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Stress, the Stress System and the Role of Glucocorticoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154288/patterns-of-calcium-signaling-a-link-between-chronic-emotions-and-cancer
#1
Massimo Pregnolato, Giuseppe Damiani, Alfredo Pereira
Intra and inter-cellular calcium signaling is present in all types of cells and body tissues. In the human brain, calcium currents and waves are related to mental activities, including emotions. We present a theoretical interpretation of these phenomena suggesting their involvement in chronic emotional patterns and in the pathology of cancer. Recent developments on biophysics, translational biology and psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI) can support explanatory hypotheses about the link between emotional stresses and the origin and development of different types of tumor cells...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145764/plasma-corticosterone-epinephrine-and-norepinephrine-levels-increase-during-administration-of-nitrous-oxide-in-rats
#2
Salwa Al-Noori, Andreas Cimpan, Zoe Maltzer, Karl J Kaiyala, Douglas S Ramsay
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a gaseous drug with abuse potential. Despite its common clinical use, little is known about whether N2O administration activates the HPA axis and/or the sympathetic adrenomedullary system. The goal of this study was to determine whether 60% N2O alters plasma concentrations of corticosterone (CORT), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in male Long-Evans rats. A gas-tight swivel assembly in the lid of a gas administration chamber allowed the remote collection of blood samples from an indwelling jugular vein catheter at four time-points: baseline and at 30, 60, and 120 min during a two-hour administration of 60% N2O...
November 16, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108634/maternal-growth-restriction-and-stress-exposure-in-rats-differentially-alters-expression-of-components-of-the-placental-glucocorticoid-barrier-and-nutrient-transporters
#3
Jessica F Briffa, Sogand S Hosseini, Melanie Tran, Karen M Moritz, James S M Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
The placenta plays a major role in the development of fetal growth restriction, which affects 10% of pregnancies and contributes to chronic adult disease risk. We have reported that female rats born small develop cardiometabolic dysfunction only during pregnancy. The physiological tests performed during pregnancy induced a maternal stress response as indicated by increased maternal corticosterone concentrations. This stress effected placental growth compared to females who were unhandled during pregnancy. Maternal stress and growth restriction independently program F2 offspring metabolic dysfunction...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093513/high-fat-diet-and-chronic-stress-aggravate-adrenal-function-abnormality-induced-by-prenatal-caffeine-exposure-in-male-offspring-rats
#4
Zheng He, Feng Lv, Yufeng Ding, Hegui Huang, Lian Liu, Chunyan Zhu, Youyin Lei, Li Zhang, Cai Si, Hui Wang
We previously demonstrated thatprenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) suppressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and resulted in developmental programming changes in offspring rats. However, whether these changes play a role in adrenal corticosterone synthesis under high-fat diet (HFD) and unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) remains unknown. In present study, rat model was established by PCE (120 mg/kg.d), and male offspring were provided normal diet or HFD after weaning. At postnatal week 21, several rats fed HFD were exposed to UCS for 3 weeks and sacrificed...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081809/astrocytes-at-the-hub-of-the-stress-response-potential-modulation-of-neurogenesis-by-mirnas-in-astrocyte-derived-exosomes
#5
REVIEW
Alejandro Luarte, Pablo Cisternas, Ariel Caviedes, Luis Federico Batiz, Carlos Lafourcade, Ursula Wyneken, Roberto Henzi
Repetitive stress negatively affects several brain functions and neuronal networks. Moreover, adult neurogenesis is consistently impaired in chronic stress models and in associated human diseases such as unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, while it is restored by effective antidepressant treatments. The adult neurogenic niche contains neural progenitor cells in addition to amplifying progenitors, neuroblasts, immature and mature neurons, pericytes, astrocytes, and microglial cells. Because of their particular and crucial position, with their end feet enwrapping endothelial cells and their close communication with the cells of the niche, astrocytes might constitute a nodal point to bridge or transduce systemic stress signals from peripheral blood, such as glucocorticoids, to the cells involved in the neurogenic process...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993273/acute-mental-stress-induces-mitochondrial-bioenergetic-crisis-and-hyper-fission-along-with-aberrant-mitophagy-in-the-gut-mucosa-in-rodent-model-of-stress-related-mucosal-disease
#6
Rudranil De, Somnath Mazumder, Souvik Sarkar, Subhashis Debsharma, Asim Azhar Siddiqui, Shubhra Jyoti Saha, Chinmoy Banerjee, Shiladitya Nag, Debanjan Saha, Uday Bandyopadhyay
Psychological stress, depression and anxiety lead to multiple organ dysfunctions wherein stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) is common to people experiencing stress and also occur as a side effect in patients admitted to intensive care units; however the underlying molecular aetiology is still obscure. We report that in rat-SRMD model, cold restraint-stress severely damaged gut mitochondrial functions to generate superoxide anion (O2(•-)), depleted ATP and shifted mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics towards enhanced fission to induce mucosal injury...
