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Kristen Ranzenberger, Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova
OBJECTIVES: The healthcare industry continues to have a high number of reported injuries. The purpose of this study was to characterize healthcare industry injuries by patient contact status, identify the occupations associated with healthcare injuries by patient contact status, and determine healthcare injury rates by occupation to gain a better understanding of healthcare industry-compensated injuries and better target safety practices and programs in the healthcare industry. METHODS: Kentucky healthcare industry workers' compensation first reports of injuries from calendar years 2012-2014 were categorized into injuries involved in direct patient contact versus injuries without direct patient contact using narrative text analysis...
October 2016: Southern Medical Journal
Benjamin D Sommers, Rebecca Gourevitch, Bethany Maylone, Robert J Blendon, Arnold M Epstein
Changes in insurance coverage over time, or "churning," may have adverse consequences, but there has been little evidence on churning since implementation of the major coverage expansions in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014. We explored the frequency and implications of churning through surveying 3,011 low-income adults in Kentucky, which used a traditional expansion of Medicaid; Arkansas, which chose a "private option" expansion that enrolled beneficiaries in private Marketplace plans; and Texas, which opted not to expand...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Bradd J Haley, Seon Woo Kim, James Pettengill, Yan Luo, Jeffrey S Karns, Jo Ann S Van Kessel
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky is frequently isolated from healthy poultry and dairy cows and is occasionally isolated from people with clinical disease. A genomic analysis of 119 isolates collected in the United States from dairy cows, ground beef, poultry and poultry products, and human clinical cases was conducted. Results of the analysis demonstrated that the majority of poultry and bovine-associated S. Kentucky were sequence type (ST) 152. Several bovine-associated (n = 3) and food product isolates (n = 3) collected from the United States and the majority of human clinical isolates were ST198, a sequence type that is frequently isolated from poultry and occasionally from human clinical cases in Northern Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia...
2016: PloS One
Fonda G Robinson, Larry L Cunningham, Sharon P Turner, John Lindroth, Deborah Ray, Talib Khan, Audrey Yates
The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Kachiu C Lee, Sue Peacock, Martin A Weinstock, Ge Alice Zhao, Stevan R Knezevich, David E Elder, Raymond L Barnhill, Michael W Piepkorn, Lisa M Reisch, Patricia A Carney, Tracy Onega, Jason P Lott, Joann G Elmore
BACKGROUND: The extent of variability in treatment suggestions for melanocytic lesions made by pathologists is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how often pathologists rendered suggestions, reasons for providing suggestions, and concordance with national guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pathologists. Data included physician characteristics, experience, and treatment recommendation practices. RESULTS: Of 301 pathologists, 207 (69%) from 10 states (California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington) enrolled...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Joyce N Achenjang, Carol L Elam
The goal of matriculating a diverse medical cohort remains important for institutions across the country as it results in an increase in the diversity of the physician workforce. By admitting students who are underrepresented in medicine, the pressing health needs of the growing and diverse patient population of our country can be met by physicians who are representative of their communities. Given the challenges of choosing from a small pool of applicants, medical schools should consider seeking the support of current medical students in expanding the applicant pool and recruiting the next generation of physicians...
2016: Journal of the National Medical Association
David Azzopardi, Kharishma Patel, Tomasz Jaunky, Simone Santopietro, Oscar M Camacho, John McAughey, Marianna Gaça
Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures...
July 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Anita P Barbee, Michael R Cunningham, Michiel A van Zyl, Becky F Antle, Cheri N Langley
OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of Reducing the Risk (RTR) and Love Notes (LN) on reducing risky sexual behavior among youths yet to experience or cause a pregnancy. METHODS: The four dependent variables were ever had sex, condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners at 3- and 6-month follow-up in a 3-arm cluster randomized controlled trial of 1448 impoverished youths, aged 14 to 19 years, in 23 community-based organizations in Louisville, Kentucky, from September 2011 through March 2014...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Vasu Divi, Li Tao, Alice Whittemore, Ingrid Oakley-Girvan
BACKGROUND: Advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is a complex group of diseases that requires the input and coordination of multiple providers. While there are general guidelines for treatment, there is also considerable variation in how patients are treated, and how long they survive after treatment. It is unclear how the treatment variations relate to treatment costs and survival. METHODS: We identified 3678 Medicare patients with advanced HNC treated in 12 US regions between 2004 and 2009 using the linked database containing Medicare and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
María L Gómez, Richard Charnigo, Torrie T Harris, John C Williams, William Pfeifle
CONTEXT: Findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that addressing persistent health disparities based on race and ethnicity must become a national priority. The field of cultural and linguistic competency has gained national attention by improving access to and quality of health care, patient-provider communication, health outcomes, and health equity for minority groups and other vulnerable or special needs populations. OBJECTIVES: (1) To measure how local health departments (LHDs) in Kentucky comply with the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS); and (2) to provide policy recommendation based on the findings...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Bradford E Jackson, Gabriela R Oates, Karan P Singh, James M Shikany, Mona N Fouad, Edward E Partridge, Sejong Bae
OBJECTIVE: This study examined differences in socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviors relevant to chronic medical conditions (CMCs) in the Mid-South region (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Arkansas), and identified subpopulations with increased burden of chronic disease. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The top five most prevalent CMCs in the Mid-South were analyzed: asthma, high blood pressure (HBP), obesity, arthritis, and depression...
