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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043673/er-microsome-preparation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Verena Kriechbaumer
Microsomes are vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when cells are broken down in the lab. These microsomes are a valuable tool to study a variety of ER functions such as protein and lipid synthesis in vitro.Here we describe a protocol to isolate ER-derived microsomes Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and exemplify the use of these purified microsomes in enzyme assays with the auxin precursors tryptophan (Trp) or indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) to quantify auxin synthetic capacity in microsomal and cytosolic fractions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040694/lbd14-asl17-positively-regulates-lateral-root-formation-and-is-involved-in-aba-response-for-root-architecture-in-arabidopsis
#2
Eunkyeong Jeon, Na Young Kang, Chuloh Cho, Pil Joon Seo, Mi Chung Suh, Jungmook Kim
The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN/ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (LBD/ASL) gene family members play key roles in diverse aspects of plant development. Previous studies have shown that LBD16, 18, 29, and 33 are critical for integrating the plant hormone auxin to control lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we show that LBD14 is expressed exclusively in the root where it promotes lateral root (LR) emergence. Repression of LBD14 expression by ABA correlates with the inhibitory effects of ABA on LR emergence...
October 11, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036625/ospht1-8-a-phosphate-transporter-is-involved-in-auxin-and-phosphate-starvation-response-in-rice
#3
Hongfang Jia, Songtao Zhang, Lizhi Wang, Yongxia Yang, Hongying Zhang, Hong Cui, Huifang Shao, Guohua Xu
The responses of plants to auxin and phosphate (Pi) starvation are closely linked. However, the underlying mechanisms connecting the Pi starvation (-Pi) responses to auxin are largely unclear. Here, we show that OsPht1;8 (OsPT8), a phosphate transporter, functions in both the auxin and -Pi responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The overexpression of OsPT8 (OsPT8-Oe) led to the loss of sensitivity to auxin and -Pi in adventitious roots, lateral roots, and root hairs in rice. The expression levels of OsPT8 and pOsPT8::GUS staining in roots, root-shoot junctions and leaves of rice were induced by IAA treatments...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036463/multiple-links-between-shade-avoidance-and-auxin-networks
#4
María José Iglesias, Romina Sellaro, Matias D Zurbriggen, Jorge José Casal
Auxin has emerged as a key player in the adjustment of plant morphology to the challenge imposed by variable environmental conditions. Shade-avoidance responses, including the promotion of stem and petiole growth, leaf hyponasty, and the inhibition of branching, involve an intimate connection between light and auxin signalling. Low activity of photo-sensory receptors caused by the presence of neighbouring vegetation enhances the activity of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs), which directly promote the expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, transport, perception, and signalling...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034141/commercial-phenoxyacetic-herbicides-control-heavy-metal-uptake-by-wheat-in-a-divergent-way-than-pure-active-substances-alone
#5
Elżbieta Skiba, Wojciech M Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impact of two widely used commercial herbicides, i.e. Aminopielik D 450 SL and Chwastox 300 SL, on the uptake and translocation of selected heavy metals in wheat plants Triticum aestivum L. cultivated in the laboratory pot experiments was investigated. Mineral-humus, loamy sand soil representative for the central part of Poland was applied. Bioavailable, exchangeable and total forms of Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn were determined. Transfer coefficients, translocation, and bioaccumulation factors illustrating metal migration in the plant were investigated...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033968/dancing-with-hormones-a-current-perspective-of-nitrate-signaling-and-regulation-in-arabidopsis
#6
REVIEW
Peizhu Guan
In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031033/an-arabidopsis-divergent-pumilio-protein-apum24-is-essential-for-embryogenesis-and-required-for-faithful-pre-rrna-processing
#7
Thiruvenkadam Shanmugam, Nazia Abbasi, Hyung-Sae Kim, Ho Bang Kim, Nam-Il Park, Guen Tae Park, Sung Aeong Oh, Soon Ki Park, Douglas G Muench, Yeonhee Choi, Youn-Il Park, Sang-Bong Choi
Pumilio RNA-binding proteins are largely involved in mRNA degradation and translation repression. However, a few evolutionarily divergent Pumilios are also responsible for proper pre-rRNA processing in human and yeast. Here, we describe an essential Arabidopsis nucleolar Pumilio, APUM24, that is expressed in tissues undergoing rapid proliferation and cell division. A T-DNA insertion for APUM24 did not affect the male and female gametogenesis, but instead resulted in a negative female gametophytic effect on zygotic cell division immediately after fertilization...
