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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213701/ursolic-acid-mediated-changes-in-glycolytic-pathway-promote-cytotoxic-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-phenotypically-different-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Anna Deregowska, Maciej Wnuk
Plant-derived pentacyclic triterpenotids with multiple biological activities are considered as promising candidates for cancer therapy and prevention. However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of low dose treatment (5-20 µM) of ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on breast cancer cells of different receptor status, namely MCF-7 (ER(+), PR(+/-), HER2(-)), MDA-MB-231 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(-)) and SK-BR-3 (ER(-), PR(-), HER2(+)). UA-mediated response was more potent than BA-mediated response...
February 17, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213560/identification-of-putative-substrates-of-sec2-a-chloroplast-inner-envelope-translocase
#2
Yubing Li, Jonathan R Martin, Giovanni A Aldama, Donna E Fernandez, Kenneth Cline
Most chloroplast proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and imported into chloroplasts. Many imported proteins are further targeted to the thylakoid membrane and lumen by the SEC1, TAT or SRP/ALB3 translocases. Others are targeted to the inner chloroplast envelope membrane by un-described translocase(s). Recently, a second SEC system (SEC2) consisting of SCY2, SECE2, and SECA2 was found in the chloroplast envelope. Null mutants of SCY2 in Arabidopsis exhibit a severe embryo lethal phenotype. To investigate the function of SEC2 system in plants, we used inducible RNAi to knockdown SCY2 in Arabidopsis...
February 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213559/an-organelle-rna-recognition-motif-protein-is-required-for-photosynthetic-subunit-psbf-transcript-editing
#3
Justin B Hackett, Xiaowen Shi, Amy T Kobylarz, Meriah K Lucas, Ryan L Wessendorf, Kevin M Hines, Stephane Bentolila, Maureen Hanson, Yan Lu
Loss-of-function mutations in Organelle RNA Recognition Motif Protein 6 (ORRM6) result in near absence of RNA editing of psbF-C77 and reduction in accD-C794 editing in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The orrm6 mutants have decreased levels of PSII proteins, especially PsbF, lower PSII activity, pale green pigmentation, smaller leaf and plant sizes, and retarded growth. Stable expression of ORRM6 rescues orrm6 editing defects and mutant phenotype. Unlike ORRM1, the other known ORRM plastid editing factor, ORRM6 does not contain RNA editing interacting protein/multiple organellar RNA editing factor (RIP/MORF) boxes, which are required for ORRM1 to interact with site-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein editing factors...
February 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211571/inhibitory-effects-of-a-standardized-extract-of-justicia-pectoralis-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-airway-hyper-responsiveness
#4
Carlos T M Moura, Francisco J Batista-Lima, Teresinha S Brito, Alfredo A V Silva, Luan C Ferreira, Cássia R Roque, Karoline S Aragão, Alexandre Havt, Francisco N Fonseca, Luzia K A M Leal, Pedro J C Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: Justicia pectoralis is a plant useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Here, we studied the antiasthmatic properties of a standardized extract of J. pectoralis (Jp). METHODS: Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were actively challenged with saline or OVA to study airway hyper-responsiveness after oral treatment with saline or Jp. The ability of Jp to inhibit hyper-reactivity was evaluated in isolated trachea mounted in isolated organ bath chamber...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211151/phenotypic-distribution-models-corroborate-species-distribution-models-a-shift-in-the-role-and-prevalence-of-a-dominant-prairie-grass-in-response-to-climate-change
#5
Adam B Smith, Jacob Alsdurf, Mary Knapp, Sara G Baer, Loretta C Johnson
Phenotypic variation within species can vary widely across environmental gradients but forecasts of species' responses to environmental change often assume species respond homogenously across their ranges. We compared predictions from species and phenotype distribution models under future climate scenarios for Andropogon gerardii, a widely distributed, dominant grass found throughout the central United States. Phenotype data on aboveground biomass, height, leaf width, and chlorophyll content were obtained from 33 populations spanning a ~1000-km gradient that encompassed the majority of the species' environmental range...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208238/effects-of-extreme-drought-on-specific-leaf-area-of-grassland-species-a-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies-in-temperate-and-sub-mediterranean-systems
#6
C Wellstein, P Poschlod, A Gohlke, S Chelli, G Campetella, S Rosbakh, R Canullo, J Kreyling, A Jentsch, C Beierkuhnlein
Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of experimental drought manipulation studies using rain-out shelters in five sites of natural grassland ecosystems of Europe. The single studies assess the effects of extreme drought on the intraspecific variation of the specific leaf area (SLA), a proxy of plant growth. We evaluate and compare the effect size of the SLA response for the functional groups of forbs and grasses in temperate and sub-Mediterranean systems. We hypothesized that the functional groups of grasses and forbs from temperate grassland systems have different strategies in short-term drought response, measured as adjustment of SLA, with SLA-reduction in grasses and SLA-maintenance in forbs...
