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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435686/apple-dwarfing-rootstocks-exhibit-an-imbalance-in-carbohydrate-allocation-and-reduced-cell-growth-and-metabolism
#1
Toshi M Foster, Peter A McAtee, Chethi N Waite, Helen L Boldingh, Tony K McGhie
Apple dwarfing rootstocks cause earlier shoot termination and reduced root and shoot mass. To identify physiological factors responsible for rootstock-induced growth restriction, we compared vascular-enriched gene expression between two dwarfing rootstocks ('M27' and 'M9') and the vigorous rootstock 'M793' using RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Differentially expressed genes common to both dwarfing rootstocks belonged to five main biological processes: (1) primary metabolism, (2) cell wall synthesis and modification, (3) secondary metabolism, (4) hormone signalling and response and (5) redox homeostasis...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432333/metabolomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-maize-embryonic-callus-induced-from-immature-embryo
#2
Fei Ge, Hongmei Hu, Xing Huang, Yanling Zhang, Yanli Wang, Zhaoling Li, Chaoying Zou, Huanwei Peng, Lujiang Li, Shibin Gao, Guangtang Pan, Yaou Shen
The low ratio of embryonic callus (EC) induction has inhibited the rapid development of maize genetic engineering. Still, little is known to explain the genotype-dependence of EC induction. Here, we performed a large-scale, quantitative analysis of the maize EC metabolome and proteome at three typical induction stages in two inbred lines with a range of EC induction capabilities. Comparison of the metabolomes and proteomes suggests that the differential molecular responses begin at an early stage of development and continue throughout the process of EC formation...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426669/a-dynamic-genetic-hormonal-regulatory-network-model-explains-multiple-cellular-behaviors-of-the-root-apical-meristem-of-arabidopsis-thalian
#3
Mónica L García-Gómez, Eugenio Azpeitia, Elena R Álvarez-Buylla
The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426370/pin-formed-protein-a-door-to-reveal-the-mechanism-for-auxin-triggered-initiation-of-cotton-fiber
#4
Mi Zhang, Yuehua Xiao, Jianyan Zeng, Yan Pei
Cotton fibers are differentiated ovule epidermal cells that provide an ideal model to study cell differentiation and elongation. Establishment of auxin maximum in fiber cells is crucial for cotton-fiber protrusion from ovule surface. However, it is unclear where the auxin originates from and how the auxin accumulates in fiber cells. Our recent results indicate that the auxin is mainly imported from the outside of ovules, and transported to fiber cells through GhPIN (homolog of PIN-formed proteins in cotton) -mediated polar auxin transport, rather than in situ synthesis...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424725/a-genome-scale-analysis-of-the-pin-gene-family-reveals-its-functions-in-cotton-fiber-development
#5
Yuzhou Zhang, Peng He, Zuoren Yang, Gai Huang, Limin Wang, Chaoyou Pang, Hui Xiao, Peng Zhao, Jianing Yu, Guanghui Xiao
The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein, the most important polar auxin transporter, plays a critical role in the distribution of auxin and controls multiple biological processes. However, characterizations and functions of this gene family have not been identified in cotton. Here, we identified the PIN family in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium raimondii. This gene family was divided into seven subgroups. A chromosomal distribution analysis showed that GhPIN genes were evenly distributed in eight chromosomes and that the whole genome and dispersed duplications were the main duplication events for GhPIN expansion...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424722/the-role-of-auxin-ethylene-crosstalk-in-orchestrating-primary-root-elongation-in-sugar-beet
#6
Willem Abts, Bert Vandenbussche, Maurice P De Proft, Bram Van de Poel
It is well-established in Arabidopsis and other species that ethylene inhibits root elongation through the action of auxin. In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) ethylene promotes root elongation in a concentration dependent manner. However, the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin remains unknown during sugar beet seedling development. Our experiments have shown that exogenously applied auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) also stimulates root elongation. We also show that auxin promotes ethylene biosynthesis leading to longer roots...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422008/arabidopsis-14-3-3-epsilon-members-contribute-to-polarity-of-pin-auxin-carrier-and-auxin-transport-related-development
#7
Jutta Keicher, Nina Jaspert, Katrin Weckermann, Claudia Möller, Christian Throm, Aaron Kintzi, Claudia Oecking
Eukaryotic 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes by phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions. The Arabidopsis genome encodes two groups of 14-3-3s, one of which - epsilon - is thought to fulfill conserved cellular functions. Here, we assessed the in vivo role of the ancestral 14-3-3 epsilon group members. Their simultaneous and conditional repression by RNA interference and artificial microRNA in seedlings led to altered distribution patterns of the phytohormone auxin and associated auxin transport-related phenotypes, such as agravitropic growth...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421097/development-of-incompletely-fused-carpels-in-maize-ovary-revealed-by-mirna-target-gene-and-phytohormone-analysis
