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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453851/eradication-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-infections-using-synthetic-antimicrobial-peptides
#1
Marta Zapotoczna, Éanna Forde, Siobhan Hogan, Hilary Humphreys, James P O'Gara, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes, Marc Devocelle, Eoghan O'Neill
Here, we demonstrate that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an effective antibiofilm treatment when applied as catheter lock solutions (CLSs) against S. aureus biofilm infections. The activity of synthetic AMPs (Bac8c, HB43, P18, Omiganan, WMR, Ranalexin, and Polyphemusin) was measured against early and mature biofilms produced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates from patients with device-related infections grown under in vivo-relevant biofilm conditions. The cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of the AMPs against human cells and their immunomodulatory potential in human blood were also characterized...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446351/deep-vein-thrombosis-of-the-upper-extremity
#2
Jan Heil, Wolfgang Miesbach, Thomas Vogl, Wolf O Bechstein, Alexander Reinisch
BACKGROUND: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) arises with an incidence of about 1 per 1000 persons per year; 4-10% of all DVTs are located in an upper extremity (DVT-UE). DVT-UE can lead to complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism and carries a high mortality. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent literature, published from January 1980 to May 2016, that was retrieved by a systematic search, employing the PRISMA criteria, carried out in four databases: PubMed (n = 749), EMBASE (n = 789), SciSearch (n = 0), and the Cochrane Library (n = 12)...
April 7, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444360/role-of-early-onset-neutropenia-in-development-of-candidemia-in-premature-infants
#3
Nermin Ramy, Mohamed Hashim, Heba Abou Hussein, Happy Sawires, Maha Gaafar, Ayat El Maghraby
Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of early-onset neutropenia (EON) on the development of candidemia in premature infants and evaluate other risk factors. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in a neonatal intensive care unit of Cairo University Hospital. Fifty neutropenic premature infants were matched to 50 non-neutropenics. Subjects were then regrouped into candidemics and non-candidemics to study other risk factors such as central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition, drugs as corticosteroids and others...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443388/utilization-of-thoracic-ultrasound-for-confirmation-of-central-venous-catheter-placement-and-exclusion-of-pneumothorax-a-novel-technique-in-real-time-application
#4
Dileep Raman, Manish Sharma, Ajit Moghekar, Xiaofeng Wang, Umur Hatipoğlu
AIM: To evaluate the safety and utility of ultrasonography as a tool to confirm central venous catheter (CVC) position and to exclude insertion-related pneumothorax in place of chest radiography (CXR) in a tertiary medical intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We randomized 60 consecutive medical ICU patients to conventional or ultrasound groups for CVC placement. Both groups had CVCs inserted under ultrasound guidance. The intervention group underwent real-time transthoracic echocardiography to assist in catheter positioning and chest ultrasonography for exclusion of pneumothorax...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443269/epidemiology-and-risk-assessment-of-pediatric-venous-thromboembolism
#5
REVIEW
Arash Mahajerin, Stacy E Croteau
The incidence of diagnosed venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been increasing concurrent with advances in technology and medical care that enhance our ability to treat pediatric patients with critical illness or complex multiorgan system dysfunction. Although the overall incidence of VTE is estimated at 0.07-0.49 per 10,000 children, higher rates are observed in specific populations including hospitalized children, those with central venous catheters (CVCs) or patients convalescing from a major surgery. While the absolute number of pediatric VTE events may seem trivial compared to adults, the increasing incidence, associated with increased mortality and morbidity, the availability of novel therapies, and the impact on the cost of care have made investigation of VTE risk factors and prevention strategies a high priority...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442933/drainage-of-malignant-ascites-patient-selection-and-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Maciej Stukan
Malignant ascites (MA) is a sign of advanced cancer and poor prognosis. MA can result in impairment in quality of life (QOL) and significant symptoms. As a supportive treatment, ascites can be drained by paracentesis (PC), percutaneously implanted catheters (tunneled, untunneled, central venous catheters), or peritoneal ports, or peritoneovenous shunts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PRO) of different drainage methods for the management of MA...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441238/diaphragm-activation-in-ventilated-patients-using-a-novel-transvenous-phrenic-nerve-pacing-catheter
#7
Steven Reynolds, Adrian Ebner, Tracy Meffen, Viral Thakkar, Matt Gani, Kaity Taylor, Linda Clark, Gautam Sadarangani, Ramasamy Meyyappan, Rodrigo Sandoval, Elizabeth Rohrs, Joaquín A Hoffer
OBJECTIVES: Over 30% of critically ill patients on positive-pressure mechanical ventilation have difficulty weaning from the ventilator, many of whom acquire ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction. Temporary transvenous phrenic nerve pacing using a novel electrode-bearing catheter may provide a means to prevent diaphragm atrophy, to strengthen an atrophied diaphragm, and mitigate the harms of mechanical ventilation. We tested the initial safety, feasibility, and impact on ventilation of this novel approach...
