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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790925/effectiveness-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-against-hospitalization-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-older-us-adults-a-test-negative-design
#1
John M McLaughlin, Qin Jiang, Raul E Isturiz, Heather L Sings, David L Swerdlow, Bradford D Gessner, Ruth M Carrico, Paula Peyrani, Timothy L Wiemken, William A Mattingly, Julio A Ramirez, Luis Jodar
Background: Following universal recommendation for use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in US adults aged ≥65 years in September 2014, we conducted the first real-world evaluation of PCV13 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against hospitalized vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in this population. Methods: Using a test-negative design, we identified cases and controls from a population-based surveillance study of adults in Louisville, Kentucky, who were hospitalized with CAP...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788174/aspirin-abrogates-impairment-of-mammary-gland-differentiation-induced-by-early-in-life-second-hand-smoke-in-mice
#2
Julia Santucci-Pereira, Thomas J Pogash, Aman Patel, Navroop Hundal, Maria Barton, Anna Camoirano, Rosanna T Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Roumen Balansky, Silvio De Flora, Jose Russo
Epidemiological studies show that there is limited evidence that tobacco smoking causes breast cancer in humans. In rodents, many tobacco smoke chemicals cause mammary gland tumors. This study evaluated the mammary gland differentiation in mice exposed to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS), using 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes, starting after birth and continuing daily for 10 weeks (total particulate exposure 95 mg/m3; CO 610 ppm). We also analyzed the effects of oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin (1600mg/kg) or naproxen (320mg/kg), on mammary gland differentiation, either in unexposed or ECS-exposed mice...
May 17, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788116/american-association-of-neuropathologists-inc-abstracts-of-the-94th-annual-meeting-june-7-10-2018-louisville-kentucky
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780204/the-short-term-dynamics-of-peers-and-delinquent-behavior-an-analysis-of-bi-weekly-changes-within-a-high-school-student-network
#4
Frank M Weerman, Pamela Wilcox, Christopher J Sullivan
Objectives: To analyze short-term changes in peer affiliations, offending behavior and routine activities in order to evaluate three different processes: peer selection, peer socialization and situational peer influences. Methods: The short-term longitudinal TEENS study was conducted among a cohort of students from one mid-sized high school in Kentucky, as part of the larger Rural Substance Abuse and Violence Project. The study sample consists of one complete network of 155 ninth graders who completed surveys about their peer affiliations, routine activities and offending behaviors over the course of five waves of data collection during the beginning of the school year...
2018: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771619/affordable-care-act-impact-in-kentucky-increasing-access-reducing-disparities
#5
Lynn A Blewett, Colin Planalp, Giovann Alarcon
OBJECTIVES: To examine health insurance disparities since Kentucky's implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). METHODS: Using the American Community Survey, we estimated coverage rates by race/ethnicity before and after implementation of the ACA (2013 and 2015), and we estimated whether groups were over- or underrepresented among the uninsured, compared with their share of the state population. RESULTS: Kentucky's uninsurance rate declined from 14...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747521/employee-adherence-to-a-tobacco-free-executive-order-in-kentucky
#6
Melinda J Ickes, Amanda Wiggins, Mary Kay Rayens, Jean Edwards, Ellen J Hahn
PURPOSE: Examine predictors of short- and long-term adherence to a tobacco-free policy prohibiting all tobacco use inside and outdoors on Executive Branch property in Kentucky. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online surveys administered at 2 time points. SETTING: Commonwealth of Kentucky. PARTICIPANTS: 27 000 employees of the Kentucky Executive Branch were invited to participate in 2 online surveys: March 2015, 4 months postpolicy (N = 4854) and August 2015, 9 months postpolicy (N = 3522)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746453/access-to-syringe-services-programs-kentucky-north-carolina-and-west-virginia-2013-2017
#7
Danae Bixler, Greg Corby-Lee, Scott Proescholdbell, Tina Ramirez, Michael E Kilkenny, Matt LaRocco, Robert Childs, Michael R Brumage, Angela D Settle, Eyasu H Teshale, Alice Asher
The Appalachian region of the United States is experiencing a large increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to injection drug use (IDU) (1). Syringe services programs (SSPs) providing sufficient access to safe injection equipment can reduce hepatitis C transmission by 56%; combined SSPs and medication-assisted treatment can reduce transmission by 74% (2). However, access to SSPs has been limited in the United States, especially in rural areas and southern and midwestern states (3). This report describes the expansion of SSPs in Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia during 2013-August 1, 2017...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721814/pre-incarceration-rates-of-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs-among-black-men-from-urban-counties
#8
Paris Wheeler, Danelle Stevens-Watkins, Joi-Sheree' Knighton, Carlos Mahaffey, Dominiqueca Lewis