#8
Hongping Li, Ting Peng, Qun Wang, Yufeng Wu, Jianfeng Chang, Moubiao Zhang, Guiliang Tang, Chaohai Li
Although the molecular basis of carpel fusion in maize ovary development remains largely unknown, increasing evidence suggests a critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, a combination of miRNA sequencing, degradome and physiological analyses was used to characterize carpel fusion development in maize ovaries showing incompletely (IFC) and completely fused carpels (CFC). A total of 162 known miRNAs distributed across 33 families were identified, of which 20 were differentially expressed. In addition, 53 miRNA candidates were identified, of which 10 were differentially expressed in the IFC and CFC ovaries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420793/regulating-plant-physiology-with-organic-electronics
#9
David J Poxson, Michal Karady, Roger Gabrielsson, Aziz Y Alkattan, Anna Gustavsson, Siamsa M Doyle, Stéphanie Robert, Karin Ljung, Markus Grebe, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides flow-free and accurate delivery of small signaling compounds at high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the application of OEIPs has been limited to delivery of nonaromatic molecules to mammalian systems, particularly for neuroscience applications. However, many long-standing questions in plant biology remain unanswered due to a lack of technology that precisely delivers plant hormones, based on cyclic alkanes or aromatic structures, to regulate plant physiology...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419906/plant-hormone-signaling-in-flowering-an-epigenetic-point-of-view
#10
REVIEW
Gerardo Campos-Rivero, Pedro Osorio-Montalvo, Rafael Sánchez-Borges, Rosa Us-Camas, Fátima Duarte-Aké, Clelia De-la-Peña
Reproduction is one of the most important phases in an organism's lifecycle. In the case of angiosperm plants, flowering provides the major developmental transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage, and requires genetic and epigenetic reprogramming to ensure the success of seed production. Flowering is regulated by a complex network of genes that integrate multiple environmental cues and endogenous signals so that flowering occurs at the right time; hormone regulation, signaling and homeostasis are very important in this process...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415207/model-of-polar-auxin-transport-coupled-to-mechanical-forces-retrieves-robust-morphogenesis-along-the-arabidopsis-root
#11
J Roberto Romero-Arias, Valeria Hernández-Hernández, Mariana Benítez, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla, Rafael A Barrio
Stem cells are identical in many scales, they share the same molecular composition, DNA, genes, and genetic networks, yet they should acquire different properties to form a functional tissue. Therefore, they must interact and get some external information from their environment, either spatial (dynamical fields) or temporal (lineage). In this paper we test to what extent coupled chemical and physical fields can underlie the cell's positional information during development. We choose the root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana to model the emergence of cellular patterns...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412545/dna-topoisomerase-1-prevents-r-loop-accumulation-to-modulate-auxin-regulated-root-development-in-rice
#12
Sarfraz Shafiq, Chunli Chen, Jing Yang, Lingling Cheng, Fei Ma, Emilie Widemann, Qianwen Sun
R-loop structures (RNA:DNA hybrids) have important functions in many biological processes, including transcriptional regulation and genome instability among diverse organisms. DNA Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1), an essential manipulator of DNA topology during RNA transcription and DNA replication processes, can prevent R-loop accumulation by removing the positive and negative DNA supercoiling that is made by RNA polymerases during transcription. TOP1 is required for plant development, but little is known about its function in preventing co-transcriptional R-loops in different plant biological processes...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412530/indoles-as-therapeutics-of-interest-in-medicinal-chemistry-bird-s-eye-view
#13
REVIEW
Navriti Chadha, Om Silakari
Indoles constitute extensively explored heterocyclic ring systems with wide range of applications in pathophysiological conditions that is, cancer, microbial and viral infections, inflammation, depression, migraine, emesis, hypertension, etc. Presence of indole nucleus in amino acid tryptophan makes it prominent in phytoconstituents such as perfumes, neurotransmitters, auxins (plant hormones), indole alkaloids etc. The interesting molecular architecture of indole makes them suitable candidates for the drug development...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411052/selective-enrichment-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-20-5n-3-in-n-oceanica-casa-cc201-by-natural-auxin-supplementation
#14
Aswathy Udayan, Muthu Arumugam
The present study aims to evaluate the effect of different concentration of natural auxin, Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) on growth, lipid yield, PUFA and EPA accumulation in Nannochloropsis oceanica CASA CC201. It was observed that the, treatment with 10ppm concentration of IAA resulted in high cell number 579.5×10(6)cells/ml than the control (215.5×10(6)cells/ml). Treatment with IAA at a concentration of 40ppm gives the highest cellular lipid accumulation of 60.9% DCW than the control 31.05% DCW). Lipid yield is also found to be increased by the addition of 40ppm IAA (319...
