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Weili Chen, Juan Li, Honghui Zhu, Pengyang Xu, Jiezhong Chen, Qing Yao
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish symbiosis with most terrestrial plants, and greatly regulate lateral root (LR) formation. Phosphorus (P), sugar, and plant hormones are proposed being involved in this regulation, however, no global evidence regarding these factors is available so far, especially in woody plants. In this study, we inoculated trifoliate orange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf) with an AMF isolate, Rhizophagus irregularis BGC JX04B. After 4 months of growth, LR formation was characterized, and sugar contents in roots were determined...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alexis Salazar-Iribe, Esther Zúñiga-Sánchez, Emma Zavaleta Mejía, Alicia Gamboa-deBuen
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infects a variety of plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana. During migration, root-knot nematodes secrete different proteins to modify cell walls, which include pectolytic enzymes. However, the contribution of host cell wall proteins has not been described during this process. The function of two DUF642 cell wall proteins, BIIDXI (BDX, At4g32460) and TEEBE (TEB, At2g41800), in plant development could be related to the regulation of pectin methyl esterification status in the cell walls of different tissues...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Qian Ma, Peter Grones, Stéphanie Robert
Providing a mechanistic understanding of the crucial roles of the phytohormone auxin has been an important and coherent aspect of plant biology research. Since its discovery more than a century ago, prominent advances have been made in the understanding of auxin action, ranging from metabolism and transport to cellular and transcriptional responses. However, there is a long road ahead before a thorough understanding of its complex effects is achieved, because a lot of key information is still missing. The availability of an increasing number of technically advanced scientific tools has boosted the basic discoveries in auxin biology...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mengya Shi, Xiao Hu, Yu Wei, Xu Hou, Xue Yuan, Jun Liu, Yueping Liu
Auxin has long been known as a critical phytohormone that regulates fruit development in plants. However, due to the lack of an enlarged ovary wall in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of fruit division and enlargement remain unclear. In this study, we performed small RNA sequencing and degradome sequencing analyses to systematically explore post-transcriptional regulation in the mesocarp at the hard core stage following treatment of the peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit with the synthetic auxin α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA)...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roberto Busi, Danica E Goggin, Ian Heap, Michael J Horak, Mithila Jugulam, Robert A Masters, Richard Napier, Dilpreet S Riar, Norbert M Satchivi, Joel Torra, Phillip Westra, Terry R Wright
Herbicides classified as synthetic auxins have been most commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of crops and in non-cropland areas since the first synthetic auxin herbicide (SAH), 2,4-D, was introduced to the market in the mid-1940s. The incidence of weed species resistant to SAHs is relatively low considering their long-term global application with 29 broadleaf weed species confirmed resistant to date. An understanding of the context and mechanisms of SAH resistance evolution can inform management practices to sustain the longevity and utility of this important class of herbicides...
December 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
Hui-Ming Zhang, Simon L Wheeler, Xue Xia, Kim Colyvas, Christina E Offler, John W Patrick
Transfer cells (TCs) support high rates of membrane transport of nutrients conferred by a plasma membrane area amplified by lining a wall labyrinth comprised of an uniform wall layer (UWL) upon which intricate wall ingrowth (WI) papillae are deposited. A signal cascade of auxin, ethylene, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytosolic Ca2+ regulates wall labyrinth assembly. To identify gene cohorts regulated by each signal, a RNA- sequencing study was undertaken using Vicia faba cotyledons. When cotyledons are placed in culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously undergo trans-differentiation to epidermal TCs (ETCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Estefano Bustillo-Avendaño, Sergio Ibáñez, Oscar Sanz, Jessica Aline Sousa Barross, Inmaculada Gude, Juan Perianez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis Micol, Juan Carlos Del Pozo, Miguel A Moreno-Risueno, Jose Manuel Perez-Perez
Body regeneration through formation of new organs is a major question in developmental biology. We investigated de novo root formation using whole leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that local cytokinin biosynthesis and auxin biosynthesis in the leaf blade followed by auxin long-distance transport to the petiole leads to proliferation of J0121-marked xylem-associated tissues and others through signaling of INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE28 (IAA28), CRANE (IAA18), WOODEN LEG, and ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS1 (ARR1), ARR10 and ARR12...