There are inconsistent findings regarding the rates of nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU) among Black Americans. The majority of previous studies used pharmaceutical names of drugs and relied on national data that excludes incarcerated populations, in which Black men are overrepresented. Therefore, the current study aimed to describe pre-incarceration rates of NMPDU among Black men in prison using culturally relevant alternative drug names. We recruited 208 incarcerated (adult age 18 or older) Black men nearing community reentry to urban counties from four state prisons in Kentucky...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721198/global-burden-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-changing-incidence-in-kentucky
#9
Aman Chauhan, Qian Yu, Neha Ray, Zainab Farooqui, Bin Huang, Eric B Durbin, Thomas Tucker, Mark Evers, Susanne Arnold, Lowell B Anthony
Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have a low incidence but relatively high prevalence. Over the last three decades, the incidence of NETs has risen 6-fold in the United States. We conducted an observational study to compare the incidence of NETs reported to the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) versus that reported to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER). We also provide a systematic review of the state of neuroendocrine tumors worldwide, and compare the available global and local published data...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719221/the-quality-of-nutrition-and-physical-activity-environments-of-child-care-centers-across-three-states-in-the-southern-u-s
#10
Temitope Erinosho, Amber Vaughn, Derek Hales, Stephanie Mazzucca, Ziya Gizlice, Cayla Treadway, Alexandra Kelly, Dianne Ward
This cross-sectional study assessed the quality of nutrition and physical activity environments of child-care centers in three southern states and examined differences by rural versus urban location, participation in the Child and Adult Care Food Program, and Head Start status. The sample included 354 centers that enroll children aged 2-5: 154 centers from Georgia, 103 from Kentucky, and 97 centers from Mississippi. Directors and 1-2 teachers per center completed the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Self-Report (EPAO-SR) tool that assesses nutrition and physical activity environments of child-care centers...
April 29, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719033/a-social-ecological-review-of-cancer-disparities-in-kentucky
#11
Sharon D Rodriguez, Nathan L Vanderford, Bin Huang, Robin C Vanderpool
Cancer continuously ranks among the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States. The burden of cancer is particularly elevated in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and its 54-county Appalachian region, where cancer is the leading cause of death. Kentucky's high rates of cancer have been attributed to a wide range of socioeconomic, behavioral, environmental, and policy influences, resulting in numerous disparities. The present review specifically evaluates the burden of lung, colorectal, cervical, and head and neck cancers in Kentucky, along with resultant cancer control research and community outreach efforts conducted by the state's only National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center using an adapted version of McLeroy's Social-Ecological Model...
April 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712661/incidence-of-acute-kidney-injury-among-patients-treated-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-meropenem-in-combination-with-vancomycin
#12
W Cliff Rutter, David S Burgess
Acute kidney injury increases during empiric antimicrobial therapy with the combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) and vancomycin (VAN) when compared to monotherapy or the combination of cefepime and VAN. Limited data regarding the impact of meropenem (MEM) combined with VAN exist. This study examined the AKI incidence among patients treated with MEM+VAN or TZP+VAN. Data were collected from the University of Kentucky Center for Clinical and Translational Science Enterprise Data Trust from September 2007 through October 2015...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703777/prehospital-neurological-deterioration-in-stroke
#13
Sabreena J Slavin, Heidi Sucharew, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Daniel Woo, Opeolu Adeoye, Matthew L Flaherty, Simona Ferioli, Jason McMullan, Jason Mackey, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Brett M Kissela, Dawn O Kleindorfer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with stroke can experience neurological deterioration in the prehospital setting. We evaluated patients with stroke to determine factors associated with prehospital neurological deterioration (PND). METHODS: Among the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region (population ~1.3 million), we screened all 15 local hospitals' admissions from 2010 for acute stroke and included patients aged ≥20. The GCS was compared between emergency medical services (EMS) arrival and hospital arrival, with decrease ≥2 points considered PND...
April 27, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691626/the-disparities-of-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery-outcomes-by-insurance-status-a-retrospective-cohort-study-2007-2014
#14
Timothy M Connolly, Robert S White, Dahniel L Sastow, Licia K Gaber-Baylis, Zachary A Turnbull, Lisa Q Rong
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is the gold standard treatment for complex coronary artery disease. Social determinants of health, including primary payer status, are disproportionately associated with adverse outcomes following surgical operations. We sought to examine associations between insurance status, in particular having Medicaid public insurance, and postoperative outcomes following isolated CABG surgeries. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed using Florida, California, New York, Maryland, and Kentucky State Inpatient Databases (2007-2014) for isolated CABG patients ≥ 18 years...
