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Jana Jeffery, Maria Carradus, Karolina Songin, Michael Pettit, Karl Pettit, Christopher Wright
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was validated for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the FDA list of 93 harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS). Target analytes were extracted from total particulate matter using accelerated solvent extraction with a toluene/ethanol solvent mixture. Matrix artefacts were removed by two-step solid-phase extraction process. Three different GC-MS systems [GC-MS (single quadrupole), GC-MS/MS (triple quadrupole) and GC-HRMS (high resolution, magnetic sector)] using the same separation conditions were compared for the analysis of MCS of 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes generated under ISO and intense smoking regimes...
March 13, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Noura S Dosoky, William N Setzer
Conradina (Lamiaceae) is a small genus of native United States (US) species limited to Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky. Three species of Conradina are federally listed as endangered and one is threatened while two are candidates for listing as endangered. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the recent advances in current knowledge on Conradina species and to compile reports of chemical constituents that characterize and differentiate between Conradina species.
March 11, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephan Jung, Nicole Estrella, Michael W Pfaffl, Stephan Hartmann, Ellinor Handelshauser, Annette Menzel
Grass pollen is the main cause of hay fever and allergic asthma in warm temperate climates during summer. The aim of this study was to determine the content of group 5 major allergens in pollen grains of agriculturally important grass species/cultivars. For each cultivar flowering dates and pollen production of cut anthers were observed in the field and in a climate chamber, respectively. An ELISA was used to quantify the group 5 allergens (Phl p5) in pollen extracts which were gained from the grass species Kentucky bluegrass, perennial rye grass, timothy, cocksfoot, annual / Italian rye grass, hybrid rye grass and festulolium...
2018: PloS One
Gregory D Kearney, Ronny A Bell
The geographic position and high level of poverty in the southeastern United States are significant risk factors that contribute to the region's high vulnerability to climate change. The goal of this study was to evaluate beliefs and perceptions of global warming among those living in poverty in the poorest counties in the southeastern United States. Results from this project may be used to support public health efforts to increase climate-related messaging to vulnerable and underserved communities. This was an ecological study that analyzed public opinion poll estimates from previously gathered national level survey data (2016)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Kirsten S Almberg, Lee S Friedman, David Swedler, Robert A Cohen
BACKGROUND: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) requires reporting of injuries and illnesses to their Part 50 program. A 2011 study indicated that the Part 50 program did not capture many cases of injury in Kentucky, causing concern about underreporting in other states. METHODS: MSHA Part 50 reports from Illinois for 2001-2013 were linked to Illinois Workers' Compensation Commission (IWCC) data. IWCC cases not found in the Part 50 data were considered unreported...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Qifa Song, Zhaojun Xu, Hong Gao, Danyang Zhang
Purpose: Several factors contribute to the complexity of quinolone resistance in Salmonella , including >2000 different Salmonella serotypes, a variety of hosts for Salmonella , and wide use of quinolones in human beings and animals. We thus aimed to obtain an overview of the development of quinolone resistance and relevant molecular mechanisms of such a resistance in Salmonella species. Materials and methods: A total of 1,776 Salmonella isolates were collected in Ningbo, China, between 2005 and 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Alana M Vivolo-Kantor, Puja Seth, R Matthew Gladden, Christine L Mattson, Grant T Baldwin, Aaron Kite-Powell, Michael A Coletta
INTRODUCTION: From 2015 to 2016, opioid overdose deaths increased 27.7%, indicating a worsening of the opioid overdose epidemic and highlighting the importance of rapid data collection, analysis, and dissemination. METHODS: Emergency department (ED) syndromic and hospital billing data on opioid-involved overdoses during July 2016-September 2017 were examined. Temporal trends in opioid overdoses from 52 jurisdictions in 45 states were analyzed at the regional level and by demographic characteristics...
March 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Raoul S Liévanos, Pierce Greenberg, Ryan Wishart
This article advances an environmental-sociological and quantitative spatial-analytic approach to the study of environmental inequality formation in coal country. We use spatial error regression models in a case study of 2000 census block group proximity to hazardous coal waste impoundments amidst shifting coal production trajectories and impoundment disaster contexts in the declining Eastern Kentucky coalfields. Proximity to abandoned and sealed mines, coal production density, and the "buffering effect" of rural-agricultural context are the most powerful predictors of impoundment proximity in the period encapsulating the boom years of coal production and culminating in 2000...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Carlee Lehna, Stephen Furmanek, Carol Hanchette
We assessed whether a home fire safety intervention targeting families with newborn children in Jefferson County, Kentucky, reached those at severe risk using a cartographic model. Demographic and economic factors of 61 families were compared by census tract. Using geographic information systems (GIS), families were assigned a risk level (low, medium, high, or severe) based on the risk model. Families who participated differed from census tracts in that of being minority race (p=0.01). The median risk category of the families was medium risk...
March 1, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Bessie H Lockwood, Iga Stasiak, Madeleine A Pfaff, Christopher A Cleveland, Michael J Yabsley
The geographical distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma maculatum ticks is poorly understood in Kentucky. We conducted a convenience survey of wildlife species (white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), elk (Cervus canadensis) and black bears (Ursus americanus)) for ticks from October 2015 to January 2017. We detected four tick species including Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor albipictus, I. scapularis and A. maculatum. Although the former two tick species were previously known to be widely distributed in Kentucky, we also found that I...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Margaret Meador, Jerome A Osheroff, Benjamin Reisler
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the most prevalent chronic condition diagnosed among patients served in the safety net in the United States; however, many safety-net patients with hypertension are not formally diagnosed and may remain untreated and at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Identifying undiagnosed hypertension using algorithmic logic programmed into clinical decision support (CDS) approaches is a promising practice but has not been broadly tested in the safety-net setting...
