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Meredith A Barrett, Olivier Humblet, Justine E Marcus, Kelly Henderson, Ted Smith, Nemr Eid, J Wesley Sublett, Andrew Renda, LaQuandra Nesbitt, David Van Sickle, David Stempel, James L Sublett
BACKGROUND: Asthma inflicts a significant health and economic burden in the United States. Self-management approaches to monitoring and treatment can be burdensome for patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a digital health management program on asthma outcomes. METHODS: Residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma were enrolled in a single-arm pilot study. Participants received electronic inhaler sensors that tracked the time, frequency, and location of short-acting β-agonist (SABA) use...
November 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
Nicholas Rauh, John Gurley, Sibu Saha
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are atypical vascular structures involving a direct connection between the pulmonary arterial and venous circulations. While PAVMs are a relatively uncommon disorder, unmanaged cases are at risk for the development of serious complications including embolization and infection. Since their first description in 1897, PAVMs have been identified and treated in a variety of ways. Advancements in diagnostic methods and operative techniques have allowed for more effective treatment of the disease...
December 2017: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Diana Ayala, Kendra Nightingale, Claudia Narvaez-Bravo, Mindy M Brashears
Nontyphoid Salmonella strains are some of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide; however, there is very limited information on the presence and characteristics of Salmonella in the food production chain in developing countries. In this study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for molecular subtyping and for monitoring the ecology and transmission of Salmonella isolates in a slaughter facility in Mexico in an attempt to determine specific steps that need to be improved to reduce Salmonella contamination in beef carcasses...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Melissa M Minter Baerg, Stephanie D Stoway, Jeremy Hart, Lea Mott, Dawn S Peck, Stephanie L Nett, Jason S Eckerman, Jean M Lacey, Coleman T Turgeon, Dimitar Gavrilov, Devin Oglesbee, Kimiyo Raymond, Silvia Tortorelli, Dietrich Matern, Lars Mørkrid, Piero Rinaldo
PurposeThe implementation of newborn screening for lysosomal disorders has uncovered overall poor specificity, psychosocial harm experienced by caregivers, and costly follow-up testing of false-positive cases. We report an informatics solution proven to minimize these issues.MethodsThe Kentucky Department for Public Health outsourced testing for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) and Pompe disease, conditions recently added to the recommended uniform screening panel, plus Krabbe disease, which was added by legislative mandate...
November 9, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Zyad T Saleh, Alison Connell, Terry A Lennie, Alison L Bailey, Rami A Elshatarat, Khalil Yousef, Debra K Moser
We hypothesized that risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) would be associated with worse health perceptions in prison inmates. This study included 362 inmates recruited from four medium security prisons in Kentucky. Framingham Risk Score was used to estimate the risk of developing CVD within the next 10 years. A single item on self-rated health from the Medical Outcomes Survey-Short Form 36 was used to measure health perception. Multinomial logistic regression showed that for every 1-unit increase in Framingham Risk Score, inmates were 23% more likely to have rated their health as fair/poor and 11% more likely to rate their health as good rather than very good/excellent...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
Seth M Noar, Eric Leas, Benjamin M Althouse, Mark Dredze, Dannielle Kelley, John W Ayers
Social media may provide new opportunities to promote skin cancer prevention, but research to understand this potential is needed. In April of 2015, Kentucky native Tawny Willoughby (TW) shared a graphic skin cancer selfie on Facebook that subsequently went viral. We examined the volume of comments and shares of her original Facebook post; news volume of skin cancer from Google News; and search volume for skin cancer Google queries. We compared these latter metrics after TWs announcement against expected volumes based on forecasts of historical trends...
November 3, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Kiran A Faryar, Clifford L Freeman, Annuradha K Persaud, Stephen P Furmanek, Brian E Guinn, William A Mattingly, Timothy L Wiemken, Kimberley A Buckner, Martin R Huecker
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid abuse has increased to epidemic proportions in the United States. Kentucky, along with other states, passed comprehensive legislation to monitor and curb opioid prescribing. OBJECTIVES: This paper characterizes patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) after abusing prescription opioids and heroin prior to and after the passage of House Bill 1 (HB1) in April 2012. METHODS: Based on a retrospective review of ED visits from 2009-2014 in one urban adult facility, patients were included if the chief complaint or diagnosis was directly related to prescription opioid or heroin abuse...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
David Thorne, Damien Breheny, Christopher Proctor, Marianna Gaca
In vitro studies have been widely used to support the toxicological evaluation of chemicals and complex mixtures including cigarette smoke. In this study, the total particulate matter and whole aerosol from a Kentucky reference 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available tobacco heating products (THPs) were assessed using in vitro mutagenicity, cytotoxicity and tumour-promoting activity assays. The Ames assay assessed mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and TA102 ± metabolic activation (S9)...
September 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Mark Forster, Stacy Fiebelkorn, Caner Yurteri, Derek Mariner, Chuan Liu, Christopher Wright, Kevin McAdam, James Murphy, Christopher Proctor
For a tobacco heating product (THP), which heats rather than burns tobacco, the emissions of toxicants in the aerosol were compared with those in cigarette smoke under a machine-puffing regimen of puff volume 55 ml, puff duration 2 s and puff interval 30 s. The list of toxicants included those proposed by Health Canada, the World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg), the US Food and Drug Administration and possible thermal breakdown products. In comparison to the University of Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarette the toxicant levels in the THP1...
