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Plant phenotyping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817092/biochemical-and-comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-identify-candidate-genes-related-to-variegation-formation-in-paeonia-rockii
#1
Qianqian Shi, Long Li, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jianrang Luo, Xiang Li, Lijuan Zhai, Lixia He, Yanlong Zhang
Paeonia rockii is a wild tree peony species with large and dark purple variegations at the base of its petals. It is the genetic resource for various variegation patterns in tree peony cultivars, which is in contrast to the pure white petals of Paeonia ostii. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of variegation in this plant is still unknown. Here, we conducted Illumina transcriptome sequencing for P. rockii, P. ostii (with pure white petals) and their F1 individuals (with purple-red variegation)...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816593/elucidating-the-role-of-wrky27-in-male-sterility-in-arabidopsis
#2
M Shahid Mukhtar, Xiaoyu Liu, Imre E Somssich
The WRKY proteins belong to a superfamily of TFs that play pivotal roles in responses to a wide range of biotic, abiotic, developmental and physiological cues. Here, we assayed the accumulation of basal WRKY27 transcripts in diverse tissue including root, shoot, leaf and flowers. We demonstrated that plants over-expressing WRKY27 transcript levels exhibit growth aberrations and fertility defects. Scanning electron microscopic data suggest that WRKY27 overexpressor plants exhibit pollen dehiscence defects. Our fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay showed that flowers of plants overexpressing WRKY27 display significantly decreased pollen viability...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815499/marker-removal-in-transgenic-plants-using-cre-recombinase-delivered-with-potato-virus-x
#3
Lilya Kopertekh, Joachim Schiemann
In this chapter we present an alternative method to develop marker-free transgenic plants. It makes use of the Cre/loxP recombination system from bacteriophage P1 and consists of two essential components. The first component is the transgenic plant containing a loxP-flanked marker gene. The second component is a cre transient expression vector based on potato virus X. The great benefit of this transient delivery method consists in the avoidance of stable integration of the cre recombinase gene into the plant genome...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814406/comparative-epigenetic-and-genetic-spatial-structure-of-the-perennial-herb-helleborus-foetidus-isolation-by-environment-isolation-by-distance-and-functional-trait-divergence
#4
Carlos M Herrera, Mónica Medrano, Pilar Bazaga
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Epigenetic variation can play a role in local adaptation; thus, there should be associations among epigenetic variation, environmental variation, and functional trait variation across populations. This study examines these relationships in the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). METHODS: Plants from 10 subpopulations were characterized genetically (AFLP, SSR markers), epigenetically (MSAP markers), and phenotypically (20 functional traits)...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813469/phytoplasma-infection-of-a-tropical-root-crop-triggers-bottom-up-cascades-by-favoring-generalist-over-specialist-herbivores
#5
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812669/the-evo-devo-of-plant-speciation
#6
REVIEW
Mario Fernández-Mazuecos, Beverley J Glover
Speciation research bridges the realms of macro- and microevolution. Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) has classically dealt with macroevolutionary questions through a comparative approach to distantly related organisms, but the field later broadened in focus to address recent speciation and microevolution. Here we review available evidence of the power of evo-devo approaches to understand speciation in plants at multiple scales. At a macroevolutionary scale, evidence is accumulating for evolutionary developmental mechanisms giving rise to key innovations promoting speciation...
