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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878586/-parainfectious-optic-neuritis-with-macular-infiltrate-in-neisseria-meningitidis-b-meningitis
#1
A Chronopoulos, F Hoogewoud, H Steffen, G Thumann
OBJECTIVE: We report on the case of a young immunocompetent female patient with parainfectious optic neuritis and macular inflitrate due to Neisseria meningitidis B meningitis. METHOD: Case report RESULTS: A 22-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department for intensive care treatment with a strong suspicion of meningitis. Clinical and serological parameters were indicative of a bacterial genesis of the meningitis. By analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Neisseria meningitidis type B could be detected...
November 23, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801769/adult-onset-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-associated-with-ganglionic-acetylcholine-receptor-autoantibody
#2
Jonathan R Galli, Stacey L Clardy, M Mateo Paz Soldán
INTRODUCTION: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) may have a toxin induced, parainfectious, or paraneoplastic etiology. Several autoantibodies have been associated with adult-onset OMS, most commonly antineuronal nuclear antibody 2 (Ri), and it is most frequently associated with breast or small cell lung cancer. The nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoantibody (α3-AChR Ab) has not been described in association. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old woman was evaluated for symptoms of oscillopsia, tremor, gait imbalance, and mild cognitive deficits that began 6 weeks prior...
November 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705091/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-associated-with-zika-virus-infection-in-colombia
#3
Beatriz Parra, Jairo Lizarazo, Jorge A Jiménez-Arango, Andrés F Zea-Vera, Guillermo González-Manrique, José Vargas, Jorge A Angarita, Gonzalo Zuñiga, Reydmar Lopez-Gonzalez, Cindy L Beltran, Karen H Rizcala, Maria T Morales, Oscar Pacheco, Martha L Ospina, Anupama Kumar, David R Cornblath, Laura S Muñoz, Lyda Osorio, Paula Barreras, Carlos A Pardo
Background Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been linked to the Guillain-Barré syndrome. From November 2015 through March 2016, clusters of cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were observed during the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Colombia. We characterized the clinical features of cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the context of this ZIKV infection outbreak and investigated their relationship with ZIKV infection. Methods A total of 68 patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome at six Colombian hospitals were evaluated clinically, and virologic studies were completed for 42 of the patients...
October 20, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702928/acute-onset-blindness-a-case-of-optic-neuritis-and-review-of-childhood-optic-neuritis
#4
Sithara Ramdas, Danny Morrison, Michael Absoud, Ming Lim
Optic neuritis (ON) is an acquired disorder of the optic nerve due to inflammation, demyelination or degeneration. We report a child who presented with acute onset bilateral visual loss who, following a diagnosis of ON, was treated and had excellent visual recovery. Paediatric ON is considered to be different clinical entity to adult ON. Although in children ON is usually parainfectious or postinfectious, it can be the first presenting feature of multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease. In this paper, we discuss the literature on treatment of ON and prediction of risk of recurrence...
October 4, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432679/cerebellar-disorders-clinical-radiologic-findings-and-modern-imaging-tools
#5
Mario Manto, Christophe Habas
Cerebellar disorders, also called cerebellar ataxias, comprise a large group of sporadic and genetic diseases. Their core clinical features include impaired control of coordination and gait, as well as cognitive/behavioral deficits usually not detectable by a standard neurologic examination and therefore often overlooked. Two forms of cognitive/behavioral syndromes are now well identified: (1) the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, which combines an impairment of executive functions, including planning and working memory, deficits in visuospatial skills, linguistic deficiencies such as agrammatism, and inappropriate behavior; and (2) the posterior fossa syndrome, a very acute form of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome occurring essentially in children...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401467/-cavernous-sinus-thrombosis-as-a-rare-cause-of-exophthalmos-in-childhood-a-case-report
#6
A Kamawal, M A Schmidt, O Rompel, G C Gusek-Schneider, C Y Mardin, R Trollmann
Complications of acute bacterial sinusitis mostly occur in children and adolescents. In particular, intracranial spread of the infection can lead to severe even fatal courses of the disease. This article is a case report about a 13-year-old boy suffering from left-sided headache, meningismus and exophthalmos as presenting symptoms. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed merely right-sided sphenoid sinusitis; however, the diffusion-weighted MRI sequence indicated a left-sided cavernous sinus thrombosis, which could be confirmed by computed tomography (CT) angiography...