March 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Devendra H Shah, Narayan C Paul, Jean Guard
Strains of the ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cipr ) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 (ST198) have rapidly and extensively disseminated globally to become a major food safety and public health concern. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Cipr S. Kentucky ST198 strain, PU131, isolated from a human patient in Washington State (USA).
March 1, 2018: Genome Announcements
B A Burgess, K Bauknecht, N M Slovis, P S Morley
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections in veterinary hospitals - with outbreaks of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella among equine patients resulting in high case fatality rates and substantial financial cost. OBJECTIVES: Study objectives were to 1) investigate factors associated with shedding of MDR-Salmonella enterica; and 2) evaluate the effect shedding may have on health outcomes of previously hospitalised horses and their stablemates...
February 27, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Seema S Rao, Tyler L Scaff, John Gurley, Sibu Saha
Device therapy is a viable alternative to open heart surgery in the management of intracardiac defects. The Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) is one such device that has been adapted to close a wide variety of cardiac defects with few complications and a high success rate. This is a retrospective review of all the patients who received the ASO between 2012 and 2016 at the University of Kentucky. In total, 169 patients underwent percutaneous closure of a septal defect with Amplatzer during the timeframe studied, and of those, 91% received the device for an atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale...
March 2018: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Roberto Cardarelli, Mary Horsley, Lisa Ray, Nancy Maggard, Jennifer Schilling, Sarah Weatherford, Fran Feltner, Kayla Gilliam
This exploratory study aimed to address the effectiveness of a lay-health worker (LHW) model in addressing social needs and readmissions of high-risk patients admitted in a rural community hospital. A quasi-experimental study design assessed implementation of a LHW model for assisting high-risk patients with their post-discharge social needs. Outcome measures included 30-day hospital readmissions rates during a 4-month baseline period compared with a 6-month post-implementation period. The LHW intervention involved assessment and development of a personalized social needs plan for enrolled patients (e...
February 21, 2018: Health Education Research
Janet B Croft, Anne G Wheaton, Yong Liu, Fang Xu, Hua Lu, Kevin A Matthews, Timothy J Cunningham, Yan Wang, James B Holt
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for the majority of deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2015 and the fourth leading cause in 2016.* Major risk factors include tobacco exposure, occupational and environmental exposures, respiratory infections, and genetics.† State variations in COPD outcomes (1) suggest that it might be more common in states with large rural areas. To assess urban-rural variations in COPD prevalence, hospitalizations, and mortality; obtain county-level estimates; and update state-level variations in COPD measures, CDC analyzed 2015 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Medicare hospital records, and death certificate data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)...
February 23, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Paige A Armstrong, Brendan R Jackson, Dirk Haselow, Virgie Fields, Malia Ireland, Connie Austin, Kimberly Signs, Veronica Fialkowski, Reema Patel, Peggy Ellis, Peter C Iwen, Caitlin Pedati, Suzanne Gibbons-Burgener, Jannifer Anderson, Thomas Dobbs, Sherri Davidson, Mary McIntyre, Kimberly Warren, Joanne Midla, Nhiem Luong, Kaitlin Benedict
Histoplasmosis is one of the most common mycoses endemic to the United States, but it was reportable in only 10 states during 2016, when a national case definition was approved. To better characterize the epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis, we analyzed deidentified surveillance data for 2011-2014 from the following 12 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. We examined epidemiologic and laboratory features and calculated state-specific annual and county-specific mean annual incidence rates...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wei Hu, Qiao Dong, Baoshan Huang
Although supported by little scientific evidence, the concept of 'golden hour,' which claims that mortality for trauma patients rises significantly over rescue time, plays a vital role in the design of our current trauma system. Only the contrary results could be found by using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from 2010 to 2012. The results of logistic regression showed that longer total time intervals were associated with lower traffic mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.993 per minute. Utilizing the closest facility solver in the Geographic Information System, the effect of 'reverse causation' and the difference between trauma centre and non-trauma centre on the time-mortality relationship were discussed...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Anastasia V Keller, Kathlene M Rees, Erik J Seibt, B Danni Wood, Abigail D Wade, Johnny Morehouse, Alice Shum-Siu, David S K Magnuson
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental Study. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the specific hindlimb electromyographic (EMG) patterns in response to muscle stretch and to measure the applied forces during stretching in the rat model of moderate SCI. SETTING: Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 4) were instrumented for telemetry-based EMG recording (right rectus femoris and biceps femoris) and received a moderate T10 spinal cord injury (SCI)...
February 19, 2018: Spinal Cord
Nicolas Ajkay, Neal Bhutiani, Bin Huang, Quan Chen, Jeffrey D Howard, Thomas C Tucker, Charles R Scoggins, Kelly M McMasters, Hiram C Polk
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, Kentucky expanded Medicaid coverage to include all individuals and families with incomes up to 33% above the federal poverty line. This study evaluated the early impact of Medicaid expansion on some aspects of the quality of breast cancer care in Kentucky. STUDY DESIGN: The Kentucky Cancer Registry was queried for all women aged 20 to 64 years diagnosed with breast cancer between 2011 and 2016. Demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics were assessed for each year during this interval...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
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