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Plant phenotyping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352746/the-common-bean-cok-4-and-the-arabidopsis-fer-kinase-domain-share-similar-function-in-plant-growth-and-defense
#1
Rafhael Felipin Azevedo, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc, Maeli Melotto
Receptor-like kinases are membrane proteins that can be shared by diverse signaling pathways. Among them, the Arabidopsis thaliana FERONIA (FER) plays a role in the balance between distinct signals to control growth and defense. We have found that COK-4, a putative kinase encoded in the common bean anthracnose resistance locus Co-4 that is transcriptionally regulated during immune response, is highly similar to the kinase domain of FER. To assess whether COK-4 is a functional ortholog of FER, we expressed COK-4 in the wild type Col-0 and the fer-5 mutant of Arabidopsis and evaluated FER-associated traits...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352245/av2-protein-of-tomato-leaf-curl-palampur-virus-promotes-systemic-necrosis-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-and-interacts-with-host-catalase2
#2
Poonam Roshan, Aditya Kulshreshtha, Surender Kumar, Rituraj Purohit, Vipin Hallan
Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPalV) is a whitefly-transmitted, bipartite begomovirus. Here, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of AV2 from a Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector accelerated systemic necrosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 10 amino acids from N-terminal region of AV2 were found to be associated with the systemic necrosis symptom/phenotype. Mutational studies of ToLCPalV infectious clones lacking the AV2 revealed that AV2 is essential for the systemic movement of DNA-A, symptom severity and viral DNA accumulation...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351588/sorghum-root-system-classification-in-contrasting-p-environments-reveals-three-main-rooting-types-and-root-architecture-related-marker-trait-associations
#3
Sebastian Parra-Londono, Mareike Kavka, Birgit Samans, Rod Snowdon, Silke Wieckhorst, Ralf Uptmoor
Background and Aims: Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351013/leaf-form-evolution-in-viburnum-parallels-variation-within-individual-plants
#4
Elizabeth L Spriggs, Samuel B Schmerler, Erika J Edwards, Michael J Donoghue
Few studies have critically evaluated how morphological variation within individual organisms corresponds to variation within and among species. Subindividual variation in plants facilitates such studies because their indeterminate modular growth generates multiple serially homologous structures along growing axes. Focusing on leaf form, we evaluate how subindividual trait variation relates to leaf evolution across Viburnum, a clade of woody angiosperms. In Viburnum we infer multiple independent origins of wide/lobed leaves with toothed margins from ancestors with elliptical, smooth-margined leaves...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350244/autophagy-related-atg-11-atg9-and-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-control-atg2-mediated-formation-of-autophagosomes-in-arabidopsis
#5
Sangwoo Kang, Kwang Deok Shin, Jeong Hun Kim, Taijoon Chung
Using quantitative assays for autophagy, we analyzed 4 classes of atg mutants, discovered new atg2 phenotypes and ATG gene interactions, and proposed a model of autophagosome formation in plants. Plant and other eukaryotic cells use autophagy to target cytoplasmic constituents for degradation in the vacuole. Autophagy is regulated and executed by a conserved set of proteins called autophagy-related (ATG). In Arabidopsis, several groups of ATG proteins have been characterized using genetic approaches. However, the genetic interactions between ATG genes have not been established and the relationship between different ATG groups in plants remains unclear...
January 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350131/antimicrobial-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-spp
#6
Yang Wang, Tao He, Zhangqi Shen, Congming Wu
Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are found throughout the environment, in close association with soil, sewage, and plants. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the first member of this genus, is the predominant species, observed in soil, water, plants, animals, and humans. It is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with the increased number of infections in both humans and animals in recent years. In this article, we summarize all Stenotrophomonas species (mainly S. maltophilia) isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and further distinguish all isolates based on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance phenotypes...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349932/isolation-and-characterization-of-lectin-with-antibacterial-antibiofilm-and-antiproliferative-activities-from-acinetobacter-baumannii-of-environmental-origin
#7
Abdullah A Alyousef, Abdulaziz Alqasim, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
AIMS: Lectin is a non-immunogenic glycoprotein, have been extracted majority from the plant source primarily leguminoasea. Its ability to precisely recognize and bind to the complex cell bound structure to enable it playing diverse roles. In this study, we obligate to define new sources of lectins since the production of lectins is very expensive. Therefore, we performed a study with the goal to isolate and characterize lectin from bacteria of plant origin and screen its ability as an antibacterial, antibiofilm and antiproliferative agent...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349810/medicago-truncatula-copper-transporter-1-mtcopt1-delivers-copper-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation
#8
Marta Senovilla, Rosario Castro-Rodríguez, Isidro Abreu, Viviana Escudero, Igor Kryvoruchko, Michael K Udvardi, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Copper is an essential nutrient for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This element is delivered by the host plant to the nodule, where membrane copper (Cu) transporter would introduce it into the cell to synthesize cupro-proteins. COPT family members in the model legume Medicago truncatula were identified and their expression determined. Yeast complementation assays, confocal microscopy and phenotypical characterization of a Tnt1 insertional mutant line were carried out in the nodule-specific M. truncatula COPT family member...
