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Auxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821594/lazy-genes-mediate-the-effects-of-gravity-on-auxin-gradients-and-plant-architecture
#1
Takeshi Yoshihara, Edgar P Spalding
A rice mutant led to the discovery of a plant-specific LAZY1 protein that controls the orientation of shoots. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses six LAZY genes having spatially distinct expression patterns. Branch angle phenotypes previously associated with single LAZY genes were here studied in roots and shoots of single and higher-order atlazy mutants. The results identify the major contributors to root and shoot branch angles and gravitropic behavior of seedling hypocotyls and primary roots. AtLAZY1 is the principal determinant of inflorescence branch angle...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820425/bioinformatics-analysis-of-phylogeny-and-transcription-of-taa-yuc-auxin-biosynthetic-genes
#2
Axel Poulet, Verena Kriechbaumer
Auxin is a main plant growth hormone crucial in a multitude of developmental processes in plants. Auxin biosynthesis via the tryptophan aminotransferase of arabidopsis (TAA)/YUCCA (YUC) route involving tryptophan aminotransferases and YUC flavin-dependent monooxygenases that produce the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan is currently the most researched auxin biosynthetic pathway. Previous data showed that, in maize and arabidopsis, TAA/YUC-dependent auxin biosynthesis can be detected in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomal fractions, and a subset of auxin biosynthetic proteins are localized to the ER, mainly due to transmembrane domains (TMD)...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819874/effect-of-elicitors-on-the-production-of-pyrroloquinazoline-alkaloids-by-stimulating-anthranilate-synthase-activity-in-adhatoda-vasica-nees-cell-cultures
#3
Bharat Singh, Pooran M Sahu, Ram A Sharma
Pyrroloquinazoline alkaloids are medicinally important compounds, determined by HPLC from cell cultures of Adhatoda vasica . The maximum production of vasicinone (12-fold) and vasicine (8.3-fold) was enhanced by stimulating the anthranilate synthase activity via feeding of tryptophan and sorbitol. The decoction of Adhatoda vasica leaves is used for the treatment of throat irritations, inflammations and recommended as expectorant. The plant species contains pyrroloquinazoline alkaloids and has been reported to demonstrate various biological activities...
August 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819832/protective-role-of-humic-acids-against-picloram-induced-genomic-instability-and-dna-methylation-in-phaseolus-vulgaris
#4
Mahmut Sinan Taspinar, Murat Aydin, Burcu Sigmaz, Nalan Yildirim, Guleray Agar
Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) is a liquid auxinic herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Picloram is representing a possible hazard to ecosystems and human health. Therefore, in this study, DNA methylation changes and DNA damage levels in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to picloram, as well as whether humic acid (HA) has preventive effects on these changes were investigated. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques were used for identification of DNA damage and coupled restriction enzyme digestion-random amplification (CRED-RA) techniques were used to detect the changed pattern of DNA methylation...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819177/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-se-initial-dedifferentiation-in-cotton-of-different-se-capability
#5
Aiping Cao, Yinying Zheng, Yu Yu, Xuwen Wang, Dongnan Shao, Jie Sun, Baiming Cui
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a critical transition from vegetative to embryogenic growth in higher plants; however, few studies have investigated the mechanism that regulates SE initial differentiation. Most cotton varieties have not undergone regeneration by SE, so only a few varieties can be used in genetic engineering. Here, two varieties of cotton with different SE capabilities (HD, higher differentiation and LD, lower differentiation) were analyzed by high throughout RNA-Seq at the pre-induction stage (0h) and two induction stages (3h and 3d) under callus-induction medium (CIM)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818861/auxin-signaling
#6
Ottoline Leyser
Auxin acts as a general co-ordinator of plant growth and development, transferring information over both long and short ranges. Auxin famously appears to be extraordinarily multi-functional, with different cells responding very differently to changes in auxin levels. There has been considerable progress over recent years in understanding how this complexity is encoded in the cellular auxin response machinery. Of central importance is an elegantly short but versatile signaling pathway through which auxin triggers changes in gene expression...