April 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440869/massive-pleural-effusion-on-the-contralateral-side-of-a-venous-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter
#8
Selim Sancak, Abdulhamit Tuten, Tulin Gokmen Yildirim, Guner Karatekin
A preterm newborn infant, delivered at 30 weeks of gestation and 965 g birth weight, developed respiratory distress with resistant hypoxia after a central catheter line was inserted via the right venae brachialis on postnatal day 21. Left-sided massive pleural effusion, collapsed left lung with air bronchograms, and bidirectional shunting through reopened ductus arteriosus were detected by targeted neonatal echocardiography. Hydrothorax was drained under sonographic guidance, producing a milky-white fluid biochemically compatible with parenteral nutrition...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440110/in-parallel-connected-intermittent-hemodialysis-through-ecmo-does-not-affect-hemodynamic-parameters-derived-from-transpulmonary-thermodilution
#9
Tobias Lahmer, Ulrich Mayr, Sebastian Rasch, Gonzalo Batres Baires, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of renal replacement therapy (RRT) during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) via a single venous access and analyze the feasibility of transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) for hemodynamic monitoring. CASE REPORT: ECMO and RRT connected into the ECMO-extracorporeal circuit were performed via a single venous access because of multiple venous thromboses. An indicator for TPTD and pulse contour analysis (PCA) was applied into the central venous catheter (CVC) placed in the right vena jugularis...
April 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439517/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-organ-space-infection-after-radiofrequency-assisted-hepatectomy-or-ablation-of-liver-tumors-in-a-single-center-more-than-meets-the-eye
#10
Ioannis Karavokyros, Stamatios Orfanos, Anastasios Angelou, Antonia Meropouli, Dimitrios Schizas, John Griniatsos, Emmanouil Pikoulis
INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infections (SSIs) and especially organ/space infection (O/SI) after resection or ablation of liver tumors are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A secondary blood stream infection (BSI) is considered an O/SI but the exact prevalence is unknown. We aimed to investigate the incidence of O/SI and BSIs in a cohort of consecutive patients after liver resection or ablation, to seek for a possible connection between them and to search for potential risk factors...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439354/residents-procedural-experience-does-not-ensure-competence-a-research-synthesis
#11
Jeffrey H Barsuk, Elaine R Cohen, Joe Feinglass, William C McGaghie, Diane B Wayne
BACKGROUND: Many medical certifying bodies require that a minimum number of clinical procedures be completed during residency training to obtain board eligibility. However, little is known about the relationship between the number of procedures residents perform and their clinical competence. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated associations between residents' medical procedure skills measured in a simulation laboratory and self-reported procedure experience and year of training...
April 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439199/comparison-of-methods-and-formulas-used-in-umbilical-venous-catheter-placement
#12
Mehmet Mutlu, Burcu Küçükalioğlu Parıltan, Yakup Aslan, İlker Eyüpoğlu, Şebnem Kader, Filiz Acar Aktürk
AIM: Central venous access is frequently provided by way of umbilical venous catheter placement in critically ill newborns. This study compared the methods of Dunn, Shukla-Ferrara, and Revised Shukla-Ferrara in determining the appropriate insertion length of umbilical vein catheters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was carried out in 121 newborns with umbilical venous catheter, group 1 (n=41) used Dunn method, group 2 (n=40) used the Shukla-Ferrara formula, and group 3 used revised Shukla-Ferrara formula (n=40)...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438824/comparison-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-lock-solutions-with-and-without-heparin-against-biofilm-producing-bacteria
#13
Megan K Luther, Leonard A Mermel, Kerry L LaPlante
PURPOSE: The activity of linezolid and vancomycin lock solutions against biofilm-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecalis was studied. METHODS: Two strains each of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and S. epidermidis, and 1 strain of vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis were tested against vancomycin and linezolid to assess prevention of biofilm formation and eradication of these pathogens within a formed biofilm...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434662/paclitaxel-coated-balloons-for-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-central-venous-stenosis-in-dialysis-access-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Panagiotis M Kitrou, Panagiotis Papadimatos, Stavros Spiliopoulos, Konstantinos Katsanos, Nicolaos Christeas, Elias Brountzos, Dimitrios Karnabatidis