July 11, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308306/csf-herpes-virus-and-autoantibody-profiles-in-the-evaluation-of-encephalitis
#7
Jenny J Linnoila, Matthew J Binnicker, Masoud Majed, Christopher J Klein, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To report the frequency of coexisting herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] or HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus, or human herpes virus 6 [HHV-6]) and autoantibodies in patients with encephalitis (herpes or autoimmune) in clinical laboratory service. METHODS: Three groups were evaluated for herpes viruses and antibodies: group 1-patients whose CSF was positive for a herpes virus by real-time PCR over a period of 6 months; group 2-patients whose CSF was positive for an autoimmune encephalitis-associated antibody over 5 years (e...
August 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27268491/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-in-a-case-of-autoimmune-haemolytic-anaemia-a-rare-association
#8
Adrija Hajra, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease that may occur in a postvaccination condition or as a parainfectious encephalomyelitis. It is almost always monophasic. The underlying pathogenesis of ADEM may include perivascular inflammation, oedema and demyelination in the central nervous system. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl who was diagnosed as having ADEM, as well as detected to be a follow-up case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia on steroid treatment. She presented with progressive weakness of the right lower limb for the past 4 days...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27095464/childhood-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
Franz Blaes, Backialakshmi Dharmalingam
Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare and primarily immune-mediated disease in children and adults. The main symptoms include opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia. In children, the symptoms also include irritability, and, over a long-term course, learning and behavioural disturbances. OMS can be idiopathic, parainfectious or occur as a paraneoplastic (tumour-associated) syndrome. Paraneoplastic OMS in children is almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, whereas in adults, small cell lung cancer and breast cancer are the main underlying tumours...
June 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900103/longitudinal-extensive-transverse-myelitis-with-cervical-epidural-haematoma-following-dengue-virus-infection
#10
Choong Yi Fong, Chaw Su Hlaing, Chee Geap Tay, Khairul Azmi Abdul Kadir, Khean Jin Goh, Lai Choo Ong
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis associated with dengue infection is rare with no reported paediatric cases. METHODS: We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with flaccid quadriplegia 8 days after onset of acute dengue fever. MRI spine showed T2 hyperintensity associated with epidural hematoma at C3-C6 level of the spinal cord. Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation revealed absent motor evoked potentials bilaterally. We also summarise and compare the reported cases of transverse myelitis associated with dengue infection...
May 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888994/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-type-1-autoimmunity-clinical-features-and-treatment-outcomes
#11
A Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, Lars Komorowski, Tania Kümpfel, Christian Probst, Shannon R Hinson, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe retrospectively the clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1-IgG). METHODS: Specimens of 9 patients evaluated on a service basis in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory by tissue-based immunofluorescence assay (IFA) yielded a robust, synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with mGluR1-IgG (serum, 9; CSF, 2 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay (CBA) confirmed mGluR1 specificity in all 11 specimens...
March 15, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26888797/-the-worm-that-got-away-parainfectious-atypical-optic-neuritis-associated-with-schistosomiasis-infection
#12
Chinar Osman, Sally Hannigan, Adam Ditchfield, Stephen Harden, Ben Marshall, Ashwin Arnold Pinto
Although optic neuritis is commonly associated with multiple sclerosis, patients with atypical optic neuritis require further investigations to exclude other associated conditions. We report a woman presenting with cough, fatigue, atypical optic neuritis with chiasmitis. She responded partially to corticosteroids and we subsequently found she had a ground-glass lung nodule. Follow-up CT scan of thorax at 12 months showed new parenchymal lung lesions that suggested schistosomiasis. Further questioning by a respiratory physician identified, in retrospect, a previous exposure history; serological testing confirmed schistosoma infection...
June 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778232/inflammatory-markers-in-pediatric-stroke-an-attempt-to-better-understanding-the-pathophysiology
#13
Sarah E Buerki, Denis Grandgirard, Alexandre N Datta, Annette Hackenberg, Florence Martin, Thomas Schmitt-Mechelke, Stephen L Leib, Maja Steinlin
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of childhood and perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) are poorly understood. Multiple risk factors include cerebral arteriopathy, congenital cardiac disease, infection, sickle cell disease, and maternal-fetal conditions in neonates. For infections and parainfectious conditions being the most important a possible inflammatory pathophysiology has long been suspected. This pilot study aims to detect, whether there are any abnormalities of inflammatory markers associated with childhood and neonatal stroke...