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811755/a-novel-recombined-potato-virus-y-isolate-in-china
#7
Shuxin Han, Yanling Gao, Guoquan Fan, Wei Zhang, Cailing Qiu, Shu Zhang, Yanju Bai, Junhua Zhang, Carl Spetz
This study reports the findings of a distinct Potato virus Y (PVY) isolate found in Northeast China. One hundred and ten samples (leaves and tubers) were collected from potato plants showing mosaic symptoms around the city of Harbin in Heilongjiang province of China. The collected tubers were planted and let to grow in a greenhouse. New potato plants generated from these tubers showed similar symptoms, except for one plant. Subsequent serological analyses revealed PVY as the causing agent of the disease. A novel PVY isolate (referred to as HLJ-C-44 in this study) was isolated from this sample showing unique mild mosaic and crisped leaf margin symptoms...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811544/mutations-in-the-promoter-intron-and-cds-of-two-fad2-generate-multiple-alleles-modulating-linoleic-acid-level-in-yellow-mustard
#8
Fangqin Zeng, Vicky Roslinsky, Bifang Cheng
Linoleic acid (C18:2) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid in the seed oil of many crops. Here, we report that mutations in the promoter, intron and CDS of the FAD2 genes SalFAD2.LIA1 and SalFAD2.LIA2 generate three alleles LIA (1a) , LIA (1b) and lia (1) and two alleles LIA (2) and lia (2), respectively, controlling the C18:2 variation (4.4-32.7%) in yellow mustard. The allelic effect on increasing C18:2 content is LIA (1a)  > LIA (1b)  > lia (1) , LIA (2) > lia (2), and LIA (1a)  > LIA (2)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811508/discrimination-of-plant-root-zone-water-status-in-greenhouse-production-based-on-phenotyping-and-machine-learning-techniques
#9
Doudou Guo, Jiaxiang Juan, Liying Chang, Jingjin Zhang, Danfeng Huang
Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content. Three classification models, Random Forest (RF), Neural Network (NN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were developed and validated in different scenarios with overall accuracy over 90% for all...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811339/heritable-bovine-rumen-bacteria-are-phylogenetically-related-and-correlated-with-the-cow-s-capacity-to-harvest-energy-from-its-feed
#10
Goor Sasson, Sheerli Kruger Ben-Shabat, Eyal Seroussi, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Naama Shterzer, Shamay Yaacoby, Margret E Berg Miller, Bryan A White, Eran Halperin, Itzhak Mizrahi
Ruminants sustain a long-lasting obligatory relationship with their rumen microbiome dating back 50 million years. In this unique host-microbiome relationship, the host's ability to digest its feed is completely dependent on its coevolved microbiome. This extraordinary alliance raises questions regarding the dependent relationship between ruminants' genetics and physiology and the rumen microbiome structure, composition, and metabolism. To elucidate this relationship, we examined the association of host genetics with the phylogenetic and functional composition of the rumen microbiome...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811336/catastrophic-unbalanced-genome-rearrangements-cause-somatic-loss-of-berry-color-in-grapevine
#11
Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Carolina Royo, Rafael Torres-Pérez, Jérôme Grimplet, Lucie Fernandez, Jose M Franco-Zorrilla, Diego Lijavetzky, Elisa Baroja, Juana Martínez, Enrique García-Escudero, Javier Ibáñez, José M Martínez-Zapater
Grape color somatic variants that can be used to develop new grapevine cultivars occasionally appear associated to deletion events of uncertain origin. To understand the mutational mechanisms generating somatic structural variation in grapevine, we compared the Tempranillo Blanco (TB) white berry somatic variant to its black berry ancestor, Tempranillo Tinto. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) uncovered a catastrophic genome rearrangement in TB that caused the hemizygous deletion of 313 genes, including the loss of the functional copy for the MYB transcription factors required for anthocyanin pigmentation in the berry skin...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809835/rgb-and-spectral-root-imaging-for-plant-phenotyping-and-physiological-research-experimental-setup-and-imaging-protocols
#12
Gernot Bodner, Mouhannad Alsalem, Alireza Nakhforoosh, Thomas Arnold, Daniel Leitner
Better understanding of plant root dynamics is essential to improve resource use efficiency of agricultural systems and increase the resistance of crop cultivars against environmental stresses. An experimental protocol is presented for RGB and hyperspectral imaging of root systems. The approach uses rhizoboxes where plants grow in natural soil over a longer time to observe fully developed root systems. Experimental settings are exemplified for assessing rhizobox plants under water stress and studying the role of roots...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808550/a-novel-meta-analytical-approach-to-improve-systematic-review-of-rates-and-patterns-of-microevolution
#13
Lucas D Gorné, Sandra Díaz
