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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933246/a-quantitative-report-on-the-impact-of-chloride-on-the-kinetic-coefficients-of-auxin-induced-growth-a-numerical-contribution-to-the-acid-growth-hypothesis
#1
Mariusz Pietruszka, Aleksandra Haduch-Sendecka
This work presents the application of several our own novel methods of analysing the kinetics of plant growth, which create, among others, a common platform for the comparison of experimental results. A relatively simple formula is used to parameterize the wide range of data that has been obtained for Zea mays L. in the literature, though it can also be used for different species. A biophysical/biochemical interpretation of the parameters was obtained from a theoretical model that is based on a modified Lockhart equation...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933082/rna-seq-transcriptome-response-of-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-to-the-pathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lini
#2
Leonardo Galindo-González, Michael K Deyholos
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933081/the-density-and-length-of-root-hairs-are-enhanced-in-response-to-cadmium-and-arsenic-by-modulating-gene-expressions-involved-in-fate-determination-and-morphogenesis-of-root-hairs-in-arabidopsis
#3
Ramin Bahmani, Dong G Kim, Jin A Kim, Seongbin Hwang
Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of Arabidopsis to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic [arsenite, As(III)] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III) downregulated TTG1 and GL2 (negative regulators of fate determination) and upregulated GEM (positive regulator), suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933077/ethylene-is-not-responsible-for-phytochrome-mediated-apical-hook-exaggeration-in-tomato
#4
Miki Takahashi-Asami, Chizuko Shichijo, Seiji Tsurumi, Tohru Hashimoto
The apical hook of tomato seedlings is exaggerated by phytochrome actions, while in other species such as bean, pea and Arabidopsis, the hook is exaggerated by ethylene and opens by phytochrome actions. The present study was aimed to clarify mainly whether ethylene is responsible for the phytochrome-mediated hook exaggeration of tomato seedlings. Dark-grown 5-day-old seedlings were subjected to various ways of ethylene application in the dark as well as under the actions of red (R) or far-red light (FR). The ethylene emitted by seedlings was also quantified relative to hook exaggeration...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932419/jasmonic-acid-enhances-al-induced-root-growth-inhibition
#5
Zhong-Bao Yang, Chunmei He, Yanqi Ma, Marco Herde, Zhaojun Ding
Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root-growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root-growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root-growth inhibition...
December 8, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929436/comparison-of-small-rna-profiles-of-glycine-max-and-glycine-soja-at-early-developmental-stages
#6
Yuzhe Sun, Zeta Mui, Xuan Liu, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Hao Qin, Fuk-Ling Wong, Ting-Fung Chan, Siu-Ming Yiu, Hon-Ming Lam, Boon Leong Lim
Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924133/optimization-of-in-vitro-and-ex-vitro-regeneration-and-micromorphological-studies-in-basella-alba-l
#7
Mahipal S Shekhawat, M Manokari
The optimum concentrations of the plant hormones for in vitro regeneration and subsequent effect of auxins on rooting (in vitro and ex vitro) of shoots of Basella alba L. have been investigated in present study. Nodal shoot segments were used as explants to initiate the cultures. The bud breaking from explants was observed within 1 week of incubation on agar gelled Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium. Multiple axillary shoots (7.30 ± 0.56 shoots per explant) were induced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923878/neighbor-detection-induces-organ-specific-transcriptomes-revealing-patterns-underlying-hypocotyl-specific-growth
#8
Markus Kohnen, Emanuel Schmid-Siegert, Martine Trevisan, Laure Allenbach Petrolati, Fabien Sénéchal, Patricia Müller-Moulé, Julin N Maloof, Ioannis Xenarios, Christian Fankhauser
In response to neighbor proximity, plants increase the growth of specific organs (e.g., hypocotyls) to enhance access to sunlight. Shade enhances the activity of Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs) by releasing these bHLH transcription factors from phytochrome B-mediated inhibition. PIFs promote elongation by inducing auxin production in cotyledons. In order to elucidate spatiotemporal aspects of the neighbor proximity response, we separately analyzed gene expression patterns in the major light-sensing organ (cotyledons) and in rapidly elongating hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana...
