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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330224/transcriptome-wide-mining-suggests-conglomerate-of-genes-associated-with-tuberous-root-growth-and-development-in-aconitum-heterophyllum-wall
#1
Nikhil Malhotra, Hemant Sood, Rajinder Singh Chauhan
Tuberous roots of Aconitum heterophyllum constitute storage organ for secondary metabolites, however, molecular components contributing to their formation are not known. The transcriptomes of A. heterophyllum were analyzed to identify possible genes associated with tuberous root development by taking clues from genes implicated in other plant species. Out of 18 genes, eight genes encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase), SHAGGY, Expansin, RING-box protein 1 (RBX1), SRF receptor kinase (SRF), β-amylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and Auxin responsive factor 2 (ARF2) showed higher transcript abundance in roots (13-171 folds) compared to shoots...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326089/dynamic-regulation-of-auxin-response-during-rice-development-revealed-by-newly-established-hormone-biosensor-markers
#2
Jing Yang, Zheng Yuan, Qingcai Meng, Guoqiang Huang, Christophe Périn, Charlotte Bureau, Anne-Cécile Meunier, Mathieu Ingouff, Malcolm J Bennett, Wanqi Liang, Dabing Zhang
The hormone auxin is critical for many plant developmental processes. Unlike the model eudicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), auxin distribution and signaling in rice tissues has not been systematically investigated due to the absence of suitable auxin response reporters. In this study we observed the conservation of auxin signaling components between Arabidopsis and model monocot crop rice (Oryza sativa), and generated complementary types of auxin biosensor constructs, one derived from the Aux/IAA-based biosensor DII-VENUS but constitutively driven by maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, and the other termed DR5-VENUS in which a synthetic auxin-responsive promoter (DR5rev ) was used to drive expression of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322088/alpha-tocopherol-dependent-salt-tolerance-is-more-related-with-auxin-synthesis-rather-than-enhancement-antioxidant-defense-in-soybean-roots
#3
Seda Sereflioglu, Burcu Seckin Dinler, Eda Tasci
In this paper, we describe the alleviated effects of alpha-tocopherol (α-T) on oxidative damage and its possible role as a signal transmitter in plants during salt stress. The results show that exogenously applied α-T under salt stress increased root length and weight, but reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion radical (O2(.)-) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in soybean roots. The proline content was reduced by α-T treatment. Interestingly, endogenous auxin (IAA) level was significantly increased after α-T application as compared to salt stress alone...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321936/jasmonate-inhibits-cop1-activity-to-suppress-hypocotyl-elongation-and-promote-cotyledon-opening-in-etiolated-arabidopsis-seedlings
#4
Yuyu Zheng, Xuefei Cui, Liang Su, Shuang Fang, Jinfang Chu, Qingqiu Gong, Jianping Yang, Ziqiang Zhu
A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark...
March 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321650/the-small-auxin-up-rna-ossaur45-affects-auxin-synthesis-and-transport-in-rice
#5
Yan-Xia Xu, Meng-Zhu Xiao, Yan Liu, Jun-Liang Fu, Yi He, De-An Jiang
This research is the first to demonstrate that OsSAUR45 is involved in plant growth though affecting auxin synthesis and transport by repressing OsYUCCA and OsPIN gene expression in rice. Small auxin-up RNAs (SAURs) comprise a large multigene family and are rapidly activated as part of the primary auxin response in plants. However, little is known about the role of SAURs in plant growth and development, especially in monocots. Here, we report the biological function of OsSAUR45 in the model plant rice (Oryza sativa)...
