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Stress, the Stress System and the Role of Glucocorticoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748590/relationship-between-homodimeric-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-transcriptional-regulation-assessed-via-an-in-vitro-fluorescence-correlation-spectroscopy-microwell-system
#1
Sho Oasa, Shintaro Mikuni, Johtaro Yamamoto, Tsumugi Kurosaki, Daisuke Yamashita, Masataka Kinjo
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a hormone-activated transcription regulatory protein involved in metabolism as well as adrenocortical responses to psychosocial stress. Ligand-activated GR localizes to the nucleus, where GR homodimers regulate gene transcription via direct binding to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs). The role of GR homodimers in transcriptional activation has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we determined the concentration of GR homodimer, and its dissociation constant (Kd ), at the single-cell level, by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with a microwell system...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731108/glucocorticoid-receptor-modulators
#2
Onno C Meijer, Lisa L Koorneef, Jan Kroon
The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol acts throughout the body to support circadian processes and adaptation to stress. The glucocorticoid receptor is the target of cortisol and of synthetic glucocorticoids, which are used widely in the clinic. Both agonism and antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor may be beneficial in disease, but given the wide expression of the receptor and involvement in various processes, beneficial effects are often accompanied by unwanted side effects. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators are ligands that induce a receptor conformation that allows activation of only a subset of downstream signaling pathways...
May 3, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706926/modulating-the-oxytocin-system-during-the-perinatal-period-a-new-strategy-for-neuroprotection-of-the-immature-brain
#3
REVIEW
Manuela Zinni, Marina Colella, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Olivier Baud, Jérôme Mairesse
Oxytocin is a neurohypophysal hormone known for its activity during labor and its role in lactation. However, the function of oxytocin (OTX) goes far beyond the peripheral regulation of reproduction, and the central effects of OTX have been extensively investigated, since it has been recognized to influence the learning and memory processes. OTX has also prominent effects on social behavior, anxiety, and autism. Interaction between glucocorticoids, OTX, and maternal behavior may have long-term effects on the developmental program of the developing brain subjected to adverse events during pre and perinatal periods...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695779/a-dual-role-for-glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-in-glucocorticoid-function-tumor-growth-promotion-or-suppression
#4
Emira Ayroldi, Lorenza Cannarile, Domenico V Delfino, Carlo Riccardi
Glucocorticoids (GCs), important therapeutic tools to treat inflammatory and immunosuppressive diseases, can also be used as part of cancer therapy. In oncology, GCs are used as anticancer drugs for lymphohematopoietic malignancies, while in solid neoplasms primarily to control the side effects of chemo/radiotherapy treatments. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of GCs are numerous and often overlapping, but not all have been elucidated. In normal, cancerous, and inflammatory tissues, the response to GCs differs based on the tissue type...
April 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663153/stress-and-obesity-are-there-more-susceptible-individuals
#5
REVIEW
Eline S van der Valk, Mesut Savas, Elisabeth F C van Rossum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress has long been suspected to be interrelated to (abdominal) obesity. However, interindividual differences in this complex relationship exist. We suggest that the extent of glucocorticoid action partly explains these interindividual differences. We provide latest insights with respect to multiple types of stressors. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased long-term cortisol levels, as measured in scalp hair, are strongly related to abdominal obesity and to specific mental disorders...