January 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348813/synthesis-and-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-biliatresone-a-plant-isoflavonoid-that-causes-biliary-atresia
#9
Michelle A Estrada, Xiao Zhao, Kristin Lorent, Alyssa Kriegermeier, Seika A Nagao, Simon Berritt, Rebecca G Wells, Michael Pack, Jeffrey D Winkler
We report the first synthesis of the plant isoflavonoid biliatresone. The convergent synthesis has been applied to the synthesis of several analogs, which have facilitated the first structure-activity relationship study for this environmental toxin that, on ingestion, recapitulates the phenotype of biliary atresia.
January 11, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346601/accumulation-of-mutational-load-at-the-edges-of-a-species-range
#10
Yvonne Willi, Marco Fracassetti, Stefan Zoller, Josh Van Buskirk
Why species have geographically restricted distributions is an unresolved question in ecology and evolutionary biology. Here we test a new explanation, that mutation accumulation due to small population size or a history of range expansion can contribute to restricting distributions by reducing population growth rate at the edge. We examined genomic diversity and mutational load across the entire geographic range of the North American plant Arabidopsis lyrata, including old, isolated populations predominantly at the southern edge and regions of postglacial range expansion at the northern and southern edges...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346559/predicting-plant-biomass-accumulation-from-image-derived-parameters
#11
Dijun Chen, Rongli Shi, Jean-Michel Pape, Kerstin Neumann, Daniel Arend, Andreas Graner, Ming Chen, Christian Klukas
Background: Image-based high-throughput phenotyping technologies have been rapidly developed in plant science recently and they provide a great potential to gain more valuable information than traditionally destructive methods. Predicting plant biomass is regarded as a key purpose for plant breeders and ecologist. However, it is a great challenge to find a predictive biomass model across experiments. Results: In the present study, we constructed four predictive models to examine the quantitative relationship between image-based features and plant biomass accumulation...
January 16, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343819/effects-of-silver-nanocolloids-on-plant-complex-type-n-glycans-in-oryza-sativa-roots
#12
Risa Horiuchi, Yukari Nakajima, Shosaku Kashiwada, Nobumitsu Miyanishi
Silver nanomaterials have been mainly developed as antibacterial healthcare products worldwide, because of their antibacterial activity. However, there is little data regarding the potential risks and effects of large amounts of silver nanomaterials on plants. In contrast, N-glycans play important roles in various biological phenomena, and their structures and expressions are sensitive to ambient environmental changes. Therefore, to assesse the effects of silver nanomaterials, we focused on the correlation between N-glycans and the effects of silver nanomaterials in plants and analyzed N-glycan structures in Oryza sativa seedlings exposed to silver nanocolloids (SNCs)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339500/regulation-of-the-stability-of-rgf1-receptor-by-the-ubiquitin-specific-proteases-ubp12-ubp13-is-critical-for-root-meristem-maintenance
#13
Zhichao An, Yuliang Liu, Yang Ou, Jia Li, Baowen Zhang, Daye Sun, Yu Sun, Wenqiang Tang
ROOT MERISTEM GROWTH FACTOR (RGF) 1 is an important peptide hormone that regulates root growth. Upon binding to its receptor, RGFR1, RGF1 regulates the expression of two transcription factors, PLETHORA 1 and 2 (PLT1/2), to influence root meristem development. Here, we show that the ubiquitin-specific proteases UBP12 and UBP13 are positive regulators of root meristem development and that UBP13 interacts directly with RGF1 receptor (RGFR1) and its close homolog RGFR2. The ubp12,13 double-mutant root is completely insensitive to exogenous applied RGF1...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338687/use-of-easy-measurable-phenotypic-traits-as-a-complementary-approach-to-evaluate-the-population-structure-and-diversity-in-a-high-heterozygous-panel-of-tetraploid-clones-and-cultivars
#14
Martin E Tagliotti, Sofia I Deperi, Maria C Bedogni, Ruofang Zhang, Norma C Manrique Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
