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Stress, the Stress System and the Role of Glucocorticoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889894/glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-in-central-nervous-system-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Mythily Srinivasan, Debomoy K Lahiri
The central nervous system (CNS) is a large network of intercommunicating cells that function to maintain tissue health and homeostasis. Considerable evidence suggests that glucocorticoids exert both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects on the CNS. Glucocorticoids act by binding two related receptors in the cytoplasm, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The glucocorticoid receptor complex mediates cellular responses by transactivating target genes and by protein: protein interactions...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865492/peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-proliferation-and-cytokine-production-in-sheep-as-affected-by-cortisol-level-and-duration-of-stress
#2
M G Ciliberti, M Albenzio, C Inghese, A Santillo, R Marino, A Sevi, M Caroprese
A large number of studies recognize glucocorticoids (Gc) as suppressors of inflammation; Gc exert an important role in coordinating the magnitude and duration of host immune responses. In the present in vitro investigation, we tested incremental levels of cortisol to verify the immunosuppressive or immunopermissive role of cortisol in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after acute and chronic stress. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC were cultured for 24 h and 96 h at 37°C with 5% of CO2 and varying cortisol levels: 10 ng/mL (baseline), 100 ng/mL (physiological poststressor), and 1,000 ng/mL [hyperactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis]...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862513/memory-under-stress-from-single-systems-to-network-changes
#3
REVIEW
Lars Schwabe
Stressful events have profound effects on learning and memory. These effects are mainly mediated by catecholamines and glucocorticoid hormones released from the adrenals during stressful encounters. It has been known for long that both catecholamines and glucocorticoids influence the functioning of the hippocampus, a critical hub for episodic memory. However, areas implicated in other forms of memory, such as the insula or the dorsal striatum, can be affected by stress as well. Beyond changes in single memory systems, acute stress triggers the reconfiguration of large scale neural networks which sets the stage for a shift from thoughtful, 'cognitive' control of learning and memory towards more reflexive, 'habit' processes...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833807/the-ecology-of-stress-linking-life-history-traits-with-physiological-control-mechanisms-in-free-living-guanacos
#4
Ramiro J A Ovejero Aguilar, Graciela A Jahn, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa, Andrés J Novaro, Pablo Carmanchahi
BACKGROUND: Providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits, habitat features constrain successful ecological and physiological strategies. In vertebrates, a key response to life's challenges is the activation of the Stress (HPA) and Gonadal (HPG) axes. Much of the interest in stress ecology is motivated by the desire to understand the physiological mechanisms in which the environment affects fitness. As reported in the literature, several intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect variability in hormone levels...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818220/local-glucocorticoid-production-in-lymphoid-organs-of-mice-and-birds-functions-in-lymphocyte-development
#5
REVIEW
Matthew D Taves, Jordan E Hamden, Kiran K Soma
Circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) are powerful regulators of immunity. Stress-induced GC secretion by the adrenal glands initially enhances and later suppresses the immune response. GC targets include lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, which are well known for their sensitivity to GCs. Less appreciated, however, is that GCs are locally produced in lymphoid organs, where they play a critical role in selection of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we review the roles of systemic and locally-produced GCs in T lymphocyte development, which has been studied primarily in laboratory mice...
November 3, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815155/environmental-enrichment-protects-against-stress-induced-anxiety-role-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-erk-and-creb-signaling-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#6
Leonardo S Novaes, Nilton Barreto Dos Santos, Rafaela F P Batalhote, Marília Brinati Malta, Rosana Camarini, Cristoforo Scavone, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental animal model that enhances an animal's opportunity to interact with sensory, motor, and social stimuli, compared to standard laboratory conditions. A prominent benefit of EE is the reduction of stress-induced anxiety. The relationship between stress and the onset of anxiety-like behavior has been widely investigated in experimental research, showing a clear correlation with structural changes in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). However, the mechanisms by which EE exerts its protective roles in stress and anxiety remain unclear, and it is not known whether EE reduces the effects of acute stress on animal behavior shortly following the cessation of stress...
November 1, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814748/glucocorticoids-and-endothelial-function-in-inflammatory-diseases-focus-on-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
REVIEW
Frank Verhoeven, Clément Prati, Katy Maguin-Gaté, Daniel Wendling, Céline Demougeot
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common systemic autoimmune disease characterized by articular and extra-articular manifestations involving cardiovascular (CV) diseases. RA increases the CV mortality by up to 50 % compared with the global population and CV disease is the leading cause of death in patients with RA. There is growing evidence that RA favors accelerated atherogenesis secondary to endothelial dysfunction (ED) that occurs early in the course of the disease. ED is a functional and reversible alteration of endothelial cells, leading to a shift of the actions of the endothelium towards reduced vasodilation, proinflammatory state, proliferative and prothrombotic properties...