April 16, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623033/aggression-social-stress-and-the-immune-system-in-humans-and-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Bruce S McEwen, Scott J Russo
Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604138/glucocorticoid-withdrawal-affects-stress-induced-changes-of-urocortin-2-gene-expression-in-rat-adrenal-medulla-and-brain
#7
Andrej Tillinger, Ľubica Horváthová, Regina Nostramo, Lidia I Serova, Richard Kvetňanský, Esther L Sabban, Boris Mravec
Corticotropin-releasing factor is well known activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, that represents crucial system participating on stress response of the organism. Urocortins are members of the corticotropin-releasing factor family of peptides with proposed effects on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress response mechanisms. Urocortin 2, one of three known urocortins, is present in central and peripheral stress response system and its expression can be augmented by glucocorticoids. In the present study we have examined how glucocorticoid withdrawal affects urocortin 2 gene expression after acute immobilization in the adrenal medulla and selected brain areas in rats...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559087/noncoding-rnas-stress-glucocorticoids-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Nikolaos P Daskalakis, Allison C Provost, Richard G Hunter, Guia Guffanti
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pathologic response to trauma that impacts ∼8% of the population and is highly comorbid with other disorders, such as traumatic brain injury. PTSD affects multiple biological systems throughout the body, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cortical function, and the immune system, and while the study of the biological underpinnings of PTSD and related disorders are numerous, the roles of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are just emerging. Moreover, deep sequencing has revealed that ncRNAs represent most of the transcribed mammalian genome...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555470/acute-stress-enhances-learning-and-memory-by-activating-acid-sensing-ion-channels-in-rats
#9
Shunjie Ye, Rong Yang, Qiuju Xiong, Youhua Yang, Lianying Zhou, Yeli Gong, Changlei Li, Zhenhan Ding, Guohai Ye, Zhe Xiong
Acute stress has been shown to enhance learning and memory ability, predominantly through the action of corticosteroid stress hormones. However, the valuable targets for promoting learning and memory induced by acute stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in central neuronal systems and involves in depression, synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. In the current study, we used a combination of electrophysiological and behavioral approaches in an effort to explore the effects of acute stress on ASICs...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527695/oxytocin-regulates-reunion-affiliation-with-a-pairmate-following-social-separation-in-marmosets
#10
Jon Cavanaugh, Aaryn Mustoe, Jeffrey A French
While separation from significant social partners produces a host of neurobiological and behavioral perturbations, including behavioral distress and increased glucocorticoid production, positive social interactions upon reunion are critical for the reestablishment of normative relationship dynamics and the attenuation of the biobehavioral stress response. The hormone oxytocin has critical and pervasive roles in reproductive and behavioral processes across the lifespan, and plays a particularly prominent role in social bonding...
March 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524763/glucocorticoid-endocannabinoid-uncoupling-mediates-fear-suppression-deficits-after-early-life-stress
#11
Piray Atsak, Maria Morena, Chantal Schoenmaker, Emma Tabak, Charlotte A Oomen, Sara Jamil, Matthew N Hill, Benno Roozendaal
Early-life stress (ELS) creates life-long vulnerability to stress-related anxiety disorders through altering stress and fear systems in the brain. The endocannabinoid system has emerged as an important regulator of the stress response through a crosstalk with the glucocorticoid system, yet whether it plays a role in the persistent effects of ELS remains unanswered. By combining, behavioral, pharmacological and biochemical approaches in adult male rats, we examined the impact of ELS on the regulation of endocannabinoid function by stress and glucocorticoids...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486070/expression-and-activity-profiling-of-the-steroidogenic-enzymes-of-glucocorticoid-biosynthesis-and-the-fdx1-co-factors-in-zebrafish
#12
M Weger, N Diotel, B D Weger, T Beil, A Zaucker, H L Eachus, J A Oakes, J L do Rego, K-H Storbeck, P Gut, U Strähle, S Rastegar, F Müller, N Krone
The spatial and temporal expression of steroidogenic genes in zebrafish has not been fully characterised. Because zebrafish are increasingly employed in endocrine and stress research, a better characterisation of steroidogenic pathways is required to target specific steps in the biosynthetic pathways. In the present study, we have systematically defined the temporal and spatial expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in glucocorticoid biosynthesis (cyp21a2, cyp11c1, cyp11a1, cyp11a2, cyp17a1, cyp17a2, hsd3b1, hsd3b2), as well as the mitochondrial electron-providing ferredoxin co-factors (fdx1, fdx1b), during zebrafish development...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484264/propranolol-can-induce-ptsd-like-memory-impairments-in-rats
#13
Rong-Ting Zhu, Xiang-Hui Liu, Yan-Wei Shi, Xiao-Guang Wang, Li Xue, Hu Zhao
Introduction: One hallmark symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an inability to restrict fear responses to the appropriate predictor. An infusion of glucocorticoids (GCs) after a high-intensity shock has been shown to induce PTSD-like memory impairments. In addition to GCs, noradrenergic signalling is also recognized as a key biomarker underlying PTSD symptomatology. Methods: To explore the role of the noradrenergic system in PTSD-like memory impairments, in this study, various doses of the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol were systemically or bilaterally injected into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after unpaired cue-shock contextual fear conditioning, and then the rats were tested 24 h later...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433075/glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-methylation-moderates-the-association-of-childhood-trauma-and-cortisol-stress-reactivity
#14
Nina Alexander, Clemens Kirschbaum, Matthis Wankerl, Benjamin J Stauch, Tobias Stalder, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Markus Muehlhan, Robert Miller
Exposure to childhood trauma (CT) has been linked to sustained dysregulations of major stress response systems, including findings of both exaggerated and attenuated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Likewise, CT constitutes a common risk factor for a broad range of psychiatric conditions that involve distinct neuroendocrine profiles. In this study, we investigated the role of epigenetic variability in a stress-related gene as a potential mediator or moderator of such differential trajectories in CT survivors...