BACKGROUND: Diversity in crops is fundamental for plant breeding efforts. An accurate assessment of genetic diversity, using molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), must be able to reveal the structure of the population under study. A characterization of population structure using easy measurable phenotypic traits could be a preliminary and low-cost approach to elucidate the genetic structure of a population. A potato population of 183 genotypes was evaluated using 4859 high-quality SNPs and 19 phenotypic traits commonly recorded in potato breeding programs...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338682/soybean-mads-box-gene-gmagl1-promotes-flowering-via-the-photoperiod-pathway
#15
Xuanrui Zeng, Hailun Liu, Hongyang Du, Sujing Wang, Wenming Yang, Yingjun Chi, Jiao Wang, Fang Huang, Deyue Yu
BACKGROUND: The MADS-box transcription factors are an ancient family of genes that regulate numerous physiological and biochemical processes in plants and facilitate the development of floral organs. However, the functions of most of these transcription factors in soybean remain unknown. RESULTS: In this work, a MADS-box gene, GmAGL1, was overexpressed in soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GmAGL1 overexpression not only resulted in early maturation but also promoted flowering and affected petal development...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337318/homes-for-plants-and-microbes-a-phenotyping-approach-with-quantitative-control-of-signaling-between-organisms-and-their-individual-environments
#16
Oskar Siemianowski, Kara R Lind, Xinchun Tian, Matt Cain, Songzhe Xu, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Ludovico Cademartiri
We describe a simple, scalable, modular, and frugal approach to create model ecosystems as millifluidic networks of interconnected habitats (hosting microbes or plants), which offers (i) quantitative and dynamic control over the exchange of chemicals between habitats, and (ii) independent control over their environment. Oscillatory laminar flows produce regions of vortex mixing around obstacles. When these overlap, rapid mass transport by dispersion occurs, which is quantitatively describable as diffusion, but is directional and tunable in rate over 3 orders of magnitude...
January 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333607/arabidopsis-mlo2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-sensitivity-to-extracellular-ros
#17
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3- sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333377/dietary-l-arginine-intakes-and-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-6-year-follow-up-in-tehran-lipid-and-glucose-study
#18
Parvin Mirmiran, Sajjad Khalili Moghadam, Zahra Bahadoran, Asghar Ghasemi, Fereidoun Azizi
This study was conducted to investigate whether regular dietary intake of L-arginine could affect the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Eligible adult men and women (n=1,237), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, were followed for a median of 6.3 years. Dietary intakes of L-arginine and serum nitrate and nitrite (NOx) concentration were assessed at baseline (2006~2008), and demographics, anthropometrics, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and follow-up examinations...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332284/measurement-of-hypersensitive-cell-death-triggered-by-avirulent-bacterial-pathogens-in-arabidopsis
#19
Zahra Imanifard, Elodie Vandelle, Diana Bellin
The hypersensitive response is one of the most powerful and complex defense reactions to survive to pathogen attacks during an incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. Local programmed cell death accompanies the hypersensitive response at the site of infection to prevent pathogen growth and spread. A precise quantitative assessment of this form of programmed cell death is essential to unravel the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the process. Here, we first describe the optimization of a Trypan Blue staining protocol for quantitatively measuring the HR-cell death in Arabidopsis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332167/non-coding-rnas-and-plant-male-sterility-current-knowledge-and-future-prospects
#20
REVIEW
Ankita Mishra, Abhishek Bohra
Latest outcomes assign functional role to non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in regulatory networks that confer male sterility to plants. Male sterility in plants offers great opportunity for improving crop performance through application of hybrid technology. In this respect, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and sterility induced by photoperiod (PGMS)/temperature (TGMS) have greatly facilitated development of high-yielding hybrids in crops. Participation of non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in plant reproductive development is increasingly becoming evident...
January 13, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
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