February 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207977/adaptation-of-the-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-during-experimental-evolution-on-a-native-versus-alternative-host-plant
#7
Sean Meaden, Britt Koskella
The specialization and distribution of pathogens among species has substantial impact on disease spread, especially when reservoir hosts can maintain high pathogen densities or select for increased pathogen virulence. Theory predicts that optimal within-host growth rate will vary among host genotypes/species, and therefore that pathogens infecting multiple hosts should experience different selection pressures depending on the host environment in which they are found. This should be true for pathogens with broad host ranges, but also those experiencing opportunistic infections on novel hosts or that spill over among host populations...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207889/genetic-variation-of-maturity-groups-and-four-e-genes-in-the-chinese-soybean-mini-core-collection
#8
Jicun Li, Xiaobo Wang, Wenwen Song, Xinyang Huang, Jing Zhou, Haiyan Zeng, Shi Sun, Hongchang Jia, Wenbin Li, Xinan Zhou, Suzhen Li, Pengyin Chen, Cunxiang Wu, Yong Guo, Tianfu Han, Lijuan Qiu
The mini core collection (MCC) has been established by streamlining core collection (CC) chosen from China National Genebank including 23,587 soybean (Glycine max) accessions by morphological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Few studies have been focused on the maturity that has been considered as one of the most critical traits for the determination of the adaptation-growing region of the soybean. In the current study, two hundred and ninty-nine accessions of MCC planted for two years at four locations namely in Heihe, Harbin, Jining and Wuhan cities in China were used to assess the variation of maturity in MCC and identify the integrated effect of 4 E loci on flowering and maturity time in soybean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207183/combining-the-auxin-inducible-degradation-system-with-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-for-the-conditional-depletion-of-endogenous-drosophila-melanogaster-proteins
#9
Melinda Bence, Ferenc Jankovics, Tamás Lukácsovich, Miklós Erdélyi
Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in non-plant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins...
February 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205577/epigenetic-signatures-of-invasive-status-in-populations-of-marine-invertebrates
#10
Alba Ardura, Anastasija Zaiko, Paloma Morán, Serge Planes, Eva Garcia-Vazquez
Epigenetics, as a DNA signature that affects gene expression and enables rapid reaction of an organism to environmental changes, is likely involved in the process of biological invasions. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism common to plants and animals for regulating gene expression. In this study we show, for the first time in any marine species, significant reduction of global methylation levels during the expansive phase of a pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) recent invasion in Europe (two-year old), while in older introductions such epigenetic signature of invasion was progressively reduced...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204814/fisetin-regulates-astrocyte-migration-and-proliferation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Nan Wang, Fang Yao, Ke Li, Lanlan Zhang, Guo Yin, Mingjun Du, Bingyi Wu
Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a plant flavonol found in fruits and vegetables that has been reported to inhibit migration and proliferation in several types of cancer. Reactive astrogliosis involves astrocyte migration and proliferation, and contributes to the formation of glial scars in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, the effect of fisetin on the migration and proliferation of astrocytes remains unclear. In this study, we found that fisetin inhibited astrocyte migration in a scratch-wound assay and diminished the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK; Tyr576/577 and paxillin (Tyr118)...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203244/pistil-transcriptome-analysis-to-disclose-genes-and-gene-products-related-to-aposporous-apomixis-in-hypericum-perforatum-l
#12
Giulio Galla, Sara Zenoni, Linda Avesani, Lothar Altschmied, Paride Rizzo, Timothy F Sharbel, Gianni Barcaccia
Unlike sexual reproduction, apomixis encompasses a number of reproductive strategies, which permit maternal genome inheritance without genetic recombination and syngamy. The key biological features of apomixis are the circumvention of meiosis (i.e., apomeiosis), the differentiation of unreduced embryo sacs and egg cells, and their autonomous development in functional embryos through parthenogenesis, and the formation of viable endosperm either via fertilization-independent means or following fertilization with a sperm cell...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202734/proper-division-plane-orientation-and-mitotic-progression-together-allow-normal-growth-of-maize
#13
Pablo Martinez, Anding Luo, Anne Sylvester, Carolyn G Rasmussen
How growth, microtubule dynamics, and cell-cycle progression are coordinated is one of the unsolved mysteries of cell biology. A maize mutant, tangled1, with known defects in growth and proper division plane orientation, and a recently characterized cell-cycle delay identified by time-lapse imaging, was used to clarify the relationship between growth, cell cycle, and proper division plane orientation. The tangled1 mutant was fully rescued by introduction of cortical division site localized TANGLED1-YFP. A CYCLIN1B destruction box was fused to TANGLED1-YFP to generate a line that mostly rescued the division plane defect but still showed cell-cycle delays when expressed in the tangled1 mutant...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202597/histone-lysine-to-methionine-mutations-reduce-histone-methylation-and-cause-developmental-pleiotropy
#14
Dean Sanders, Shuiming Qian, Rachael Fieweger, Li Lu, James A Dowell, John M Denu, Xuehua Zhong
Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in diverse biological processes. Histone lysine to methionine (K-to-M) mutations act as gain-of-function mutations to inhibit a wide range of histone methyltransferases and are thought to promote tumorigenesis. However, it is largely unknown whether K-to-M mutations impact development at the whole organismal level. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, we discovered that a transgene exogenously expressing histone 3 lysine 36 to methionine mutation (K36M) acts in a dominant negative manner to cause global reduction of H3K36 methylation...