March 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320293/regulatory-peptides-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
B F Vanyushin, V V Ashapkin, N I Aleksandrushkina
Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316607/manganese-toxicity-inhibited-root-growth-by-disrupting-auxin-biosynthesis-and-transport-in-arabidopsis
#7
Jingjing Zhao, Wenying Wang, Huakun Zhou, Ruling Wang, Ping Zhang, Huichun Wang, Xiangliang Pan, Jin Xu
Mn toxicity inhibits both primary root (PR) growth and lateral root development. However, the mechanism underlying Mn-mediated root growth inhibition remains to be further elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of auxin in Mn-mediated inhibition of PR growth in Arabidopsis using physiological and genetic approaches. Mn toxicity inhibits PR elongation by reducing meristematic cell division potential. Mn toxicity also reduced auxin levels in root tips by reducing IAA biosynthesis and down-regulating the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN4 and PIN7...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315795/differential-auxin-transport-and-accumulation-in-the-stem-base-lead-to-profuse-adventitious-root-primordia-formation-in-the-aerial-roots-aer-mutant-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l
#8
F Mignolli, L Mariotti, P Picciarelli, M L Vidoz
The aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato is characterized by a profuse and precocious formation of adventitious root primordia along the stem. We demonstrated that auxin is involved in the aer phenotype but ruled out higher auxin sensitivity of mutant plants. Interestingly, polar auxin transport was altered in aer, as young seedlings showed a reduced response to an auxin transport inhibitor and higher expression of auxin export carriers SlPIN1 and SlPIN3. An abrupt reduction in transcripts of auxin efflux and influx genes in older aer hypocotyls caused a marked deceleration of auxin transport in more mature tissues...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315794/initiation-of-leaf-somatic-embryogenesis-involves-high-pectin-esterification-auxin-accumulation-and-dna-demethylation-in-quercus-alba
#9
Elena Corredoira, Vanesa Cano, Ivett Bárány, María-Teresa Solís, Héctor Rodríguez, Ana-María Vieitez, María C Risueño, Pilar S Testillano
Somatic embryogenesis is considered a convenient tool for investigating the regulating mechanisms of embryo formation; it is also a feasible system for in vitro regeneration procedures, with many advantages in woody species. Nevertheless, trees have shown recalcitrance to somatic embryogenesis, and its efficiency remains very low in many cases. Consequently, despite the clear potential of somatic embryogenesis in tree breeding programs, its application is limited since factors responsible for embryogenesis initiation have not yet been completely elucidated...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314115/genome-wide-identification-and-evolution-of-the-pin-formed-pin-gene-family-in-glycine-max
#10
Yuan Liu, Haichao Wei
Soybean is one of the most important crop plants, wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, seed coat development, these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN family is an essential auxin polar transport gene, but little research on soybean PINs (GmPINs) has been done, especially with respect to evolution and the differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPINs from the latest updated G...
March 17, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303391/transcriptional-sequencing-and-analysis-of-major-genes-involved-in-the-adventitious-root-formation-of-mango-cotyledon-segments
#11
Yun-He Li, Hong-Na Zhang, Qing-Song Wu, Gloria K Muday
A total of 74,745 unigenes were generated and 1975 DEGs were identified. Candidate genes that may be involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segment were revealed. Adventitious root formation is a crucial step in plant vegetative propagation, but the molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation remains unclear. Adventitious roots formed only at the proximal cut surface (PCS) of mango cotyledon segments, whereas no roots were formed on the opposite, distal cut surface (DCS). To identify the transcript abundance changes linked to adventitious root development, RNA was isolated from PCS and DCS at 0, 4 and 7 days after culture, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301324/response-of-alternative-splice-isoforms-of-osrad9-gene-from-oryza-sativa-to-environmental-stress
#12
Rui Li, Wenguo Wang, Fosheng Li, Qingwei Wang, Shenghua Wang, Ying Xu, Fang Chen
Rad9 protein plays an important role in cell-cycle checkpoint signal transduction in human and yeast cells, but knowledge about Rad9 in plants is limited. This study reports that the Rad9 gene of rice can generate the transcript products OsRad9.1 and OsRad9.2 through alternative splicing. OsRad9.1, with all nine exons, is the main cell-cycle checkpoint protein involved in the response of rice to genotoxic stresses (ultraviolet radiation and antibiotic stress), environmental stresses (drought, salt, and heavy metal stress), and auxin stimuli (2,4-D, IAA, and IBA)...
March 16, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300183/simulated-herbivory-in-chickpea-causes-rapid-changes-in-defense-pathways-and-hormonal-transcription-networks-of-ja-ethylene-ga-auxin-within-minutes-of-wounding
#13
Saurabh Prakash Pandey, Shruti Srivastava, Ridhi Goel, Deepika Lakhwani, Priya Singh, Mehar Hasan Asif, Aniruddha P Sane
Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ -1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300078/altered-expression-of-maize-plastochron1-enhances-biomass-and-seed-yield-by-extending-cell-division-duration
#14
Xiaohuan Sun, James Cahill, Tom Van Hautegem, Kim Feys, Clinton Whipple, Ondrej Novák, Sofie Delbare, Charlot Versteele, Kirin Demuynck, Jolien De Block, Veronique Storme, Hannes Claeys, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Griet Coussens, Karin Ljung, Alex De Vliegher, Michael Muszynski, Dirk Inzé, Hilde Nelissen
Maize is the highest yielding cereal crop grown worldwide for grain or silage. Here, we show that modulating the expression of the maize PLASTOCHRON1 (ZmPLA1) gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 (CYP78A1), results in increased organ growth, seedling vigour, stover biomass and seed yield. The engineered trait is robust as it improves yield in an inbred as well as in a panel of hybrids, at several locations and over multiple seasons in the field. Transcriptome studies, hormone measurements and the expression of the auxin responsive DR5rev:mRFPer marker suggest that PLA1 may function through an increase in auxin...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293847/the-triple-response-assay-and-its-use-to-characterize-ethylene-mutants-in-arabidopsis
#15
Catharina Merchante, Anna N Stepanova
Exposure of plants to ethylene results in drastic morphological changes. Seedlings germinated in the dark in the presence of saturating concentrations of ethylene display a characteristic phenotype known as the triple response. This phenotype is robust and easy to score. In Arabidopsis the triple response is usually evaluated at 3 days post germination in seedlings grown in the dark in rich media supplemented with 10 μM of the ethylene precursor ACC in air or in unsupplemented media in the presence of 10 ppm ethylene...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289131/brc1-expression-regulates-bud-activation-potential-but-is-not-necessary-or-sufficient-for-bud-growth-inhibition-in-arabidopsis
#16
Madeleine Seale, Tom Bennett, Ottoline Leyser
The degree of shoot branching in Arabidopsis is determined by the activation of axillary buds. Bud activity is regulated by diverse environmental and developmental signals, often mediated via plant hormones including auxin, strigolactone and cytokinin. The transcription factor, BRANCHED1 (BRC1), has been proposed to integrate these regulatory signals. This idea is based on increased branching in brc1 mutants, the effects of bud-regulating hormones on BRC1 expression, and a general correlation between BRC1 expression and bud growth inhibition...