October 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990076/global-transcriptome%C3%A2-wide-analysis-of-the-function-of-gddr-in-acute-gastric-lesions
#7
Ziqiang Zhang, Jie Zhu, Yuanqiang Dong, Hongyuan Xu, Tao Jiang, Wenshuai Li, Diannan Xu, Liubin Shi, Jianghong Yu, Jun Zhang, Jianjun Du
Acute gastric lesions induced by stress are frequent occurrences in medical establishments. The gastric dramatic downrelated gene (GDDR) is a secreted protein, which is abundantly expressed in normal gastric epithelia and is significantly decreased in gastric cancer. In our previous study, it was found that GDDR aggravated stress‑induced acute gastric lesions. However, the role of GDDR in acute gastric lesions remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, RNA sequencing was performed in order to examine the gene expression profile regulated by GDDR in acute gastric lesions...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943841/microglia-an-interface-between-the-loss-of-neuroplasticity-and-depression
#8
REVIEW
Gaurav Singhal, Bernhard T Baune
Depression has been widely accepted as a major psychiatric disease affecting nearly 350 million people worldwide. Research focus is now shifting from studying the extrinsic and social factors of depression to the underlying molecular causes. Microglial activity is shown to be associated with pathological conditions, such as psychological stress, pathological aging, and chronic infections. These are primary immune effector cells in the CNS and regulate the extensive dialogue between the nervous and the immune systems in response to different immunological, physiological, and psychological stressors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903579/loneliness-social-isolation-and-cardiovascular-health
#9
Ning Xia, Huige Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Social and demographic changes have led to an increased prevalence of loneliness and social isolation in modern society. Recent Advances: Population-based studies have demonstrated that both objective social isolation and perceived social isolation (loneliness) are associated with increased mortality and that both are clearly risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Lonely individuals have increased peripheral vascular resistance and elevated blood pressure. Socially isolated animals develop more atherosclerosis than those housed in groups...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899858/redd1-induction-regulates-the-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-signature-following-acute-aerobic-exercise
#10
Bradley S Gordon, Jennifer L Steiner, Michael L Rossetti, Shuxi Qiao, Leif W Ellisen, Subramaniam S Govindarajan, Alexey M Eroshkin, Dave L Williamson, Paul M Coen
The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837788/regulation-of-the-corticosteroid-signalling-system-in-rainbow-trout-hpi-axis-during-confinement-stress
#11
Pia Kiilerich, Arianna Servili, Sandrine Péron, Claudiane Valotaire, Lionel Goardon, Isabelle Leguen, Patrick Prunet
This study aims to shed light on corticosteroid regulation of stress in teleost fish with focus on the corticosteroid signalling system. The role of the mineralocorticoid-like hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in fish is still enigmatic, as is the function of the mineralocorticoid receptor, MR. Low plasma DOC levels and ubiquitous tissue distribution of MR question the physiological relevance of the mineralocorticoid-axis. Furthermore, the particular purpose of each of the three corticosteroid receptors in fish, the glucocorticoid receptors, GR1 and GR2, and the MR, is still largely unknown...
August 21, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776199/contribution-of-vesicular-glutamate-transporters-to-stress-response-and-related-psychopathologies-studies-in-vglut3-knockout-mice
#12
REVIEW
Hanga Réka Horváth, Csilla Lea Fazekas, Diána Balázsfi, Subodh Kumar Jain, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Maintenance of the homeostasis in a constantly changing environment is a fundamental process of life. Disturbances of the homeostatic balance is defined as stress response and is induced by wide variety of challenges called stressors. Being the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system glutamate is important in the adaptation process of stress regulating both the catecholaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Data are accumulating about the role of different glutamatergic receptors at all levels of these axes, but little is known about the contribution of different vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) characterizing the glutamatergic neurons...