August 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818377/heterologous-expression-of-gmsip1-3-from-soybean-in-tobacco-showed-and-growth-retardation-and-tolerance-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#7
Dayong Zhang, Yihong Huang, Manoj Kumar, Qun Wan, Zhaolong Xu, Hongbo Shao, Girdhar K Pandey
Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane protein channels that are members of Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIP) superfamily. AQPs play important roles in plant reproduction, cell elongation, osmoregulation, influence leaf physiology and are responsive to drought and salt tolerance. Small intrinsic proteins (SIPs)belongs to one of the groups of AQPs, which are mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum(ER). While this group of aquaporin is being well studied in Arabidopsis, grape and other plant species, not much is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms driven by ER-type AQPs in Glycine Max...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816596/expression-profiling-of-development-related-genes-in-rice-plants-ectopically-expressing-attor
#8
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, Raju Datla, P B Kirti
Expression analysis of genes associated with development at different growth stages such as shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), shoot and root tissues 10 DAG, flowers and grains of two high expression transgenic lines of rice ectopically expressing AtTOR revealed the involvement of AtTOR in transcriptional regulation of these genes. We have observed that in the SAM of these two selected lines, TR-2.24 and TR-15.1, OsFON1 and OsFON4 (orthologs of AtCLV1 and AtCLV3, respectively), OsKNOX2, OsKNOX3 and OsWOX3 became up-regulated...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808135/mutations-in-eif5b-confer-thermosensitive-and-pleiotropic-phenotypes-via-translation-defects-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Liyuan Zhang, Xinye Liu, Kishor Gaikwad, Xiaoxia Kou, Fei Wang, Xuejun Tian, Mingming Xin, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng, Elizabeth Vierling
The conserved eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B, eIF5B, is a GTPase that acts late in translation initiation. We found that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant sensitive to hot temperatures 3 (hot3-1), which behaves as wild type in the absence of stress but is unable to acclimate to high temperature, carries a missense mutation in eIF5B1 gene (At1g76810),, producing a temperature sensitive protein. A more severe, T-DNA insertion allele (hot3-2) causes pleiotropic developmental phenotypes. Surprisingly, Arabidopsis has three other eIF5B genes that do not substitute for eIF5B1; two of these appear to be in the process of pseudogenization...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805486/cop1-integrates-light-signals-to-rop2-for-cell-cycle-activation
#10
Wenguo Cai, Xiaojuan Li, Yanlin Liu, Yaowei Wang, Yue Zhou, Tongda Xu, Yan Xiong
The exquisite regulation of cell division at the shoot apex according to the external environmental cues enables plants to adapt the ever-changing environment. We have recently shown that light direct signaling and carbohydrate (sugar) energy signaling are both essential for the activation of cell division at the shoot apex. Light is converted to auxin signal to activate small GTPase 2 (ROP2). Subsequently, the activated ROP2 directly interacts with Target of Rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase, a pivotal regulator of cell division, to promotes its kinase activity...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803413/neovascularization-during-leafy-gall-formation-on-arabidopsis-thaliana-upon-rhodococcus-fascians-infection
#11
Alicja Dolzblasz, Alicja Banasiak, Danny Vereecke
Extensive de novo vascularization of leafy galls emerging upon Rhodococcus fascians infection is achieved by fascicular/interfascicular cambium activity and transdifferentiation of parenchyma cells correlated with increased auxin signaling. A leafy gall consisting of fully developed yet growth-inhibited shoots, induced by the actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians, differs in structure compared to the callus-like galls induced by other bacteria. To get insight into the vascular development accompanying the emergence of the leafy gall, the anatomy of infected axillary regions of the inflorescence stem of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 plants and the auxin response in pDR5:GUS-tagged plants were followed in time...
August 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798767/in-arabidopsis-thaliana-cadmium-impact-on-the-growth-of-primary-root-by-altering-scr-expression-and-auxin-cytokinin-cross-talk
#12
Leonardo Bruno, Marianna Pacenza, Ivano Forgione, Liam R Lamerton, Maria Greco, Adriana Chiappetta, Maria B Bitonti
Cadmium is one of the most widespread pollutant in both terrestrial and marine environment, and its inhibitory effect on plant growth has been largely demonstrated. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Cd toxicity in plant and mainly in root, as the first organ sensing soil heavy metals, need to be better investigated. To this aim, in the present work we analyzed the growth and the organization of Arabidopsis thaliana primary root in seedlings exposed to Cd (25 and 50 μM) for 8 days starting from germination...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798491/phytochromobilin-deficiency-impairs-sugar-metabolism-through-the-regulation-of-cytokinin-and-auxin-signaling-in-tomato-fruits
#13
Ricardo Ernesto Bianchetti, Aline Bertinatto Cruz, Bruna Soares Oliveira, Diego Demarco, Eduardo Purgatto, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Magdalena Rossi, Luciano Freschi
Phytochomes and plant hormones have been emerging as important regulators of fleshy fruit biology and quality traits; however, the relevance of phytochrome-hormonal signaling crosstalk in controlling fruit development and metabolism remains elusive. Here, we show that the deficiency in phytochrome chromophore phytochromobilin (PΦB) biosynthesis inhibits sugar accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits by transcriptionally downregulating sink- and starch biosynthesis-related enzymes, such as cell-wall invertases, sucrose transporters and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795104/microarray-dataset-of-transgenic-rice-overexpressing-abp57