October 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029829/oxygen-energy-and-light-signalling-direct-meristem-fate
#8
Michael J Considine
Light, nutrition, and oxygen are each important cues for developmental transitions in plants. A small number of recent studies have converged to give the first indication of how these environmental cues act together and independently via auxin, cytokinin, and ethylene to regulate cell proliferation in the root and shoot meristems.
October 10, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029623/hydrogen-peroxide-is-involved-in-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-lateral-root-formation-in-tomato-seedlings
#9
Yudong Mei, Haotian Chen, Wenbiao Shen, Wei Shen, Liqin Huang
BACKGROUND: Both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are separately regarded as a highly reactive molecule involved in root morphogenesis. In this report, corresponding causal link governing lateral root formation was investigated. METHODS: By using pharmacological, anatomic, and molecular approaches, evidence presented here revealed the molecular mechanism underlying tomato lateral root development triggered by H2S. RESULTS: A H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) triggered the accumulation of H2O2, the up-regulation of RBOH1 transcript, and thereafter tomato lateral root formation...
October 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027578/ectopic-expression-of-ugt84a2-delayed-flowering-by-indole-3-butyric-acid-mediated-transcriptional-repression-of-arf6-and-arf8-genes-in-arabidopsis
#10
Gui-Zhi Zhang, Shang-Hui Jin, Pan Li, Xiao-Yi Jiang, Yan-Jie Li, Bing-Kai Hou
Ectopic expression of auxin glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering through increased indole-3-butyric acid and suppressed transcription of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Auxins are critical regulators for plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is thus an important issue for plant biology. Here, we identified an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-specific glycosyltransferase, UGT84A2, and characterized its role in Arabidopsis flowering development...
October 13, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024850/combined-effects-of-fungal-inoculants-and-the-cytokinin-like-growth-regulator-thidiazuron-on-growth-phytohormone-contents-and-endophytic-root-fungi-in-miscanthus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-giganteus
#11
Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomaš Frantík, Václav Motyka, Petre I Dobrev, Miroslav Vosátka
Aim of this study was to investigate main effects and interactions between symbiotic fungi and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in Miscanthus × giganteus. The arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (AMF) and the endophyte Piriformospora indica (PI) were chosen as model symbionts. The fungal inoculants and TDZ had no significant effect on plant growth but modulated phytohormone levels in the leaves. TDZ induced accumulation of salicylic acid in controls, but not in plants inoculated with fungi...
September 23, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024173/root-transcriptional-dynamics-induced-by-beneficial-rhizobacteria-and-microbial-immune-elicitors-reveal-signatures-of-adaptation-to-mutualists
#12
Ioannis A Stringlis, Silvia Proietti, Richard Hickman, Marcel C Van Verk, Christos Zamioudis, Corné M J Pieterse
Belowground, microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of root-associated microbiota can trigger costly defenses at the expense of plant growth. However, beneficial rhizobacteria, such as Pseudomonas simiae WCS417, promote plant growth and induce systemic resistance without being warded off by local root immune responses. To investigate early root responses that facilitate WCS417 to exert its plant-beneficial functions, we performed time-series RNA-Seq of Arabidopsis roots in response to live WCS417 and compared it to MAMPs flg22(417) (from WCS417), flg22(Pa) (from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and fungal chitin...
October 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024034/maternal-control-of-embryogenesis-by-mpk6-and-its-upstream-mkk4-and-mkk5-in-arabidopsis
#13
Mengmeng Zhang, Hongjiao Wu, Jianbin Su, Huachun Wang, Qiankun Zhu, Yidong Liu, Juan Xu, Wolfgang Lukowitz, Shuqun Zhang
In flowering plants, developing embryos reside in maternal sporophytes. It is known that maternal generation influences the development of next-generation embryos. However, little is known about the signaling components in the process. Previously, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) and MPK3 play critical roles in plant reproduction. In addition, we noticed that a large fraction of seeds from mpk6 single mutant plants showed a wrinkled seed coat or a burst-out embryo phenotype...