August 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728884/glucocorticoid-programming-of-neuroimmune-function
#13
REVIEW
David J Walker, Karen A Spencer
Throughout life physiological systems strive to maintain homeostasis and these systems are susceptible to exposure to maternal or environmental perturbations, particularly during embryonic development. In some cases, these perturbations may influence genetic and physiological processes that permanently alter the functioning of these physiological systems; a process known as developmental programming. In recent years, the neuroimmune system has garnered attention for its fundamental interactions with key hormonal systems, such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669635/neuropsychiatry-phenotype-in-asthma-psychological-stress-induced-alterations-of-the-neuroendocrine-immune-system-in-allergic-airway-inflammation
#14
REVIEW
Isao Ohno
Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS) upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation...
June 29, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668716/replication-of-rs300774-a-genetic-biomarker-near-acp1-associated-with-suicide-attempts-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-relation-to-brain-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#15
Jiang Li, Akane Yoshikawa, Herbert Y Meltzer
The aim of this study was to determine if three biomarkers for suicide attempts previously identified and replicated in a genome-wide association (GWAS) study of bipolar disorder (BD) suicide attempters also predicted suicide attempts in patients prospectively diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCZ) or schizoaffective disorder (SAD). 162 genetically-verified Caucasian patients with SCZ or SAD were phenotyped for presence (45.7%) or absence of a lifetime suicide attempt. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped or partially imputed from a GWAS dataset...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612935/early-adversity-and-brain-response-to-faces-in-young-adulthood
#16
Johannes Lieslehto, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Jenni Koivukangas, Tanja Nordström, Jouko Miettunen, Jennifer H Barnett, Peter B Jones, Graham K Murray, Irma Moilanen, Tomáš Paus, Juha Veijola
Early stressors play a key role in shaping interindividual differences in vulnerability to various psychopathologies, which according to the diathesis-stress model might relate to the elevated glucocorticoid secretion and impaired responsiveness to stress. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that individuals exposed to early adversity have deficits in emotion processing from faces. This study aims to explore whether early adversities associate with brain response to faces and whether this association might associate with the regional variations in mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1)...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591825/corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-and-corticosterone-impair-development-of-preimplantation-embryos-by-inducing-oviductal-cell-apoptosis-via-activating-the-fas-system-an-in-vitro-study
#17
Xiu-Wen Tan, Chang-Li Ji, Liang-Liang Zheng, Jie Zhang, Hong-Jie Yuan, Shuai Gong, Jiang Zhu, Jing-He Tan
STUDY QUESTION: What are the mechanisms by which corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone impair the development of preimplantation embryos in the oviduct. SUMMARY ANSWER: CRH and corticosterone do not affect preimplantation embryos directly, but impair their development indirectly by triggering apoptosis of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) through activation of the Fas system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies report that stress impairs embryo development with facilitated secretion of CRH and glucocorticoids...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558479/mechanisms-of-mitochondrial-redox-signaling-in-psychosocial-stress-responsive-systems-new-insights-into-an-old-story
#18
Thomas Meyer, Petra H Wirtz
SIGNIFICANCE: Psychosocial stress is associated with alterations in serum glucocorticoids and cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, which functionally interact. However, the molecular mechanisms and physiological relationship between the two systems within the context of stress exposure are not well characterized. Recent Advances: Extracellular IL-6, which stimulates the release of cortisol from the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, mediates its intracellular effects by tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
July 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551512/systemic-n-terminal-fragments-of-adrenocorticotropin-reduce-inflammation-and-stress-induced-anhedonia-in-rats
#19
Dmitrii D Markov, Ksenia A Yatsenko, Lyudmila S Inozemtseva, Igor A Grivennikov, Nikolai F Myasoedov, Oleg V Dolotov
Emerging evidence implicates impaired self-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and inflammation as important and closely related components of the pathophysiology of major depression. Antidepressants show anti-inflammatory effects and are suggested to enhance glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. HPA axis activity is also negatively self-regulated by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a potent anti-inflammatory peptide activating five subtypes of melanocortin receptors (MCRs)...
May 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#20
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
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