March 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764409/mimics-and-chameleons-of-optic-neuritis
#14
REVIEW
Dinushi Weerasinghe, Christian Lueck
Optic neuritis is a common problem and most neurologists are familiar with it. Recent studies have suggested that it can be overdiagnosed in as many as 10% of cases. The major reasons for this relate to confusion regarding terminology and lack of familiarity with common mimics. This article covers typical 'idiopathic' demyelinating optic neuropathy (IDON) and several possible variations in the way it can present (chameleons). We then discuss several conditions that can mimic IDON, including neuromyelitis optica, sarcoidosis, chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, infectious/parainfectious optic neuropathy, neuroretinitis, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, and some 'ocular' mimics including autoimmune retinopathy and central serous choroidoretinopathy...
April 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543770/opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-after-adenovirus-infection
#15
Steffen Syrbe, Andreas Merkenschlager, Matthias K Bernhard, Jens Grosche, Uwe Gerd Liebert, Wolfgang Hirsch, Wolfgang Härtig
Autoimmune and paraneoplastic movement disorders are rare in childhood. Diagnosis often relies on clinical manifestations and clinicians' recognition. A 22-month-old girl at onset of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) was followed for 8 years. Adenovirus (type C subtype 3) infection coincided with manifestation. Data on treatment, imaging and follow-up are provided. In the spinal fluid, elevated anti-rubella antibodies and oligoclonal bands were detected. An autoimmune process affecting mainly cerebellar neurons was revealed immunohistochemically...
2015: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26331039/opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-associated-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Kazumasa Shindo, Akiko Onohara, Takanori Hata, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Kaori Nagasaka, Takamura Nagasaka, Yoshihisa Takiyama
Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is well known as a paraneoplastic syndrome or as a parainfectious neurologic complication. However, OMS associated with a neurodegenerative disorder has not been described previously. A 48-year-old woman had been diagnosed as multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) based on the findings of dopamine non-responsive parkinsonism with autonomic failure and typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging 5 years ago. She exhibited recurrent asynchronous and arrhythmic myoclonic movements of the upper limbs and abdomen with a very short duration, and involuntary eye movements, which were repetitive, rapid, random, multidirectional, conjugate saccades of irregular amplitude and frequency at rest...
2014: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25933354/a-rare-case-of-odontogenic-parainfectious-intraorbital-optic-neuritis-with-the-absence-of-clinical-manifestation-of-orbital-cellulitis
#17
Qui Vu, Gawain Dyer, Nancy Kunjukunju
PURPOSE: To report the case of a 67-year-old male patient with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis who presented with unilateral parainfectious intraorbital optic neuritis without clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of orbital cellulitis. Despite the absence of clinical signs, taking a thorough history and obtaining the appropriate neuroimaging study raised the suspicion for an infectious etiology as the cause of optic neuropathy and stopped the continuation of corticosteroid treatment...
2015: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25889740/parainfectious-encephalomyeloradiculitis-associated-with-bacterial-meningitis-a-case-report
#18
Yuji Kato, Takeshi Hayashi, Akira Uchino, Ichiro Deguchi, Norio Tanahashi
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in adulthood occurs in most cases after a viral infection. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with bacterial meningitis, however, is quite rare. CASE PRESENTATION: An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with a fever and somnolence. Increased neutrophil count and protein content, and decreased glucose levels in her cerebrospinal fluid initially suggested bacterial meningitis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging on admission showed bilateral symmetrical lesions in her brainstem and her cerebellum...
2015: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25779488/parainfectious-encephalomyeloradiculitis-associated-with-bacterial-meningitis-a-case-report
#19
Yuji Kato, Takeshi Hayashi, Akira Uchino, Ichiro Deguchi, Norio Tanahashi
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in adulthood occurs in most cases after a viral infection. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with bacterial meningitis, however, is quite rare. CASE PRESENTATION: An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with a fever and somnolence. Increased neutrophil count and protein content, and decreased glucose levels in her cerebrospinal fluid initially suggested bacterial meningitis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging on admission showed bilateral symmetrical lesions in her brainstem and her cerebellum...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25651220/myelopathy-associated-with-microorganisms
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer L Lyons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the common infectious etiologies of spinal cord dysfunction that span the globe epidemiologically and vary pathophysiologically. RECENT FINDINGS: Many microorganisms have the ability to directly or indirectly result in spinal cord dysfunction. These agents may have the ability to infect the spinal cord itself, but frequently cause indirect damage by parainfectious or postinfectious immune-mediated destruction or external compression of the spinal cord...
February 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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