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Ying Zhang, Qinqin Yu, Nan Jiang, Xu Yan, Chao Wang, Qingmei Wang, Jianzhong Liu, Muyuan Zhu, Sebastian Y Bednarek, Jian Xu, Jianwei Pan
Phototropism is the process by which plants grow towards light in order to maximize the capture of light for photosynthesis, which is particularly important for germinating seedlings. In Arabidopsis, hypocotyl phototropism is predominantly triggered by blue light (BL), which has a profound effect on the establishment of asymmetric auxin distribution, essential for hypocotyl phototropism. Two auxin efflux transporters ATP-BINDING CASSETTE B19 (ABCB19) and PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3), are known to mediate the effect of BL on auxin distribution in the hypocotyl, but the details for how BL triggers PIN3 lateralization remain poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Patricia Müller-Moulé, Kazunari Nozue, Melissa L Pytlak, Christine M Palmer, Michael F Covington, Andreah D Wallace, Stacey L Harmer, Julin N Maloof
Plants respond to neighbor shade by increasing stem and petiole elongation. Shade, sensed by phytochrome photoreceptors, causes stabilization of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins and subsequent induction of YUCCA auxin biosynthetic genes. To investigate the role of YUCCA genes in phytochrome-mediated elongation, we examined auxin signaling kinetics after an end-of-day far-red (EOD-FR) light treatment, and found that an auxin responsive reporter is rapidly induced within 2 hours of far-red exposure. YUCCA2, 5, 8, and 9 are all induced with similar kinetics suggesting that they could act redundantly to control shade-mediated elongation...
2016: PeerJ
Jaafar Juju Nakasha, Uma Rani Sinniah, Nurashikin Kemat, Kumara Swamy Mallappa
BACKGROUND: Chlorophytum borivilianum is an industrially valued medicinal crop. Propagation through seeds is not feasible because of low germination percentage and long dormancy period. Therefore, callus culture and plant regeneration can be an alternative to improve this crop production. Also, callus can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different phytohormones on callus induction, subculture cycle, and regeneration studies of callus in C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Renata Kurtyka, Wojciech Pokora, Zbigniew Tukaj, Waldemar Karcz
Naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites widely distributed in nature and produced by bacteria, fungi and higher plants. Their biological activity may result from induction of oxidative stress, caused by redox cycling, or direct interaction with cellular macromolecules, in which quinones act as electrophiles. The redox homeostasis is known as one of factors involved in auxin-mediated plant growth regulation. To date, however, little is known about the crosstalk between reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by quinones and the plant growth hormone auxin (IAA)...
October 19, 2016: AoB Plants
Jerry M Green
Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits...
October 18, 2016: Pest Management Science
N Taimori, D Kahrizi, V Abdossi, A H Papzan
The present study describes the effects of light conditions, different kinds and concentrations of auxins [Naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] with cytokinin (Kin) in MS medium on callus induction and embryogenesis in Crataegus pseudoheterophylla, C. aronia and C.meyeri. At first leave explants sections were cultured on different combinations of plant growth regulators in dark and light for callus initiation and light conditions to evaluation the percentage and duration of survival, callus diameter, callus fresh weight and dry...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Petra Žádníková, Krzysztof Wabnik, Anas Abuzeineh, Marҫal Gallemí, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Richard S Smith, Dirk Inzé, Jiří Friml, Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, Eva Benkova
Differential cell growth enables flexible organ bending in the presence of environmental signals such as light or gravity. A prominent example of the developmental processes based on differential cell growth is the formation of the apical hook that protects the fragile shoot apical meristem when it breaks through the soil during germination. Here, we combined in silico and in vivo approaches to identify a minimal mechanism producing auxin gradient-guided differential growth during the establishment of the apical hook in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
October 17, 2016: Plant Cell
Bruno Guillotin, Mohammad Etemadi, Corinne Audran, Mondher Bouzayen, Guillaume Bécard, Jean-Philippe Combier
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is a complex and finely tuned process. Previous studies have shown that, among other plant hormones, auxin plays a role in this process but the specific involvement of Aux/IAAs, the key regulators of auxin responses, is still unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of the tomato Sl-IAA27 during AM symbiosis by using Sl-IAA27-RNAi and pSL-IAA27::GUS stable tomato lines. The data show that Sl-IAA27 expression is up-regulated by the AM fungus and that silencing of Sl-IAA27 has a negative impact on AM colonization...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Jong-Hak Kim, Min-Kyeoung Kim, Hongtao Wang, Hee-Nyeong Lee, Chi-Gyu Jin, Woo-Saeng Kwon, Deok-Chun Yang
BACKGROUND: Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is one of the most important medicinal plants in the Orient. Among nine cultivars of P. ginseng, Chunpoong commands a much greater market value and has been planted widely in Korea. Chunpoong has superior quality "Chunsam" (1(st) grade ginseng) when made into red ginseng. METHODS: A rapid and reliable method for discriminating the Chunpoong cultivar was developed by exploiting a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the auxin repressed protein gene of nine Korean ginseng cultivars using specific primers...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Daria Chrobok, Simon R Law, Bastiaan Brouwer, Pernilla Lindén, Agnieszka Ziolkowska, Daniela Liebsch, Reena Narsai, Bozena Szal, Thomas Moritz, Nicolas Rouhier, James Whelan, Per Gardestrom, Olivier Keech
The functions of mitochondria during leaf senescence, a type of programmed cell death aiming at the massive retrieval of nutrients from the senescing organ to the rest of the plant, remain elusive. Here, combining experimental and analytical approaches, we showed that mitochondrial integrity is conserved until the latest stages of leaf senescence, while their number drops by 30%. Adenylate phosphorylation state assays and mitochondrial respiratory measurements indicated that the leaf energy status is also maintained during this time period...