February 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201983/comparative-analysis-of-the-mitochondrial-genomes-of-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-sensu-lato-insights-into-the-evolution-of-a-fungal-species-complex-interacting-with-diverse-plants
#15
Xiaofei Liang, Xianglin Tian, Wenkui Liu, Tingyu Wei, Wei Wang, Qiuyue Dong, Bo Wang, Yanan Meng, Rong Zhang, Mark L Gleason, Guangyu Sun
BACKGROUND: The fungal species complex Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato contains over 20 plant-interacting species. These species exhibit different life styles (e.g., endophytes, foliar and fruit pathogens) and show considerable variation in host and tissue adaptation strategies. Accurate species delimitation in C. gloeosporioides s.l. is very challenging due to nascent lineage boundaries and phenotypic plasticity, which strongly impedes studies of the complex's host-interaction biology...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198507/assessment-of-genetic-diversity-of-cotton-genotypes-for-various-economic-traits-against-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-clcud
#16
M Javed, S B Hussain, M Baber
In Pakistan, cotton crop has been under enormous threat of cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) over the last four decades. In order to estimate genetic diversity in cotton germplasm CLCuD resistance, we assessed 100 cotton genotypes for their CLCuD resistance/tolerance and other related agronomical traits. Various statistical analytical tools, including correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to select the best genotypes. These genotypes can be used in future breeding programs to generate CLCuD resistant varieties...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198506/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-1-in-drosophila-neurons
#17
P G M'Angale, B E Staveley
The mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) is a regulatory subunit of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter that plays an important role in calcium sensing. It contains two EF-hand domains that are well conserved across diverse species from protozoa to plants and metazoans. The loss of MICU1 function in mammals is attributed to several neurological disorders that involve movement dysfunction. The CG4495 gene in Drosophila melanogaster was identified as a putative homolog of MICU1 in the HomoloGene database of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197916/regulation-of-plant-cellular-and-organismal-development-by-sumo
#18
Nabil Elrouby
This chapter clearly demonstrates the breadth and spectrum of the processes that SUMO regulates during plant development. The gross phenotypes observed in mutants of the SUMO conjugation and deconjugation enzymes reflect these essential roles, and detailed analyses of these mutants under different growth conditions revealed roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses, phosphate starvation, nitrate and sulphur metabolism, freezing and drought tolerance and response to excess copper. SUMO functions also intersect with those regulated by several hormones such as salicylic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellins and auxin, and detailed studies provide mechanistic clues of how sumoylation may regulate these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197719/regulatory-crosstalk-between-micrornas-and-hormone-signalling-cascades-controls-the-variation-on-seed-dormancy-phenotype-at-arabidopsis-thaliana-seed-set
#19
Yang Liu, Yousry A El-Kassaby
We employed an Illumina sequencing approach to identify candidate microRNA cohorts that may greatly contribute to seed dormancy modulation and to construct a microRNA-gene regulatory network in hormone signalling cascades. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important signalling molecules and regulate many developmental programs of plants. Some miRNAs have been integrated into gene regulatory networks (GRNs) and coordinate developmental plasticity, but few study systematically investigated how phenotypical variations are regulated through differential expression of miRNA tags in GRNs during seed set...
February 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197160/digital-gene-expression-analysis-provides-insight-into-the-transcript-profile-of-the-genes-involved-in-aporphine-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-lotus-nelumbo-nucifera
#20
Mei Yang, Lingping Zhu, Ling Li, Juanjuan Li, Liming Xu, Ji Feng, Yanling Liu
The predominant alkaloids in lotus leaves are aporphine alkaloids. These are the most important active components and have many pharmacological properties, but little is known about their biosynthesis. We used digital gene expression (DGE) technology to identify differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between two lotus cultivars with different alkaloid contents at four leaf development stages. We also predicted potential genes involved in aporphine alkaloid biosynthesis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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