September 29, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Devendra H Shah, Narayan C Paul, Willium C Sischo, Rocio Crespo, Jean Guard
Salmonella spp. is the most predominant bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Due to the risk of human infection associated with poultry products and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella also poses a significant challenge to commercial poultry production. During the last decade (2002 to 2012), the 12 most prevalent poultry-associated Salmonella serotypes (MPPSTs) were frequently and consistently isolated from poultry products in the United States. These MPPSTs and their percent prevalence in poultry products include Kentucky (4%), Enteritidis (2%) Heidelberg (2%), Typhimurium (2%), S...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
James W Mains, Corey L Brelsfoard, Robert I Rose, Stephen L Dobson
Dengue, chikungunya and zika viruses are pathogens with an increasing global impact. In the absence of an approved vaccine or therapy, their management relies on controlling the mosquito vectors. But traditional controls are inadequate, and the range of invasive species such as Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger Mosquito) is expanding. Genetically modified mosquitoes are being tested, but their use has encountered regulatory barriers and public opposition in some countries. Wolbachia bacteria can cause a form of conditional sterility, which can provide an alternative to genetic modification or irradiation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Richard A Crosby, Lindsay Stratdman, Tom Collins, Robin Vanderpool
PURPOSE: To determine the return rate of community-delivered fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kits in a rural population and to identify significant predictors of returning kits. METHODS: Residents were recruited in 8 rural Kentucky counties to enroll in the study and receive an FIT kit. Of 345 recruited, 82.0% returned an FIT kit from the point of distribution. These participants were compared to the remainder relative to age, sex, marital status, having an annual income below $15,000, not graduating from high school, not having a regular health care provider, not having health care coverage, being a current smoker, indicating current overweight or obese status, and a scale measure of fatalism pertaining to colorectal cancer...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
Samrat Yeramaneni, Dawn O Kleindorfer, Heidi Sucharew, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Matthew L Flaherty, Daniel Woo, Opeolu Adeoye, Simona Ferioli, Felipe de Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Jason Mackey, Pooja Khatri, Brett M Kissela, Jane C Khoury
BACKGROUND: Although statin therapy is associated with reduced stroke and mortality risk, some studies report that higher lipid levels are associated with improved outcomes following ischemic stroke. AIMS: We examined the association of hyperlipidemia (HLD) combined with statin therapy on all-cause mortality in stroke patients. METHODS: All stroke patients in the Greater Cincinnati Northern Kentucky region of ∼1.3 million were identified using ICD-9 discharge codes in 2005 and 2010...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Linda H Banks, Lisa A Davenport, Meghan H Hayes, Moriah A McArthur, Stacey N Toro, Cameron E King, Hazel M Vazirani
: Introduction In the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, in central Appalachia (a region that spans 13 states in the US), sits an economically distressed and rural community of the United States. Once a thriving coal-mining area, this region now is reported as one of the hardest places to live in the US. Southeastern Kentucky, located in a remote, rocky, mountainous area surrounded by rivers and valleys and prone to flooding, experienced a major flood in Spring 2013 causing significant damage to homes and critical infrastructure...
September 19, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Joseph A Benitez, Liza M Creel, J'Aime C Jennings
BACKGROUND: While most research has focused on insurance uptake and describing the makeup of the newly insured, less is known about the characteristics among the remaining uninsured in expansion states. OBJECTIVES: Using Kentucky as a case study, we evaluate individual and contextual characteristics to learn more about groups who-despite expanded access to coverage options through US health care reform-reported being uninsured at the end of 2014. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from Kentucky's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was linked to county data from the Area Health Resource File, and we used logistic regression models to assess relationships between both person-level and county-level characteristics with uninsured status...
September 15, 2016: Medical Care
Praveen Gundelly, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Julie A Ribes, Alice Thornton
Rhodococcus equi is an unusual zoonotic pathogen that can cause life-threatening diseases in susceptible hosts. Twelve patients with R. equi infection in Kentucky were compared to 137 cases reported in the literature. Although lungs were the primary sites of infection in immunocompromised patients, extrapulmonary involvement only was more common in immunocompetent patients (P < 0.0001). Mortality in R. equi-infected HIV patients was lower in the HAART era (8%) than in pre-HAART era (56%) (P < 0.0001), suggesting that HAART improves prognosis in these patients...
2016: BioMed Research International
David F Penson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Urology
Roger F Thoma, James W Jr Fetzner, G Whitney Stocker, Zachary J Loughman
A new species of burrowing crayfish, Cambarus (Jugicambarus) adustus, is described from Lewis County in northeastern Kentucky, USA. The new species is most similar morphologically to C. dubius. Cambarus adustus coloration differs from C. dubius by lacking red, orange and blue hues, and instead is brown over the entire body surface. Morphological differences between C. dubius and C. adustus exist in the form I male gonopod, with C. adustus possessing a caudal knob, while C. dubius does not. In addition, the lateral carapace of C...
2016: Zootaxa
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