December 6, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923132/phyllotaxis-a-matthew-effect-in-auxin-action
#9
Dolf Weijers
Local auxin concentration maxima promote organ initiation in the plant shoot meristem, but how auxin peaks are formed has remained unclear. A new study proposes a cellular Matthew effect, where auxin is pumped into those cells that have higher concentrations.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918939/the-shady-side-of-leaf-development-the-role-of-the-revoluta-kanadi1-module-in-leaf-patterning-and-auxin-mediated-growth-promotion
#10
REVIEW
Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914810/transcriptome-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-tobacco-nicotiana-tabacum-in-response-to-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-infection
#11
Xuexia Xing, Xiaohui Li, Mingzhen Zhang, Yuan Wang, Bingyang Liu, Qiliang Xi, Ke Zhao, Yunjie Wu, Tiezhao Yang
The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita reproduces on the roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), damaging crops, reducing crop yield, and causing economic losses annually. The development of resistant genotypes is an alternative strategy to effectively control these losses. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for host pathogenesis and defense responses in tobacco specifically against RKNs remain poorly understood. Here, root transcriptome analysis of resistant (Yuyan12) and susceptible (Changbohuang) tobacco varieties infected with RKNs was performed...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912083/robust-root-growth-in-altered-hydrotropic-response1-ahr1-mutant-of-arabidopsis-is-maintained-by-high-rate-of-cell-production-at-low-water-potential-gradient
#12
Amed Salazar-Blas, Laura Noriega-Calixto, María E Campos, Delfeena Eapen, Tania Cruz-Vázquez, Luis Castillo-Olamendi, Gabriela Sepulveda-Jiménez, Helena Porta, Joseph G Dubrovsky, Gladys I Cassab
Hydrotropism is the directional root growth response determined by water stimulus. In a water potential gradient system (WPGS) the roots of the Arabidopsis wild type have a diminished root growth compared to normal medium (NM). In contrast, the altered hydrotropic response1 (ahr1) mutant roots maintain their robust growth in the same WPGS. The aims of this work were to ascertain how ahr1 roots could sustain growth in the WPGS, with a special focus on the integration of cellular processes involved in the signaling that determines root growth during abiotic stress and their relation to hydrotropism...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911923/morphology-and-hydraulic-architecture-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-syrah-and-torront%C3%A3-s-riojano-plants-are-unaffected-by-variations-in-red-to-far-red-ratio
#13
Carina Verónica González, María Florencia Jofré, Hernán F Vila, Markus Stoffel, Rubén Bottini, Carla Valeria Giordano
Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909790/strigolactones-affect-tomato-hormone-profile-and-somatic-embryogenesis
#14
Yuanli Wu, Evgenia Dor, Joseph Hershenhorn
Exogenously applied GR24 affected somatic embryo formation and morphogenesis of strigolactone-deficient tomato mutant through cross-talk with auxins and cytokinins indicating involvement of SLs in the embryogenic process. Strigolactones (SLs) mediate the regulation of plant responses to the environment through cross-talk with other plant hormones, especially auxins. Auxins play a crucial role in coordinating the morphogenesis and development of plant reproductive organs, including the signal-transduction cascade leading to the reprogramming of gene-expression patterns before embryo formation...
December 1, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909441/apple-f-box-protein-mdmax2-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response
#15
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909432/volatile-mediated-effects-predominate-in-paraburkholderia-phytofirmans-growth-promotion-and-salt-stress-tolerance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Thomas Ledger, Sandy Rojas, Tania Timmermann, Ignacio Pinedo, María J Poupin, Tatiana Garrido, Pablo Richter, Javier Tamayo, Raúl Donoso
Abiotic stress has a growing impact on plant growth and agricultural activity worldwide. Specific plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been reported to stimulate growth and tolerance to abiotic stress in plants, and molecular mechanisms like phytohormone synthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination are usual candidates proposed to mediate these bacterial effects. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is able to promote growth of several plant hosts, and improve their tolerance to chilling, drought and salinity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900439/non-ribosomal-peptide-synthases-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-play-a-role-in-cyclodipeptide-biosynthesis-quorum-sensing-regulation-and-root-development-in-a-plant-host
#17
Omar González, Randy Ortíz-Castro, César Díaz-Pérez, Alma L Díaz-Pérez, Viridiana Magaña-Dueñas, José López-Bucio, Jesús Campos-García
Diverse molecules mediate cross-kingdom communication between bacteria and their eukaryotic partners and determine pathogenic or symbiotic relationships. N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum-sensing signaling represses the biosynthesis of bacterial cyclodipeptides (CDPs) that act as auxin signal mimics in the host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this work, we performed bioinformatics, biochemical, and plant growth analyses to identify non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are involved in CDP synthesis...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898393/a-noncanonical-auxin-sensing-mechanism-is-required-for-organ-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#18
Sara Simonini, Joyita Deb, Laila Moubayidin, Pauline Stephenson, Manoj Valluru, Alejandra Freire-Rios, Karim Sorefan, Dolf Weijers, Jiří Friml, Lars Østergaard
Tissue patterning in multicellular organisms is the output of precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression coupled with changes in hormone dynamics. In plants, the hormone auxin regulates growth and development at every stage of a plant's life cycle. Auxin signaling occurs through binding of the auxin molecule to a TIR1/AFB F-box ubiquitin ligase, allowing interaction with Aux/IAA transcriptional repressor proteins. These are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded via the 26S proteasome, leading to derepression of auxin response factors (ARFs)...
October 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895227/phosphorylation-of-arf2-relieves-its-repression-of-transcription-of-the-k-transporter-gene-hak5-in-response-to-low-potassium-stress
#19
Shuai Zhao, Mei-Ling Zhang, Tian-Li Ma, Yi Wang
Potassium (K+) plays crucial roles in plant growth and development. In natural environments, K+ availability in soils is relatively low and fluctuating. Transcriptional regulation of K+ transporter genes is one of the most important mechanisms in the plant's response to K+ deficiency. In this study, we demonstrated that the transcription factor ARF2 (Auxin Response Factor 2) modulates the expression of the K+ transporter gene HAK5 (High Affinity K+ transporter 5) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The arf2 mutant plants showed a tolerant phenotype similar to the HAK5-overexpressing lines on low-K+ medium, whose primary root lengths were longer than those of wild-type plants...
November 28, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891171/a-rapid-approach-to-investigate-spatiotemporal-distribution-of-phytohormones-in-rice
#20
Wen-Jing Cai, Tian-Tian Ye, Qing Wang, Bao-Dong Cai, Yu-Qi Feng
BACKGROUND: Phytohormones play crucial roles in almost all stages of plant growth and development. Accurate and simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones enabled us to better understand the physiological functions and the regulatory networks of phytohormones. However, simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones in plant is still a challenge due to their low concentrations, structural and chemical diversity, and complex matrix of plant tissues. Therefore, development of a simple and selective method for the simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones is highly needed...
2016: Plant Methods
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