March 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408737/hydrogen-sulfide-toxicity-inhibits-primary-root-growth-through-the-ros-no-pathway
#15
Ping Zhang, Qiong Luo, Ruling Wang, Jin Xu
High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are toxic to plants and inhibit their growth. Previous research indicated that high concentrations of H2S modulate the root system architecture (RSA) by affecting auxin transport; however, the signaling pathway underlying this process remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, on primary root (PR) growth in Arabidopsis using pharmacological, physiological, and genetic approaches. H2S toxicity repressed PR growth by triggering a signal transduction pathway involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 6 (MPK6) activation, and nitric oxide (NO) production...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406933/transcriptomic-profiling-of-taproot-growth-and-sucrose-accumulation-in-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-at-different-developmental-stages
#16
Yong-Feng Zhang, Guo-Long Li, Xue-Feng Wang, Ya-Qing Sun, Shao-Ying Zhang
In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), taproot weight and sucrose content are the important determinants of yield and quality. However, high yield and low sucrose content are two tightly bound agronomic traits. The advances in next-generation sequencing technology and the publication of sugar beet genome have provided a method for the study of molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of these two agronomic traits. In this work, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses in the high taproot yield cultivar SD13829 and the high sucrose content cultivar BS02 at five developmental stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406060/auxin-signaling-through-scf-tir1-afbs-mediates-feedback-regulation-of-iaa-biosynthesis
#17
Shin Takato, Yusuke Kakei, Marie Mitsui, Yosuke Ishida, Masashi Suzuki, Chiaki Yamazaki, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi, Takahiro Ishii, Ayako Nakamura, Kazuo Soeno, Yukihisa Shimada
We previously reported that exogenous application of auxin to Arabidopsis seedlings resulted in downregulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis genes in a feedback manner. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the SCF(TIR1/AFB)-mediated signaling pathway in feedback regulation of the indole-3-pyruvic acid-mediated auxin biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis. Application of PEO-IAA, an inhibitor of the IAA signal transduction pathway, to wild-type seedlings resulted in increased endogenous IAA levels in roots...
April 13, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405774/bacillus-methylotrophicus-m4-96-isolated-from-maize-zea-mays-rhizoplane-increases-growth-and-auxin-content-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-via-emission-of-volatiles
#18
Paola Pérez-Flores, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero, Josué Altamirano-Hernández, Ramón Pelagio-Flores, José López-Bucio, Perla García-Juárez, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria stimulate plant growth and development via different mechanisms. In this study, we characterized the effect of volatiles from Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96 isolated from the maize rhizosphere on root and shoot development, and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytostimulation occurred after 4 days of interaction between M4-96 and Arabidopsis grown on opposite sides of divided Petri plates, as revealed by enhanced primary root growth, root branching, leaf formation, and shoot biomass accumulation...
April 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399194/interactions-between-plant-hormones-and-heavy-metals-responses
#19
Lauro Bücker-Neto, Ana Luiza Sobral Paiva, Ronei Dorneles Machado, Rafael Augusto Arenhart, Marcia Margis-Pinheiro
Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity...
April 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397275/the-physcomitrella-patens-exocyst-subunit-exo70-3d-has-distinct-roles-in-growth-and-development-and-is-essential-for-completion-of-the-moss-life-cycle
#20
Anamika Rawat, Lucie Brejšková, Michal Hála, Fatima Cvrčková, Viktor Žárský
The exocyst, an evolutionarily conserved secretory vesicle-tethering complex, spatially controls exocytosis and membrane turnover in fungi, metazoans and plants. The exocyst subunit EXO70 exists in multiple paralogs in land plants, forming three conserved clades with assumed distinct roles. Here we report functional analysis of the first moss exocyst subunit to be studied, Physcomitrella patens PpEXO70.3d (Pp1s97_91V6), from the, as yet, poorly characterized EXO70.3 clade. Following phylogenetic analysis to confirm the presence of three ancestral land plant EXO70 clades outside angiosperms, we prepared and phenotypically characterized loss-of-function Ppexo70...
April 11, 2017: New Phytologist
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