PURPOSE: To compare the clinically-assessed intervention-free period (IFP) of paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) vs conventional balloon angioplasty (CBA) for the treatment of symptomatic central venous stenosis (CVS) in dialysis access. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within 20 months, 40 dialysis patients (19/40 arteriovenous fistulae [AVFs] and 21/40 arteriovenous grafts [AVGs]) were randomized to undergo angioplasty either with a PCB (PCB group, n = 20; 14/20 male; age: 56...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433610/paraoxonases-and-infectious-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Jordi Camps, Simona Iftimie, Anabel García-Heredia, Antoni Castro, Jorge Joven
The paraoxonases (PON1, PON2 and PON3) are an enzyme family with a high structural homology. All of them have lactonase activity and degrade lipid peroxides in lipoproteins and cells. As such, they play a role in protection against oxidation and inflammation. Infectious diseases are often associated with oxidative stress and an inflammatory response. Infection and inflammation trigger a cascade of reactions in the host, known as the acute-phase response. This response is associated with dramatic changes in serum proteins and lipoproteins, including a decrease in serum PON1 activity...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431848/epidemiology-of-device-associated-infections-in-an-intensive-care-unit-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-nepal-a-prospective-surveillance-study-from-a-developing-country
#16
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Santosh Dahal, Jaya Prasad Singh, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Hari Prasad Kattel, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit patients are a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. METHODS: A prospective, structured clinicomicrobiological surveillance was carried out for 3 common DA-HAIs: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) present in the patients of an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Nepal...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431651/modified-inside-out-technique-for-continued-use-of-chronically-occluded-upper-central-veins
#17
Adnan Hadziomerovic, Zameer Hirji, Niamh Coffey
This report describes a 2-step, inside-out procedure for upper body central venous access in patients with chronic central venous occlusions. Blunt cephalad dissection through the mediastinum was achieved with a curved metal cannula and guide wire followed by percutaneous puncture of an open snare from a right supraclavicular approach and dilation of the tract for a tunneled central venous catheter insertion. Of 9 patients, all had a successful placement of a tunneled central venous catheter using this method...
May 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430759/evaluation-of-guidelines-for-injured-children-at-high-risk-for-venous-thromboembolism-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Rachel M Landisch, Sheila J Hanson, Laura D Cassidy, Kristin Braun, Rowena C Punzalan, David M Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a widely accepted practice in adult trauma patients to prevent associated morbidity and mortality. However, VTE prophylaxis has not been standardized in injured pediatric patients. Our institution identified factors potentially associated with a high risk of VTE in critically injured children that led to prospective implementation of VTE prophylaxis guidelines. We hypothesize that the guidelines are accurate in predicting children at risk for VTE...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430315/adding-access-blood-flow-surveillance-reduces-thrombosis-and-improves-arteriovenous-fistula-patency-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Inés Aragoncillo, Soraya Abad, Silvia Caldés, Yésika Amézquita, Almudena Vega, Antonio Cirugeda, Cristina Moratilla, José Ibeas, Ramón Roca-Tey, Cristina Fernández, Nicolás Macías, Borja Quiroga, Ana Blanco, Maite Villaverde, Caridad Ruiz, Belén Martín, Asunción M Ruiz, Jara Ampuero, Fernando de Alvaro, Juan M López-Gómez
PURPOSE: Stenosis is the main cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. It is still unclear whether surveillance based on vascular access blood flow (QA) enhances AVF function and longevity. METHODS: We conducted a three-year follow-up randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label trial to compare QA-based surveillance and pre-emptive repair of subclinical stenosis with standard monitoring/surveillance techniques in prevalent mature AVFs. AVFs were randomized to either the control group (surveillance based on classic alarm criteria; n = 104) or to the QA group (QA measured quarterly using Doppler ultrasound [M-Turbo®] and ultrasound dilution [Transonic®] added to classic surveillance; n = 103)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430309/variation-in-use-of-technology-among-vascular-access-specialists-an-analysis-of-the-picc1-survey
#20
Vineet Chopra, Latoya Kuhn, David Ratz, Suzanne Winter, Peter J Carr, David Paje, Sarah L Krein
BACKGROUND: While the use of technologies such as ultrasound and electrocardiographic (ECG) guidance systems to place peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) has grown, little is known about the clinicians who use these tools or their work settings. METHODS: Using data from a national survey of vascular access specialists, we identified technology users as PICC inserters that: (a) use ultrasound to find a suitable vein for catheter placement; (b) measure catheter-to-vein ratio; and (c) use ECG for PICC placement...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
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