June 2012 to May 2014, 12 patients who suffered from extreme distal radial fractures were treated in Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University. According to AO/OTA classification, there were 4 cases of type 23B1, 3 cases of 23B2, 3 cases of 23C1 and 2 cases of 23C3.When classified by morphological features, there were 4 of simple styloid process fracture, 3 of simple extreme distal radial fracture without articular surface involved, 3 of styloid process fracture combined with distal radial articular fracture, and 2 of articular surface splintered or collapse fracture...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
H-W Chen, J Pan, X-H Yi, Y-X Huang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with posteromedial tibial plateau fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) through a posteromedial approach. Thirty-six patients with posteromedial tibial plateau fracture underwent ORIF through a posteromedial approach and were retrospectively analyzed. Pre-operative X-ray pictures and CT images were -obtained. And there were 11 cases of posteromedial tibial plateau fracture and 25 cases of posteromedial and posterolateral tibial plateau fracture...
August 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
A J Stevenson, B Swartman, A T Bucknill
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous internal fixation of pelvic fractures is increasing in popularity with multiple new techniques reported. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to outline the imaging, indication, planning, equipment, surgical technique and complications of these methods. METHODS: A review of the literature is provided and the techniques for anterior and posterior pelvic stabilisation are discussed. RESULTS: High-quality preoperative CT scans are essential in planning for this technique...
September 22, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
A J Stevenson, B Swartman, A T Bucknill
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous internal fixation of pelvic fractures is increasing in popularity with multiple new techniques reported. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to outline the imaging, indication, planning, equipment, surgical technique and complications of these methods. METHODS: A review of the literature is provided and the techniques for anterior and posterior pelvic stabilization are discussed. RESULTS: High-quality preoperative CT scans are essential in planning for this technique...
October 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Raffael Liegl, Chatarina Löfqvist, Ann Hellström, Lois E H Smith
The retina is part of the central nervous system and both the retina as well as the brain can suffer from severe damage after very preterm birth. Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the major causes of blindness in these children and brain neuronal impairments including cognitive defects, cerebral palsy and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are also complications of very preterm birth. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) acts to promote proliferation, maturation, growth and survival of neural cells. Low levels of circulating IGF-1 are associated with ROP and defects in the IGF-1 gene are associated with CNS disorders including learning deficits and brain growth restriction...
September 17, 2016: Early Human Development
Raghav Gupta, Justin M Moore, Christoph J Griessenauer, Nimer Adeeb, Apar S Patel, Roy Youn, Karen Poliskey, Ajith J Thomas, Christopher S Ogilvy
INTRODUCTION: Flow diversion with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is currently adopted for treatment of a variety of intracranial aneurysms. The elevated risk of thromboembolic complications associated with the device necessitates the need for administration of antiplatelet agents. We sought to assess current dual antiplatelet therapy practices patterns and their associated costs, following PED placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online questionnaire assessing dual antiplatelet regimens following flow diversion for treatment of intracranial aneurysms was developed and disseminated to 80 neurosurgeons at major academic cerebrovascular centers...
September 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Daniel R Lueders, Jacob L Sellon, Jay Smith, Jonathan T Finnoff
BACKGROUND: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a common cause of exertional leg pain. It is commonly treated with a surgical fasciotomy, which has a surgical complication rate of up to 16% and takes approximately 6-12 weeks to return to preprocedure activity levels. Therefore, the development of a less invasive, effective outpatient intervention to treat CECS is desirable. OBJECTIVE: To describe and validate an ultrasound-guided (USG) fasciotomy technique for the anterior and lateral compartments of the lower limb in an unembalmed cadaveric model...
September 14, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Trevor Hardigan, Rebecca Ward, Adviye Ergul
The incidence of diabetes has more than doubled in the United States in the last 30 years and the global disease rate is projected to double by 2030. Cognitive impairment has been associated with diabetes, worsening quality of life in patients. The structural and functional interaction of neurons with the surrounding vasculature is critical for proper function of the central nervous system including domains involved in learning and memory. Thus, in this review we explore cognitive impairment in patients and experimental models, focusing on links to vascular dysfunction and structural changes...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Abhinitha Padavinangadi, Naveen Kumar, Mohandas Kg Rao, Satheesha B Nayak
Chondroepitrochlearis (CET) is an anomalous muscular slip that originates from the pectoralis major muscle and inserts into epicondyle of the humerus. The morphology of this variant form of pectoralis major can vary from slender to strong musculo-tendinous. In its course, it usually crosses the neurovascular structures of arm; their compression is a major complication that could be manifested by its persistence. In the present case, potentially anomalous CET muscle with the slender slip of origin, but strong tendinous insertion to the medial epicondyle of the humerus was found unilaterally...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Bryan G Beutel, Scott D Lifchez, Eitan Melamed
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular procedures are common and are trending toward endovascular interventions. With this increase in endovascular procedures, there is also increasing awareness of upper extremity morbidity resulting from treatment. METHODS: Articles indexed within PubMed between the years 1975 and 2015 that discussed such complications were reviewed. RESULTS: Percutaneous radial artery access can lead to nerve ischemia, especially in the setting of an incomplete arterial arch, whereas radial artery harvesting for bypass surgery more commonly causes frank tissue ischemia and radial neuropathy...
August 2016: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
Blaine T Manning, Rachel M Frank, Nathan G Wetters, Bernard R Bach, Aaron G Rosenberg, Brett R Levine
Knee-related complaints are among the most commonly encountered conditions by orthopaedic surgeons. Knee pathology varies widely and includes arthritis, deformities, fractures, infections, neuromuscular disorders, oncologic diseases, and soft-tissue injury. While nonoperative treatment modalities (activity modification, medications, injections, and physical therapy) are typically used as primary interventions, surgical treatment may ultimately become necessary. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most common open approaches to the knee, with an emphasis on surgically relevant anatomy for each approach...
September 2016: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
K Kilic, B Aktan, M Sedat-Sakat, A Kızıltunç, O Yoruk
Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction that occur during sleep which leads to cardiovascular, neurovascular and metabolic diseases. The mechanisms of complications in these patients are unclear. In this report, we aimed to determine the cause of oxidative imbalance in patients with OSAS and to evaluate the vascular endothelial dysfunction as a suspect for complications of the disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients diagnosed as moderate or severe OSAS (AHI > 15) by polysomnography and 50 healthy volunteers are included in the study...
February 15, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
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