October 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021806/erecta-regulates-cell-elongation-by-activating-auxin-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Xiaoya Qu, Zhong Zhao, Zhaoxia Tian
The ERECTA family genes, ERECTA (ER), ERECTA-LIKE1 (ERL1), and ERECTA-LIKE2 (ERL2), encode leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana. Knocking out these three genes can cause severe phenotypes, which indicates that they play significant roles in plant growth and development. However, the molecular mechanism within remains unclear. Here we show that the short hypocotyl phenotypes of er erl1 erl2 mutants are mainly due to the defects of cell elongation rather than the cell division. In contrast, in the ERECTA overexpression transgenic plants, the hypocotyl length is increased with elongated cells...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018467/overexpression-of-slgras40-in-tomato-enhances-tolerance-to-abiotic-stresses-and-influences-auxin-and-gibberellin-signaling
#15
Yudong Liu, Wei Huang, Zhiqiang Xian, Nan Hu, Dongbo Lin, Hua Ren, Jingxuan Chen, Deding Su, Zhengguo Li
Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that inhibit plant growth and development impacting crop productivity. GRAS transcription factors play critical and diverse roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In this study, SlGRAS40, a member of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) GRAS family, was functionally characterized. In wild-type (WT) tomato, SlGRAS40 was upregulated by abiotic stress induced by treatment with D-mannitol, NaCl, or H2O2. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing SlGRAS40 (SlGRAS40-OE) were more tolerant of drought and salt stress than WT...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016944/auxin-response-dynamics-during-wild-type-and-entire-flower-development-in-tomato
#16
Shiri Goldental-Cohen, Alon Israeli, Naomi Ori, Hagai Yasuor
The plant hormone auxin is a major regulator of plant development and response to environmental cues. Auxin plays a particularly central role in flower development, but the knowledge of its role of flower development in crop plants with fleshy fruits, such as tomato, is still scarce. Mutations in the Aux/IAA gene ENTIRE/Indole Acetic Acid 9 (E/IAA9) lead to the precocious development of young gynoecia into parthenocarpic fruits. Here, we compared the distribution of the auxin response sensor DR5::VENUS and the auxin efflux transporter PIN1 between the wild type and entire during successive stages of flower and fruit development...
July 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016942/ben3-big2-arf-gef-is-involved-in-brefeldin-a-sensitive-trafficking-at-the-trans-golgi-network-early-endosome-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Saeko Kitakura, Maciek Adamowski, Yuki Matsuura, Luca Santuari, Hirotaka Kouno, Kohei Arima, Christian S Hardtke, Jirí Friml, Tatsuo Kakimoto, Hirokazu Tanaka
Membrane traffic at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is crucial for correctly distributing various membrane proteins to their destination. Polarly localized auxin efflux proteins, including PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), are dynamically transported between the endosomes and the plasma membrane (PM) in the plant cells. The intracellular trafficking of PIN1 protein is sensitive to a fungal toxin brefeldin A (BFA), which is known to inhibit guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for ADP ribosylation factors (ARF GEFs) such as GNOM...
August 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016933/rice-inositol-polyphosphate-kinase-osipk2-directly-interacts-with-osiaa11-to-regulate-lateral-root-formation
#18
Yao Chen, Qiaofeng Yang, Sihong Sang, Zhaoyun Wei, Peng Wang
The plant hormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development by promoting the degradation of Auxin/Indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins. The domain II (DII) of Aux/IAA proteins is sufficient for eliciting the degradation by direct interacting with the auxin receptor F-box protein TIR1 to form a TIR1/AFBs-Aux/IAA complex in an auxin-dependent manner. However, the underlying mechanism of fine-tuning Aux/IAA degradation by auxin stimuli has remained to be elucidated. Here, we show that OsIPK2, a rice (Oryza sativa) inositol polyphosphate kinase, directly interacts with an Aux/IAA protein OsIAA11 to repress its degradation...
August 30, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016918/a-critical-view-on-abc-transporters-and-their-interacting-partners-in-auxin-transport
#19
Markus Geisler, Bibek Aryal, Martin di Donato, Pengchao Hao
Different subclasses of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been implicated in the transport of native variants of the phytohormone auxin. Here, the putative, individual roles of key members belonging to the ABCB, ABCD and ABCG families, respectively, are highlighted and the knowledge of their assumed expression and transport routes is reviewed and compared with their mutant phenotypes. Protein-protein interactions between ABC transporters and regulatory components during auxin transport are summarized and their importance is critically discussed...
July 31, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016906/yucca9-mediated-auxin-biosynthesis-and-polar-auxin-transport-synergistically-regulate-regeneration-of-root-systems-following-root-cutting
#20
Dongyang Xu, Jiahang Miao, Emi Yumoto, Takao Yokota, Masashi Asahina, Masaaki Watahiki
Recovery of the root system following physical damage is an essential issue for plant survival. An injured root system is able to regenerate by increases in lateral root (LR) number and acceleration of root growth. The horticultural technique of root pruning (root cutting) is an application of this response and is a common garden technique for controlling plant growth. Although root pruning is widely used, the molecular mechanisms underlying the subsequent changes in the root system are poorly understood. In this study, root pruning was employed as a model system to study the molecular mechanisms of root-system regeneration...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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