October 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Jordi Rey-Caballero, Julio Menéndez, Jordi Giné-Bordonaba, Marisa Salas, Ricardo Alcántara, Joel Torra
In southern Europe, the intensive use of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and tribenuron-methyl in cereal crop systems has resulted in the evolution of resistant (R) corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) biotypes. Experiments were conducted to elucidate (1) the resistance response to these two herbicides, (2) the cross-resistant pattern to other synthetic auxins and (3) the physiological basis of the auxin resistance in two R (F-R213 and D-R703) populations. R plants were resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl (F-R213) or just to 2,4-D (D-R703) and both R populations were also resistant to dicamba and aminopyralid...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Prakash M Gopalakrishnan Nair, Ill Min Chung
This study examined the mechanism of toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and zinc (Zn) ions. We subjected plants to different ZnO NPs and Zn ion concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100 and 200mg/L) and analyzed resulting morphological changes, transcriptional regulation of genes involved in Zn-homeostasis, macro- and microelement homeostasis, as well as auxin regulation. Except for 20mg/L, the fresh weight and primary root length was reduced after exposure to all other concentrations of Zn ion and ZnO NP concentrations...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mara Cucinotta, Silvia Manrique, Andrea Guazzotti, Nadia E Quadrelli, Marta A Mendes, Eva Benkova, Lucia Colombo
The developmental program of the pistil is under the control of both auxin and cytokinin, which crosstalk converges on the regulation of the auxin carrier PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1). Here we show that in the triple transcription factor mutant cytokinin response factor 2 (crf2) crf3 crf6 both pistil length and ovule number were reduced. PIN1 expression was also lower in the triple mutant and the phenotypes couldn't be rescued by exogenous cytokinin application. pin1 complementation studies using genomic PIN1 constructs showed that the pistil phenotypes were only rescued when the PCRE1 domain, to which CRFs bind, was present...
October 13, 2016: Development
Daeeun Ki, Daisuke Sasayama, Hyung-Taeg Cho
Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hongju Jian, Kun Lu, Bo Yang, Tengyue Wang, Li Zhang, Aoxiang Zhang, Jia Wang, Liezhao Liu, Cunmin Qu, Jiana Li
Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers) and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wu Di, Huang Linzhou, Gao Jin, Wang Yonghong
Gravity is an important environmental factor that regulates plant growth and morphogenesis. In response to gravity stimulus, plants can set the optimum angle between the organs and the gravity vector. Plant gravitropism is divided into four sequential steps, including gravity perception, signal transduction, asymmetrical distribution of auxin, and organ curvature. In recent years, large numbers of mutants with defective gravitropism have been identified and genes involved in the regulation of gravitropism have been functionally characterized...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Arnab Kumar De, Narottam Dey, Malay Kumar Adak
In the present experiment a pteridophytic species Azolla and an angiospermic species Vernonia were evaluated on the basis of cellular reactivity for herbicidal action through ongoing concentrations. Initially, both the species recorded a significant activity of IAA-oxidase as mark of IAA metabolism with herbicidal sensitivity. Still, Vernonia species were more affected on 2,4-D mediated auxin catabolism. The loss of auxin concentrations on the tissues by 2,4-D reaction was also reflected on growth parameters including relative growth rate and chlorophyll biosynthesis...
July 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Yang Liu, Junfei Liu, Liwei Tian, Lianbo Ma
This paper proposes a new plant-inspired optimization algorithm for multilevel threshold image segmentation, namely, hybrid artificial root foraging optimizer (HARFO), which essentially mimics the iterative root foraging behaviors. In this algorithm the new growth operators of branching, regrowing, and shrinkage are initially designed to optimize continuous space search by combining root-to-root communication and coevolution mechanism. With the auxin-regulated scheme, various root growth operators are guided systematically...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Sang-Mo Kang, Sajjad Asaf, Sang-Jun Kim, Byung-Wook Yun, In-Jung Lee
Leifsonia xyli SE134 is a potential plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from a soil in Daegu, Republic of Korea, which produces large amounts of gibberellin (GA) and indole acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we sequenced the complete genome of L. xyli SE134 by the Pacific Biosciences RSII (PacBio) Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing technology. The genome of L. xyli SE134 contains a single chromosome that is 3,596,761bp in length, with 70.2% G+C content. The genome contains 3466 protein-coding genes (CDSs) and 51 rRNA- and 46 tRNA-coding genes...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Sheng Xu, Yumei Jiang, Ning Wang, Bing Xia, Yilong Jiang, Xiaodan Li, Zhengzhi Zhang, Yikui Li, Ren Wang
BACKGROUND: Lycoris aurea is a medicine-valuable and ornamental herb widely distributed in China. Former studied have showed that methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment could increase the content of glanthamine-a worldwide medicine for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease in genus Lycoris plants. To explore the possible role of miRNAs in the regulation of jasmonic acid signaling pathway and uncover their potential correlations, we investigated the expression profiles of small RNAs (sRNAs) and their targets in Lycoris aurea, with MJ treatment by using next-generation deep sequencing...
October 10, 2016: BMC Genomics
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