December 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
Hongqi Du, Yinghua Shi, Defeng Li, Wenna Fan, Yanhua Wang, Guoqiang Wang, Chengzhang Wang
To explore the molecular mechanism of growth differences between fall dormant (FD) and non-FD alfalfa, we conducted iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics on terminal buds of Maverick (FD) and Cuf101 (non-FD) cultivars, identified differential abundance protein species (DAPS) and verified expression profiling of the corresponding mRNA by qRT-PCR. A total of 3872 protein species were annotated. Of the 90 DAPS, 56 and 34 were respectively up- and down-accumulated in Maverick, compared to Cuf101. They were grouped into 35 functional categories and enriched in seven pathways...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Qionghui Fei, Jingjing Li, Yunhe Luo, Kun Ma, Bingtao Niu, Changjun Mu, Huanhuan Gao, Xiaofeng Li
Environmental temperatures affect plant distribution, growth, and development. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that global temperatures will rise by at least 1.5°C by the end of this century. Global temperature changes have already had a discernable impact on agriculture, phenology, and ecosystems. At the molecular level, extensive literature exists on the mechanism controlling plant responses to high temperature stress. However, few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms behind plant responses to mild increases in ambient temperature...
December 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Bin Wang, Yang Zhang, Mohammad Enamul Haque, Wei Xu, Fei Li, Aizhong Liu
Seeds are highly specific organs that strongly sink sucrose resources from leaf and stem tissues to trigger seed metabolism and development. In particular, for heterotrophic non-green seeds, the potential molecular mechanism underlying sucrose-driven seed development remains unanswered. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), a typical non-green seed, has been considered as a model plant for seed biology study in dicotyledonous plants due to its heterotrophic seeds with persistent endosperms. In the present study, the fast-developing castor bean seeds were treated with exogenous sucrose and mannitol for four hours...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Adriana Santos Soprano, Juliana Helena Costa Smetana, Celso Eduardo Benedetti
tRNA biology has fascinated scientists over the years. Besides their fundamental role in protein translation, new evidence indicates that tRNA-derived molecules also regulate gene expression and protein synthesis in all domains of life. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent findings linking tRNA transcription and modification with plant cell growth and response to pathogens. In fact, mutations in proteins directly involved in tRNA synthesis and modification most often lead to pleiotropic effects on plant growth and immunity...
December 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yasmine Ligerot, Alexandre de Saint Germain, Tanya Waldie, Christelle Troadec, Sylvie Citerne, Nikita Kadakia, Jean-Paul Pillot, Michael Prigge, Grégoire Aubert, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Ottoline Leyser, Mark Estelle, Frédéric Debellé, Catherine Rameau
Strigolactones (SLs) are well known for their role in repressing shoot branching. In pea, increased transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes are observed in stems of highly branched SL deficient (ramosus1 (rms1) and rms5) and SL response (rms3 and rms4) mutants indicative of negative feedback control. In contrast, the highly branched rms2 mutant has reduced transcript levels of SL biosynthesis genes. Grafting studies and hormone quantification led to a model where RMS2 mediates a shoot-to-root feedback signal that regulates both SL biosynthesis gene transcript levels and xylem sap levels of cytokinin exported from roots...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
Wenying Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Xu, Aiai Wang, Lan Huang, Hewei Du, Lijuan Qiu, Ralf Oelmüller
As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000)...
December 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Franck Anicet Ditengou, Dulceneia Gomes, Hugues Nziengui, Philip Kochersperger, Hanna Lasok, Violante Medeiros, Ivan A Paponov, Szilvia Krisztina Nagy, Tímea Virág Nádai, Tamás Mészáros, Beáta Barnabás, Beata Izabela Ditengou, Katja Rapp, Linlin Qi, Xugang Li, Claude Becker, Chuanyou Li, Róbert Dóczi, Klaus Palme
Auxin gradients are sustained by series of influx and efflux carriers whose subcellular localization is sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous factors. Recently the localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) 6 was reported to be tissue-specific and regulated through unknown mechanisms. Here, we used genetic, molecular and pharmacological approaches to characterize the molecular mechanism(s) controlling the subcellular localization of PIN6. PIN6 localizes to endomembrane domains in tissues with low PIN6 expression levels such as roots, but localizes at the plasma membrane (PM) in tissues with increased PIN6 expression such as the inflorescence stem and nectary glands...