November 5, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784236/role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-the-tumor-micro-environment-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#8
Zhifang Xu, Seiji Shioda, Masahisa Jinushi, Yutaka Kawakami, Hirokazu Ohtaki, Shenjun Wang, Xue Zhao, Yangyang Liu, Dan Zhou, Yi Guo
Although evidence over the last 30 years suggests that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) mediates stress-induced allostatic and immune responses, the crucial role that it plays in the tumor micro-environment has only recently been reported. Here, we review the action of ANS signaling in this micro-environment. Emerging data suggest that primary tumors are innervated by the ANS which mediates stress-related effects on tumor progression. The activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) takes advantage of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides from the innervating neural circuitry and/or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis glucocorticoids via their receptors to modulate the gene expression associated with oncogenesis, the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, angiogenesis, and the tumor-associated immune response...
October 25, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784217/role-of-central-and-peripheral-crh-in-skin
#9
Maria Venihaki, Olga Rassouli, George Liapakis
Hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) has a key role in coordinating and controlling complex responses to stress, both systemically, by stimulating the expression of the pituitary POMC gene, and thus, resulting in increased production of ACTH and adrenal glucocorticoid release, and locally since CRH has been identified in several peripheral tissues. CRH seems to exert its effects through interaction with two known so far receptors, CRF1R and CRF2R. The mRNA and protein of CRH family of peptides and their receptors are expressed at several peripheral tissues including rodent and human skin...
October 26, 2016: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775419/blood-pressure-regulation-in-stress-focus-on-nitric-oxide-dependent-mechanisms
#10
A Puzserova, I Bernatova
Stress is considered a risk factor associated with the development of various civilization diseases including cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors and mental disorders. Research investigating mechanisms involved in stress-induced hypertension have attracted much attention of physicians and researchers, however, there are still ambiguous results concerning a causal relationship between stress and long-term elevation of blood pressure (BP). Several studies have observed that mechanisms involved in the development of stress-induced hypertension include increased activity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS), glucocorticoid (GC) overload and altered endothelial function including decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754486/association-of-fkbp5-polymorphisms-and-resting-state-activity-in-a-frontotemporal-parietal-network
#11
R A Bryant, K L Felmingham, B Liddell, P Das, G S Malhi
The FKBP5 polymorphism is a key regulator of the glucocorticoid system underpinning stress responsivity, and risk alleles can increase vulnerability for developing posttraumatic stress disorder. To delineate the specific role of FKBP5 risk alleles unencumbered by the confounds of psychopathology, this study investigated whether high-risk alleles of the FKBP5 polymorphism are characterized by distinctive neural activity during resting state. Thirty-seven healthy participants were selected on the basis of four SNPs in the FKBP5 gene region (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780 and rs9470080) to determine participants who were carriers of the FKBP5 high- and low-risk alleles...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725661/adenosine-a2a-receptor-regulation-of-microglia-morphological-remodeling-gender-bias-in-physiology-and-in-a-model-of-chronic-anxiety
#12
L Caetano, H Pinheiro, P Patrício, A Mateus-Pinheiro, N D Alves, B Coimbra, F I Baptista, S N Henriques, C Cunha, A R Santos, S G Ferreira, V M Sardinha, J F Oliveira, A F Ambrósio, N Sousa, R A Cunha, A J Rodrigues, L Pinto, C A Gomes
Developmental risk factors, such as the exposure to stress or high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), may contribute to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. The immunomodulatory role of GCs and the immunological fingerprint found in animals prenatally exposed to GCs point towards an interplay between the immune and the nervous systems in the etiology of these disorders. Microglia are immune cells of the brain, responsive to GCs and morphologically altered in stress-related disorders. These cells are regulated by adenosine A2A receptors, which are also involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709495/evidence-for-a-link-between-fkbp5-fkbp5-early-life-social-relations-and-alcohol-drinking-in-young-adult-rats-and-humans
#13
Ingrid Nylander, Aniruddha Todkar, Linnea Granholm, Maria Vrettou, Megha Bendre, Wout Boon, Henrik Andershed, Catherine Tuvblad, Kent W Nilsson, Erika Comasco
Alcohol misuse has been linked to dysregulation of stress, emotion, and reward brain circuitries. A candidate key mediator of this association is the FK506-binding protein (FKBP5), a negative regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. The aim of the present study was to further understand the Fkbp5/FKBP5-related genetic underpinnings underlying the relationship between early life social relations and alcohol drinking. The effect of maternal separation and voluntary alcohol drinking on Fkbp5 expression was investigated in the brain of young adult rats, whereas the interaction effect of the functional FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 genotype and parent-child relationship on problematic drinking was examined in young adult humans...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690690/dissociation-of-molecular-and-endocrine-circadian-rhythms-in-male-mice-lacking-bmal1-in-the-adrenal-cortex
#14
Rebecca Dumbell, Alexei Leliavski, Olga Matveeva, Christopher Blaum, Anthony H Tsang, Henrik Oster
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids affects diverse physiological systems, including stress responses and the coordination of rhythmic functions in peripheral and central tissues. Circadian clocks are considered to be important coordinators of glucocorticoid release and loss of the core clock component BMAL1 leads to ablation of behavioural and physiological rhythms, hypocortisolism, impaired ACTH and behavioural stress responses. Transplantation and conditional clock gene knock-down studies in mice suggest an important role of local adrenocortical clock function in this context...