March 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273925/sorghum-dw1-positively-regulates-brassinosteroid-signaling-by-inhibiting-the-nuclear-localization-of-brassinosteroid-insensitive-2
#17
Ko Hirano, Mayuko Kawamura, Satoko Araki-Nakamura, Haruka Fujimoto, Kozue Ohmae-Shinohara, Miki Yamaguchi, Akihiro Fujii, Hiroaki Sasaki, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Takashi Sazuka
Semi-dwarf traits have been widely introgressed into cereal crops to improve lodging resistance. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), four major unlinked dwarfing genes, Dw1-Dw4, have been introduced to reduce plant height, and among them, Dw3 and Dw1 have been cloned. Dw3 encodes a gene involved in auxin transport, whereas, Dw1 was recently isolated and identified as a gene encoding a protein of unknown function. In this study, we show that DW1 is a novel component of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Sorghum possessing the mutated allele of Dw1 (dw1), showed similar phenotypes to rice BR-deficient mutants, such as reduced lamina joint bending, attenuated skotomorphogenesis, and insensitivity against feedback regulation of BR-related genes...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273182/protocol-for-efficient-regulation-of-in-vitro-morphogenesis-in-einkorn-triticum-monococcum-l-a-recalcitrant-diploid-wheat-species
#18
Dmitry Miroshnichenko, Inna Chaban, Mariya Chernobrovkina, Sergey Dolgov
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is A-genome diploid wheat that has a potential to become a useful model for understanding the biology and genomics in Triticeae. Unfortunately, the application of modern technologies such as genetic engineering, RNAi-based gene silencing and genome editing is not available for einkorn as there is no efficient in vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration system. In the present study an efficient and simple protocol for plant regeneration via direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis has been developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270611/coordination-of-auxin-triggered-leaf-initiation-by-tomato-leafless
#19
Yossi Capua, Yuval Eshed
Lateral plant organs, particularly leaves, initiate at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) following auxin maxima signals; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that tomato leafless (lfs) mutants fail to produce cotyledons and leaves and grow a naked pin while maintaining an active SAM. A similar phenotype was observed among pin-like shoots induced by polar auxin transport inhibitors such as 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). Both types of pin-like shoots showed reduced expression of primordia markers as well as abnormal auxin distribution, as evidenced by expression of the auxin reporters pPIN1:PIN1:GFP and DR5:YFP Upon auxin microapplication, both lfs meristems and TIBA-pin apices activated DR5:YFP expression with similar kinetics; however, only lfs plants failed to concurrently initiate leaf primordia...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267270/a-zinc-finger-protein-interacted-with-cyclophilin-affects-root-development-via-iaa-pathway-in-rice
#20
Peng Cui, Hongbo Liu, Songlin Ruan, Basharat Ali, Rafaqat Ali Gill, Huasheng Ma, Zhifu Zheng, Weijun Zhou
The plant hormone auxin plays a crucial role in lateral root development. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying lateral root formation, an auxin-responsive gene OsCYP2 (Os02g0121300) was characterized from rice. Compared to the wild type, OsCYP2-RNAi lines exhibited distinctive defects in lateral root development. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down results confirmed that OsCYP2 interacted with a C2HC-type zinc finger protein (OsZFP, Os01g0252900) which is located in the rice nucleus. T2 OsZFP-RNAi lines had significantly fewer lateral roots than did wild type plants, which suggests a role for OsCYP2 and OsZFP in regulating lateral root development...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
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