April 24, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684574/genetic-characterization-of-class-i-integrons-among-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-serovars-in-broiler-chicken-farms
#15
Rasha M Elkenany, Abdelfattah H Eladl, Reham A El-Shafei
BACKGROUND: The antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars is recorded and the integrons play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Little literatures are available on the recognition of integrons in isolated Salmonella from broiler chickens. OBJECTIVES: In this study, antibiotic resistance and characterization of class 1 (Cls1) integrons among Multidrug resistance serovars of Salmonella enterica in broiler chicken farms were performed...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678798/analysis-of-college-students-personal-health-information-activities-online-survey
#16
Sujin Kim, Donghee Sinn, Sue Yeon Syn
BACKGROUND: With abundant personal health information at hand, individuals are faced with a critical challenge in evaluating the informational value of health care records to keep useful information and discard that which is determined useless. Young, healthy college students who were previously dependents of adult parents or caregivers are less likely to be concerned with disease management. Personal health information management (PHIM) is a special case of personal information management (PIM) that is associated with multiple interactions among varying stakeholders and systems...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673287/pediatric-stroke-rates-over-17-years-report-from-a-population-based-study
#17
Laura L Lehman, Jane C Khoury, J Michael Taylor, Samrat Yeramaneni, Heidi Sucharew, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Katrina Peariso, Matthew Flaherty, Pooja Khatri, Joseph P Broderick, Brett M Kissela, Dawn O Kleindorfer
We previously published rates of pediatric stroke using our population-based Greater Cincinnati Northern Kentucky Stroke Study (GCNK) for periods July 1993-June 1994 and 1999. We report population-based rates from 2 additional study periods: 2005 and 2010. We identified all pediatric strokes for residents of the GCNK region that occurred in July 1, 1993-June 30, 1994, and calendar years 1999, 2005, and 2010. Stroke cases were ascertained by screening discharge ICD-9 codes, and verified by a physician. Pediatric stroke was defined as stroke in those <20 years of age...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672773/microbiological-chemical-and-physical-quality-of-drinking-water-for-commercial-turkeys-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
G Di Martino, A Piccirillo, M Giacomelli, D Comin, A Gallina, K Capello, F Buniolo, C Montesissa, L Bonfanti
Drinking water for poultry is not subject to particular microbiological, chemical and physical requirements, thereby representing a potential transmission route for pathogenic microorganisms and contaminants and/or becoming unsuitable for water-administered medications. This study assessed the microbiological, chemical and physical drinking water quality of 28 turkey farms in North-Eastern Italy: 14 supplied with tap water (TW) and 14 with well water (WW). Water salinity, hardness, pH, ammonia, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, chromium, copper and iron levels were also assessed...
April 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668994/technical-note-comparing-four-techniques-for-estimating-desired-grass-species-composition-in-horse-pastures
#19
L B Kenny, D Ward, M G Robson, C A Williams
Many methods exist for estimating species composition, but few studies compare those useful in improved horse pastures. The objective of this study was to examine four techniques for estimating desirable forage species composition in two cool-season horse pastures based on prevalence estimates, repeatability, bias, and practicality, and to select a method for use in a subsequent grazing study. The techniques included Equine Pasture Evaluation Disc (EPED), Line Point Intercept with three transects of 50 observations each (LPI 3-50), LPI with five transects of 30 observations each (LPI 5-30), and Step Point (StPt)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664203/trends-and-patterns-of-opioid-analgesic-prescribing-regional-and-rural-urban-variations-in-kentucky-from-2012-to-2015
#20
Huong Luu, Svetla Slavova, Patricia R Freeman, Michelle Lofwall, Steven Browning, Heather Bush
PURPOSE: Increased opioid analgesic prescribing (OAP) has been associated with increased risk of prescription opioid diversion, misuse, and abuse. We studied regional and rural-urban variations in OAP trends in Kentucky, from 2012 to 2015, and examined potential county-level risk and protective factors. METHODS: This study used prescription drug monitoring data. Marginal models employing generalized estimating equations were used to model repeated counts of residents with opioid analgesic prescriptions within county-quarter, 2012-2015, with offset for resident population, by rural-urban classification exposure, and adjusting for time-varying socioeconomic and relevant health status measures...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
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