October 3, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658996/oxytocin-a-main-breastfeeding-hormone-prevents-hypertension-acquired-in-utero-a-therapeutics-preview
#15
REVIEW
Froylán Vargas-Martínez, Richard J Schanler, Steven A Abrams, Keli M Hawthorne, Susan Landers, José Guzman-Bárcenas, Onofre Muñoz, Tore Henriksen, Maria Petersson, Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada
Hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease and stroke, leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), caused by an excess of glucocorticoid exposure to the fetus, produces an imbalance in oxidative stress altering many biochemical and epigenetic gene transcription processes exposing the fetus and neonate to the 'thrifty' phenotype and pervasive polymorphisms appearance damaging health, cognitive, and behavioral processes in later life. OT is a major regulator of oxidative stress radicals that plays a major role in neonatal maturation of the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues expressing oxytocin/oxytocin-receptor (OT/OTR) system in the early postnatal period...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538784/positive-social-interactions-in-a-lifespan-perspective-with-a-focus-on-opioidergic-and-oxytocinergic-systems-implications-for-neuroprotection
#16
Valentina Colonnello, Nicola Petrocchi, Marina Farinelli, Cristina Ottaviani
In recent years, a growing interest has emerged in the beneficial effects of positive social interactions on health. The present work aims to review animal and human studies linking social interactions and health throughout the lifespan, with a focus on current knowledge of the possible mediating role of opioids and oxytocin. During the prenatal period, a positive social environment contributes to regulating maternal stress response and protecting the fetus from exposure to maternal active glucocorticoids. Throughout development, positive social contact with the caregiver acts as a "hidden regulator" and promotes infant neuro affective development...
August 16, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485028/the-acute-and-temporary-modulation-of-period-genes-by-hydrocortisone-in-healthy-subjects
#17
Türkan Yurtsever, Thomas M Schilling, Monika Kölsch, Jonathan D Turner, Jobst Meyer, Hartmut Schächinger, Andrea B Schote
The physiological stress system and the circadian clock system communicate with each other at different signaling levels. The steroid hormone cortisol, the end-effector of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, is released in response to stress and acts as a mediator in circadian rhythms. We determined the effect of escalating cortisol doses on the expression of PERIOD genes (PER1, PER2 and PER3) in healthy subjects and analyzed whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is involved in the cortisol-mediated PERIOD gene expression...
2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382208/effect-of-ubiquinol-on-serum-reproductive-hormones-of-amenorrhic-patients
#18
A S Thakur, G P Littaru, I Funahashi, U S Painkara, N S Dange, P Chauhan
In neuroendocrine system the increase in oxidative status is produced by a glucocorticoid-dependent and transcriptional increase in pro-oxidative drive, with concurrent inhibition of the antioxidant defense system, ultimately leading to increased neuronal cell death. Functional hypothalamic disturbances and neuroendocirne aberrations have both short and long term consequences for reproductive health. Understandably, an impaired or diminished hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to anovulation and hypoestrogenism...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319971/repeated-social-defeat-neuroinflammation-and-behavior-monocytes-carry-the-signal
#19
Michael D Weber, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Mounting evidence indicates that proinflammatory signaling in the brain affects mood, cognition, and behavior and is linked with the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. The purpose of this review is to focus on stress-induced bidirectional communication pathways between the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral immune system that converge to promote a heightened neuroinflammatory environment. These communication pathways involve sympathetic outflow from the brain to the peripheral immune system that biases hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into a glucocorticoid-resistant and primed myeloid lineage immune cell...
January 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317195/cannabinoids-reverse-the-effects-of-early-stress-on-neurocognitive-performance-in-adulthood
#20
Shirley Alteba, Nachshon Korem, Irit Akirav
Early life stress (ES) significantly increases predisposition to psychopathologies. Cannabinoids may cause cognitive deficits and exacerbate the effects of ES. Nevertheless, the endocannabinoid system has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Here we examined whether cannabinoids administered during "late adolescence" (extensive cannabis use in humans at the ages 18-25) could reverse the long-term adverse effects of ES on neurocognitive function in adulthood...
July 2016: Learning & Memory
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