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Hai Bo Wang, Shuai Wang, Xiao di Wang, Xiang Bin Shi, Bao Liang Wang, Xiao Cui Zheng, Zhi Qiang Wang, Feng Zhi Liu
Two grape varieties 'Italia' and 'Centenial seedless' cultured in protected and delayed cultivation were used as experimental materials to study the effects of red and blue light quality on chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and endogenous hormone content during leaf senescence. The results showed that the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of the grapes were significantly enhanced in the red light treatment. Although the content of endogenous GA3 was decreased, an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) content and a decrease of total content of zeaxanthin (ZR) were obviously slowed, which led to the significant increase in value of (GA3 +ZR)/ABA, delaying leaf senescence...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Chloé Béziat, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn
The phytohormone auxin controls growth rates within plant tissues, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely enigmatic. The apical hook is a superb model to understand differential growth, because it displays both auxin-dependent growth repression and promotion. In this special issue on membranes, we illustrate how the distinct utilization of vesicle trafficking contributes to the spatial control of polar auxin transport, thereby pinpointing the site of growth repression in apical hooks. We moreover highlight that the transition to growth promotion is achieved by balancing inter- and intracellular auxin transport...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Waheed Ullah Khan, Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Aamir Ali, Aqeel Ahmad, Waheed Akram, Muhammad Faisal
The current study was performed to assess the effect of Burkholderia cepacia CS8 on the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) by Catharanthus roseus grown in Cd-contaminated soil. The plants cultivated in Cd amended soil showed reduced growth, dry mass, gas-exchange capacity, and chlorophyll contents. Furthermore, the plants exhibited elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) under Cd stress. The bacterized plants showed higher shoot length, root length; fresh and dry weight. The improved stress tolerance in inoculated plants was attributed to the reduced quantity of MDA and H2 O2 , enhanced synthesis of protein, proline, phenols, flavonoids, and improved activity of antioxidant enzymes including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jing Nie, Chao Wen, Lin Xi, Suhui Lv, Qingcui Zhao, Yaping Kou, Nan Ma, Liangjun Zhao, Xiaofeng Zhou
We find that the DREB subfamily transcription factor, CmERF053, has a novel function to regulate the development of shoot branching and lateral root in addition to affecting abiotic stress. Dehydration-responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) are important plant transcription factors that regulate various abiotic stresses. Here, we isolated an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba'), CmERF053, the expression of which was rapidly up-regulated by main stem decapitation...
April 23, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ahmed Bahieldin, Ahmed Atef, Sherif Edris, Nour O Gadalla, Ahmed M Ramadan, Sabah M Hassan, Sanaa G Al Attas, Magdy A Al-Kordy, Abdulrahman S M Al-Hajar, Jamal S M Sabir, Mahmoud E Nasr, Gamal H Osman, Fotouh M El-Domyati
Transcriptomic analysis was conducted in leaves of Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion ERF109-knocked out (KO) mutant or plants overexpressing (OE) the gene to detect its role in driving expression of programmed cell death- (PCD-) or growth-related genes under high salt (200 mM NaCl) stress. The analysis yielded ~22-24 million reads, of which 90% mapped to the Arabidopsis reference nuclear genome. Hierarchical cluster analysis of gene expression and principal component analysis (PCA) successfully separated transcriptomes of the two stress time points...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elena L Ilina, Alexey S Kiryushkin, Victoria A Semenova, Nikolay P Demchenko, Katharina Pawlowski, Kirill N Demchenko
Background and Aims: In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Methods: Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Botany
Andrea Ertani, Ornella Francioso, Anna Tinti, Michela Schiavon, Diego Pizzeghello, Serenella Nardi
Seaweed extracts can be employed as biostimulants during crop cultivation owing to their positive effects on plant performance. Therefore, in this study one extract from Laminaria (A) and five extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (B-F) were assayed on maize ( Zea mays L.) plants supplied for 2 days with 0.5 mL L-1 of single products to evaluate their capacity to stimulate root growth and morphology, nutrition, and sugars accumulation. Firstly, extracts were chemically characterized via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectroscopies, and their content in carbon, nitrogen, phenolic acids and hormones (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA, and Isopentenyladenosine, IPA) was quantified...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shashank K Pandey, Han Woo Lee, Min-Jung Kim, Chuloh Cho, Eunkyoo Oh, Jungmook Kim
A hierarchy of transcriptional regulators controlling lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified, including the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR(ARF)7/ARF19-LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN(LBD)16/LBD18 transcriptional network. However, their feedback regulation mechanisms are not known. Here we show that LBD18 controls ARF activity using the dual mode of a positive feedback loop. We showed that ARF7 and ARF19 directly bind AuxRE in the LBD18 promoter. A variety of molecular and biochemical experiments demonstrated that LBD18 binds a specific DNA motif in the ARF19 promoter to regulate its expression in vivo as well as in vitro...