April 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382712/corticosterone-production-during-repeated-social-defeat-causes-monocyte-mobilization-from-the-bone-marrow-glucocorticoid-resistance-and-neurovascular-adhesion-molecule-expression
#15
Anzela Niraula, Yufen Wang, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Repeated social defeat (RSD) stress promotes the release of bone marrow-derived monocytes into circulation that are recruited to the brain, where they augment neuroinflammation and cause prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Physiological stress activates the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, and both of these systems play a role in the physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses to stress. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of HPA activation and corticosterone production in the immunological responses to stress in male C57BL/6 mice...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364951/seasonal-differences-of-corticosterone-metabolite-concentrations-and-parasite-burden-in-northern-bald-ibis-geronticus-eremita-the-role-of-affiliative-interactions
#16
Verena Puehringer-Sturmayr, Claudia A F Wascher, Matthias-Claudio Loretto, Rupert Palme, Mareike Stoewe, Kurt Kotrschal, Didone Frigerio
The reproductive season is energetically costly as revealed by elevated glucocorticoid concentrations, constrained immune functions and an increased risk of infections. Social allies and affiliative interactions may buffer physiological stress responses and thereby alleviate associated effects. In the present study, we investigated the seasonal differences of immune reactive corticosterone metabolite concentrations, endoparasite burden (nematode eggs and coccidian oocysts) and affiliative interactions in northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita), a critically endangered bird...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331615/increased-brain-glucocorticoid-actions-following-social-defeat-in-rats-facilitates-the-long-term-establishment-of-social-subordination
#17
Meltem Weger, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Social rank is frequently established through aggressive encounters between new conspecifics. Despite increasing evidence suggesting that social rank is critical for the well-being of both humans and animals, knowledge about the factors influencing social rank remain scarce. Stress was previously shown to affect the establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies in rats. Likewise, increasing systemic corticosterone levels post-encounter in the emerging subordinate rat facilitates the long-term establishment of social subordination...
March 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306773/midlife-stress-alters-memory-and-mood-related-behaviors-in-old-age-role-of-locally-activated-glucocorticoids
#18
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
March 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277444/entrainment-of-the-mouse-circadian-clock-effects-of-stress-exercise-and-nutrition
#19
REVIEW
Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system in mammals plays a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Entrainment is an important characteristic of the internal clock, by which appropriate timing is maintained according to external daily stimuli, such as light, stress, exercise, and/or food. Disorganized entrainment or a misaligned clock time, such as jet lag, increases health disturbances. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, located in the hypothalamus, receives information about arousal stimuli, such as physical stress or exercise, and changes the clock time by modifying neural activity or the expression of circadian clock genes...
December 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162721/loss-of-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-function-in-zebrafish-reveals-critical-roles-in-the-development-of-the-lens-and-stress-resistance-of-the-heart
#20
Sanjay Mishra, Shu-Yu Wu, Alexandra W Fuller, Zhen Wang, Kristie L Rose, Kevin L Schey, Hassane S Mchaourab
Genetic mutations in the human small heat shock protein αB-crystallin have been implicated in autosomal cataracts and skeletal myopathies, including heart muscle diseases (cardiomyopathy). Although these mutations lead to modulation of their chaperone activity in vitro , the in vivo functions of αB-crystallin in the maintenance of both lens transparency and muscle integrity remain unclear. This lack of information has hindered a mechanistic understanding of these diseases. To better define the functional roles of αB-crystallin, we generated loss-of-function zebrafish mutant lines by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system to specifically disrupt the two αB-crystallin genes, α Ba and α Bb We observed lens abnormalities in the mutant lines of both genes, and the penetrance of the lens phenotype was higher in α Ba than α Bb mutants...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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