October 25, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Amira A Moawad, Helmut Hotzel, Omnia Awad, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer, Hafez M Hafez, Hosny El-Adawy
BACKGROUND: The global incidence of foodborne infections and antibiotic resistance is recently increased and considered of public health concern. Currently, scarcely information is available on foodborne infections and ESBL associated with poultry and beef meat in Egypt. METHODS: In total, 180 chicken and beef meat samples as well as internal organs were collected from different districts in northern Egypt. The samples were investigated for the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli...
2017: Gut Pathogens
Marie A Bragg, Margaret Eby, Josh Arshonsky, Alex Bragg, Gbenga Ogedegbe
Food and beverage marketing contributes to poor dietary choices among adults and children. As consumers spend more time on the Internet, food and beverage companies have increased their online marketing efforts. Studies have shown food companies' online promotions use a variety of marketing techniques to promote mostly energy-dense, nutrient-poor products, but no studies have compared the online marketing techniques and nutritional quality of products promoted on food companies' international websites. For this descriptive study, we developed a qualitative codebook to catalogue the marketing themes used on 18 international corporate websites associated with the world's three largest fast food and beverage companies (i...
October 26, 2017: Globalization and Health
Korana Stipetic, Yu-Chen Chang, Kenlyn Peters, Ahmed Salem, Sanjay H Doiphode, Patrick L McDonough, Yung Fu Chang, Ali Sultan, Hussni O Mohammed
Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are foodborne pathogens of global importance. We assessed their risks and associated factors in a highly dynamic population of animals. Animal and environmental samples were collected from dairy cattle, sheep, camel and chickens at either the farms or the abattoirs. The pathogens were detected using a combination of bacterial enrichment culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data on putative risk factors were collect and analysed for their significance of association with these pathogens...
November 2016: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Alison Gustafson, Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Jordan McDonald, Hannah Ford, Paige Connelly, Rachel Gillespie, Emily Liu, Heather Bush, Candace Brancato, Toyin Babatande, Janet Mullins
Background: Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods: A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina). Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics...
October 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sayma Afroj, Khaled Aldahami, Gopal Reddy, Jean Guard, Abiodun Adesiyun, Temesgen Samuel, Woubit Abdela
A novel genomic and plasmid target-based PCR platform was developed for the detection of Salmonella serovars Heidelberg, Dublin, Hadar, Kentucky, and Enteritidis. Unique genome loci were obtained through extensive genome mining of protein databases and comparative genomic analysis of these serovars. Assays targeting Salmonella serovars Hadar, Heidelberg, Kentucky, and Dublin had 100% specificity and sensitivity, whereas those for Salmonella Enteritidis had 97% specificity and 88% sensitivity. The limits of detection for Salmonella serovars Heidelberg, Kentucky, Hadar, Enteritidis, and Dublin were 12, 9, 40, 13, and 5,280 CFU, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Bradd J Haley, Yan Luo, Charles Wang, Eric Brown, Marc Allard, Jeffrey S Karns, Jo Ann S Van Kessel
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky (S. Kentucky) is frequently isolated from dairy cows in the United States, but is an infrequent cause of human salmonellosis. To investigate the genomic features of S Kentucky strains isolated from a single dairy farm, the genomes of eight isolates were sequenced and added to the public domain.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
Emily Liu, Tammy Stephenson, Jessica Houlihan, Alison Gustafson
INTRODUCTION: Obesity rates in Appalachia are among the highest in the United States, and knowledge of upstream approaches to decrease prevalence among this vulnerable population is limited. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between healthy, diet-based, social marketing interventions in grocery stores and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. METHODS: A social marketing campaign was conducted among 17 grocery stores (N = 240 participant surveys) over 4 months in 5 rural Kentucky counties...
October 12, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
Julio A Ramirez, Timothy L Wiemken, Paula Peyrani, Forest W Arnold, Robert Kelley, William A Mattingly, Raul Nakamatsu, Senen Pena, Brian E Guinn, Stephen P Furmanek, Annuradha K Persaud, Anupama Raghuram, Francisco Fernandez, Leslie Beavin, Rahel Bosson, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Claudia Valdivieso, Joann Schulte, Ruth M Carrico
Background: Understanding the burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is critical to allocate resources for prevention, management, and research. The objectives of this study were to define incidence, epidemiology, and mortality of adult patients hospitalized with CAP in the city of Louisville, and to estimate burden of CAP in the US adult population. Methods: This was a prospective population-based cohort study of adult residents in Louisville, Kentucky, from 1 June 2014 to 31 May 2016...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Amr El-Husseini, Amit Chakraborty, Qingcong Yuan, Saqib Inayatullah, Heather Bush, B Peter Sawaya
INTRODUCTION: It is well documented that patients with osteoporosis (OP) have high incidence of hypercalciuria (HC). However, the mechanism of HC in patients with OP is not well established. It is thought to be the result of high bone turnover (HBT) with excessive bone resorption. OP also frequently presents with low bone turnover (LBT). At this time, it is not clear whether OP with LBT is also associated with hypercalciuria. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate urinary calcium excretion in osteoporotic patients with HBT and LBT...
November 2017: Clinical Nephrology
Nina M Clark, Michael Schembri, Vanessa L Jacoby
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) communication discouraging use of power morcellators on changes in surgical practice for women with uterine leiomyomas. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using data from 2013 to 2014 in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient and State Ambulatory Surgical Databases from Arizona, Florida, Kentucky, and New Jersey. Women with a diagnosis of leiomyomas who underwent hysterectomy or myomectomy were included in the analysis...
November 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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