April 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Guiping Ren, Lingfei Li, Yuhua Huang, Yaqin Wang, Wenbin Zhang, Rouyan Zheng, Chunmei Zhong, Xiaojing Wang
Cell expansion is a key determinant for the final size and shape of plant organ, and is regulated by various phytohormones. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) consist of a superfamily involved in multiple aspects of organ morphogenesis. However, little is known about WIP-type ZFP function in phytohormone-mediated organ growth. Using reverse genetics, RNA-seq and phytohormone quantification, we elucidated the role of a new WIP-type ZFP from Gerbera hybrida, GhWIP2, in controlling organ growth via regulation of cell expansion...
April 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Inês C R Barbosa, Ulrich Z Hammes, Claus Schwechheimer
Auxin controls almost every aspect of plant development. Auxin is distributed within the plant by passive diffusion and active cell-to-cell transport. PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux transporters are polarly distributed in the plasma membranes of many cells, and knowledge about their distribution can predict auxin transport and explain auxin distribution patterns, even in complex tissues. Recent studies have revealed that phosphorylation is essential for PIN activation, suggesting that PIN phosphorylation needs to be taken into account in understanding auxin transport...
April 17, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Marcin Nadzieja, Simon Kelly, Jens Stougaard, Dugald Reid
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes requires nodule organogenesis to be coordinated with infection by rhizobia. The plant hormone auxin influences symbiotic infection, but the precise timing of auxin accumulation and the genetic network governing it remain unclear. We used a Lotus japonicus optimised variant of the DII-based auxin accumulation sensor and identify a rapid accumulation of auxin in the epidermis, specifically in the root hair cells. This auxin accumulation occurs in the infected root hairs during rhizobia invasion, while Nod factor application induces this response across a broader range of root hairs...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jing Ma, Yuhao Liu, Wangbin Zhou, Yan Zhu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Stem cells in both plant and animal kingdoms reside in a specialized cellular context called stem-cell niche (SCN). SCN integrity is crucial for organism development. Here we show that the H3/H4 histone chaperone CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR-1 (CAF-1) and the H2A/H2B histone chaperone NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN1/2 (NRP1/2) play synergistic roles in Arabidopsis root SCN maintenance. Compared to either the m56-1 double mutant deprived of NRP1 and NRP2 or the fas2-4 mutant deprived of CAF-1, the combined m56-1fas2-4 triple mutant displayed a much more severe short-root phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Matthias Erb
Volatiles from attacked plants, microbes and herbivores can enhance plant defenses. However, the absence of volatiles rather than their presence has sometimes been associated with enhanced defense, suggesting that volatiles may also act as defense suppressors. Recent work provides a potential mechanistic explanation for these observations by showing that volatile cues can modulate different hormonal pathways, including jasmonate (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and auxin (IAA) signaling. Many of these pathways interact with each other through crosstalk...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Michel Ruiz Rosquete, Sascha Waidmann, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn
Directional growth of lateral roots is critical for radial expansion and soil coverage. Despite its importance, almost nothing is known about its molecular determinants. Initially, young lateral roots (LRs) grow away from the parental root, maintaining the angle acquired shortly after emergence. A second downwards bending response to gravity terminates the so-called plateau phase and thereby limits radial root expansion. Here, we show that the exit from the plateau phase correlates with an increase in auxin signalling at the tip of the LRs...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shixue Li, Qian Zhao, Dengyun Zhu, Jingjuan Yu
The DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding)-type transcription factors are classified into six subgroups, named A-1 to A-6. The members of DREB A-1 and A-2 subgroups have been reported to be involved in response to various abiotic stresses. However, there were only a few genes belonging to A-3 to A-6 subgroups to be reported. In this study, we cloned a DREB A-4 subgroup gene from maize ( Zea mays ), ZmDREB4.1 , and analyzed its characteristics and functions. ZmDREB4.1 was expressed in roots, stems, and leaves at very low levels...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Miao Liu, Haihua Zhang, Xianzhi Fang, Yongsong Zhang, Chongwei Jin
This study examines the association of auxin with ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) in regulating the magnesium-deficiency-induced root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana. With magnesium (Mg) deficiency, both ethylene and NO promoted the elevation of root auxin levels in roots by inducing the expression of AUX1, PIN1, and PIN2 transporters. In turn, auxin stimulated ethylene and NO production by activating the activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO), ACC synthase (ACS), nitrate reductase (NR), and NO synthase-like (NOS-L)...
April 16, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Kosuke Fukui, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi
The plant hormone auxin is involved in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Chemical genetic approach has greatly contributed to identify important genes in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. Molecular genetic technologies and structural information for auxin regulatory components have accelerated the identification and characterization of many novel small molecule modulators in auxin biology. These modulators have been widely utilized to dissect auxin responses. This review will provide an overview of the structure, primary target, in planta activity and application of small molecule modulators in auxin biology...
April 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Juliany M França, Lucimara R Venial, Eloá B Costa, Edilson R Schmildt, Omar Schmildt, Paula M Bernardes, Sandro D Tatagiba, José C Lopes, Marcia F S Ferreira, Rodrigo S Alexandre
Genetic diversity allows identification of potential intraspecific genotypes in the genus Passiflora. The objective of this study was to examine the morphological and genetic diversity of auxin-induced Passiflora mucronata. The experiments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with a 9 x 2 factorial arrangement (nine genotypes x presence and absence of auxin, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)), with four replicates of 16 cuttings. The rooting and vegetative growth responses were variable. Genotype 5 was more responsive in the absence of IBA and genotypes 3, 8 and 9 were more responsive in the presence of IBA...
April 16, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Lifei Chen, Dandan Yang, Youwei Zhang, Limin Wu, Yaoyao Zhang, Lei Ye, Changtian Pan, Yanjun He, Li Huang, Yong-Ling Ruan, Gang Lu
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulate diverse aspects of plant growth. However, their potential role in reproductive development remains elusive. Here, we discovered an unique role of SlMPK20, a plant-specific group D MAPK, in pollen development in tomato. RNAi-mediated suppression of SlMPK20 or its knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 significantly reduced or completely abolished pollen viability, respectively, with no effects on maternal fertility. Cell biology and gene expression analyses established that SlMPK20 exerts its role specifically at the uni-to-binucleate transition during microgametogenesis...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
Christophe Gaillochet, Suraj Jamge, Froukje van der Wal, Gerco Angenent, Richard Immink, Jan U Lohmann
During the plant life cycle, diverse signalling inputs are continuously integrated and engage specific genetic programs depending on the cellular or developmental context. Consistent with an important role in this process, HECATE (HEC) bHLH transcription factors display diverse functions, from photomorphogenesis to the control of shoot meristem dynamics and gynoecium patterning. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their functional versatility and the deployment of specific HEC sub-programs still remain elusive...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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