#14
Lay Wen Tan, Cheng Seng Tan, Zuraida A Rahman, Hoe-Han Goh, Ismanizan Ismail, Zamri Zainal
The dataset presented in this article describes microarray experiment of Auxin-binding protein 57, Abp57-overexpressing transgenic rice. The gene expression profiles were generated using Affymetrix GeneChip® Rice (Cn) Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Total RNA from seedlings tissue of transgenic rice and wildtype, which serve as control were used as starting materials for microarray experiment. Detailed experimental methods and data analysis were described here. The raw and normalized microarray data were deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under accession number GSE99055...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791042/pif4-promotes-expression-of-lng1-and-lng2-to-induce-thermomorphogenic-growth-in-arabidopsis
#15
Geonhee Hwang, Jia-Ying Zhu, Young K Lee, Sara Kim, Thom T Nguyen, Jungmook Kim, Eunkyoo Oh
Arabidopsis plants adapt to high ambient temperature by a suite of morphological changes including elongation of hypocotyls and petioles and leaf hyponastic growth. These morphological changes are collectively called thermomorphogenesis and are believed to increase leaf cooling capacity by enhancing transpiration efficiency, thereby increasing tolerance to heat stress. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been identified as a major regulator of thermomorphogenic growth. Here, we show that PIF4 promotes the expression of two homologous genes LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1) and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2) that have been reported to regulate leaf morphology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782920/potassium-channel-akt1-is-involved-in-the-auxin-mediated-root-growth-inhibition-in-arabidopsis-response-to-low-k-stress
#16
Juan Li, Wei-Hua Wu, Yi Wang
The changes in external K(+) concentrations affect plant root growth. However, the molecular mechanism for a plant perceiving K(+) signal and modulating its root growth remains unknown. It is hypothesized that the K(+) channel AKT1 may be involved in low K(+) sensing in Arabidopsis root and subsequently regulate root growth. Along with the decline of external K(+) concentrations, the primary root growth of wild-type plants was gradually inhibited. However, the primary root of akt1 mutant can still grow under low K(+) (LK) conditions...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781084/crystal-structure-and-regulation-of-the-citrus-pol-iii-repressor-maf1-by-auxin-and-phosphorylation
#17
Adriana Santos Soprano, Priscila Oliveira de Giuseppe, Hugo Massayoshi Shimo, Tatiani Brenelli Lima, Fernanda Aparecida Heleno Batista, Germanna Lima Righetto, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Daniela Campos Granato, Andrey Fabricio Ziem Nascimento, Fabio Cesar Gozzo, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira, Juliana Helena Costa Smetana, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Mario Tyago Murakami, Celso Eduardo Benedetti
MAF1 is the main RNA polymerase (Pol) III repressor that controls cell growth in eukaryotes. The Citrus ortholog, CsMAF1, was shown to restrict cell growth in citrus canker disease but its role in plant development and disease is still unclear. We solved the crystal structure of the globular core of CsMAF1, which reveals additional structural elements compared with the previously available structure of hMAF1, and explored the dynamics of its flexible regions not present in the structure. CsMAF1 accumulated in the nucleolus upon leaf excision, and this translocation was inhibited by auxin and by mutation of the PKA phosphorylation site, S45, to aspartate...
July 24, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780645/the-mediator-genes-med12-and-med13-control-arabidopsis-root-system-configuration-influencing-sugar-and-auxin-responses
#18
Javier Raya-González, Jesús Salvador López-Bucio, José Carlos Prado-Rodríguez, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Ángel Arturo Guevara-García, José López-Bucio
Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth...
August 5, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772153/auxin-like-effects-of-the-natural-coumarin-scopoletin-on-arabidopsis-cell-structure-and-morphology
#19
Elisa Graña, Aitana Costas-Gil, Sabela Longueira, María Celeiro, Marta Teijeira, Manuel J Reigosa, Adela M Sánchez-Moreiras
The mode of action and phytotoxic potential of scopoletin, a natural compound belonging to the group of coumarins, has been evaluated in detail. Analysis conducted by light and electron transmission microscopy showed strong cell and tissue abnormalities on treated roots, such as cell wall malformations, multi-nucleated cells, abnormal nuclei and tissue disorganization. Scopoletin compromised root development by inducing wrong microtubule assembling, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and ultimate cell death, in a way similar to auxin herbicides...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769950/transcriptome-analysis-of-calcium-and-hormone-related-gene-expressions-during-different-stages-of-peanut-pod-development
#20
Yan Li, Jingjing Meng, Sha Yang, Feng Guo, Jialei Zhang, Yun Geng, Li Cui, Shubo Wan, Xinguo Li
Peanut is one of the calciphilous plants. Calcium serves as a ubiquitous central hub in a large number of signaling pathways. In the field, free calcium ion (Ca(2+))-deficient soil can result in unfilled pods. Four pod stages were analyzed to determine the relationship between Ca(2+) excretion and pod development. Peanut shells showed Ca(2+) excretion at all four stages; however, both the embryo of Stage 4 (S4) and the red skin of Stage 3 (S3) showed Ca(2+) absorbance. These results showed that embryo and red skin of peanut need Ca(2+) during development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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