December 8, 2017: New Phytologist
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Jesús Montiel, Rosana Sánchez-López, Noreide Nava, Luis Cárdenas, Carmen Quinto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) regulate numerous plant cell processes, including the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Rapid and transient ROS production was reported after Phaseolus vulgaris root hairs were treated with Nod factors, indicating the presence of a ROS-associated molecular signature in the symbiosis signaling pathway. Rboh is a multigene family containing nine members (RbohA-I) in P. vulgaris. RNA interference of RbohB suppresses ROS production and attenuates rhizobial infection thread (IT) progression in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Min Ni, Lei Zhang, Ya-Fei Shi, Chao Wang, Yiran Lu, Jianwei Pan, Jian-Zhong Liu
S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1) is the key enzyme that regulates cellular levels of S-nitrosylation across kingdoms. We have previously reported that loss of GSNOR1 resulted in impaired auxin signaling and compromised auxin transport in Arabidopsis, leading to the auxin-related morphological phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the compromised auxin transport in gsnor1-3 mutant is still unknown. Endocytosis of plasma-membrane (PM)-localized efflux PIN proteins play critical roles in auxin transport...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
R M Saravana Kumar, Liu Xiao Gao, Hu Wei Yuan, Dong Bin Xu, Zhao Liang, Shen Chen Tao, Wen Bin Guo, Dao Liang Yan, Bing Song Zheng, Johan Edqvist
Application of auxin to root stock and scion increases the success rate of grafting in Chinese hickory. The nuts of the Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis) tree are considered both delicious and healthy. The popularity and high demand result is that the hickory nuts are of very high economical value for horticulture. This is particularly true for the Zhejiang province in eastern China where this tree is widely cultivated. However, there are several difficulties surrounding the hickory cultivation, such as for example long vegetative growth, tall trees, labour-intensive nut picking, and slow variety improvements...
December 6, 2017: Planta
Giulia Arsuffi, Siobhan A Braybrook
Since its first formulation almost 50 years ago, acid growth has had a chequered past complicated by utilization of diverse species and organs for testing alongside necessary but coarse methodology. Within the past 25 years, we have gained new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind the transduction of the signal auxin into the reality of an apoplastic pH shift as well as the effect on cell wall mechanics and the biochemical players within the wall contributing to the resultant growth. In this review, we begin by discussing the historical work and its complications, move on to the modern work and its addition to acid growth, which we finally summarize in an updated model which includes new postulations and questions...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Indra Singh, Shuchi Smita, Dwijesh C Mishra, Sanjeev Kumar, Binay K Singh, Anil Rai
Abiotic stress is one of the major factors responsible for huge yield loss in crop plants. MicroRNAs play a key role in adaptive responses of plants under abiotic stress conditions through post-transcriptional gene regulations. In present study, 95 potential miRNAs were predicted in Brassica juncea using comparative genomics approach. It was noted that these miRNAs, target several transcription factors (TFs), transporter family proteins, signaling related genes, and protease encoding genes. Nineteen distinct miRNA-target regulatory networks were observed with significant involvement in regulation of transcription, response to stimulus, hormone and auxin mediated signaling pathway related gene ontology (GO) term...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zujun Yin, Xiulan Han, Yan Li, Junjuan Wang, Delong Wang, Shuai Wang, Xiaoqiong Fu, Wuwei Ye
Small RNAs play an important role in regulating plant responses to abiotic stress. Depending on the method of salt application, whether sudden or gradual, plants may experience either salt shock or salt stress, respectively. In this study, small RNA expression in response to salt shock and long-term salt stress in parallel experiments was described. Cotton small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced under normal conditions, as well as sudden and gradual salt application. A total of 225 cotton microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified and of these 24 were novel miRNAs...
December 5, 2017: Genes
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