A classic topic in ecology and evolution, phenotypic microevolution of quantitative traits has received renewed attention in the face of rapid global environmental change. However, for plants, synthesis has been hampered by the limited use of standard metrics, which makes it difficult to systematize empirical information. Here we demonstrate the advantages of incorporating meta-analysis tools to the review of microevolutionary rates. We perform a systematic survey of the plant literature on microevolution of quantitative traits over known periods of time, based on the scopus database...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808135/mutations-in-eif5b-confer-thermosensitive-and-pleiotropic-phenotypes-via-translation-defects-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Liyuan Zhang, Xinye Liu, Kishor Gaikwad, Xiaoxia Kou, Fei Wang, Xuejun Tian, Mingming Xin, Zhongfu Ni, Qixin Sun, Huiru Peng, Elizabeth Vierling
The conserved eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B, eIF5B, is a GTPase that acts late in translation initiation. We found that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant sensitive to hot temperatures 3 (hot3-1), which behaves as wild type in the absence of stress but is unable to acclimate to high temperature, carries a missense mutation in eIF5B1 gene (At1g76810),, producing a temperature sensitive protein. A more severe, T-DNA insertion allele (hot3-2) causes pleiotropic developmental phenotypes. Surprisingly, Arabidopsis has three other eIF5B genes that do not substitute for eIF5B1; two of these appear to be in the process of pseudogenization...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807931/identification-of-novel-growth-regulators-in-plant-populations-expressing-random-peptides
#15
Zhilong Bao, Maureen A Clancy, Raquel F Carvalho, Kiona Elliott, Kevin M Folta
The use of chemical genomics approaches allows the identification of small molecules that integrate into biological systems, thereby changing discrete processes that influence growth, development or metabolism. Libraries of chemicals are applied to living systems, and changes in phenotype are observed, potentially leading to the identification of new growth regulators. This work describes an approach that is the nexus of chemical-genomics and synthetic biology. Here each plant in an extensive population synthesizes a unique small peptide arising from a transgene composed of a randomized nucleic acid sequence core, flanked by translational start, stop, and cysteine-encoding (for disulfide cyclization) sequences...
August 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806933/the-evolutionary-and-coevolutionary-consequences-of-defensive-microbes-for-host-parasite-interactions
#16
Kayla C King, Michael B Bonsall
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806927/mapping-of-a-major-qtl-for-salt-tolerance-of-mature-field-grown-maize-plants-based-on-snp-markers
#17
Meijie Luo, Yanxin Zhao, Ruyang Zhang, Jinfeng Xing, Minxiao Duan, Jingna Li, Naishun Wang, Wenguang Wang, Shasha Zhang, Zhihui Chen, Huasheng Zhang, Zi Shi, Wei Song, Jiuran Zhao
BACKGROUND: Salt stress significantly restricts plant growth and production. Maize is an important food and economic crop but is also a salt sensitive crop. Identification of the genetic architecture controlling salt tolerance facilitates breeders to select salt tolerant lines. However, the critical quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the salt tolerance of field-grown maize plants are still unknown. RESULTS: To map the main genetic factors contributing to salt tolerance in mature maize, a double haploid population (240 individuals) and 1317 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were employed to produce a genetic linkage map covering 1462...
August 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806524/assessment-of-effects-of-the-long-term-exposure-of-agricultural-crops-to-carbon-nanotubes
#18
Mohamed Hassen Lahiani, Zeid A Nima, Hector Villagarcia, Alexandru S Biris, Mariya Khodakovskaya
Carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) were described as nanomaterials possessing abilities of plant growth regulators. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term exposure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the growth of three important crops (barley, soybean, corn). The cultivation of all tested species was carried in hydroponics supplemented with 50µg/ml of MWCNTs. After 20 weeks of continuous exposure to the nanomaterials, no significant toxic signs on plant development were observed. Several positive phenotypical changes were recorded in addition to the enhancement of photosynthesis in MWCNTs-exposed crops...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805962/medicago-truncatula-molybdate-transporter-type-1-mtmot1-3-is-a-plasma-membrane-molybdenum-transporter-required-for-nitrogenase-activity-in-root-nodules-under-molybdenum-deficiency
#19
Manuel Tejada-Jiménez, Patricia Gil-Díez, Javier León-Mediavilla, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Juan Imperial, Manuel González-Guerrero
Molybdenum, as a component of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase, is essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This nutrient has to be provided by the host plant through molybdate transporters. Members of the molybdate transporter family Molybdate Transporter type 1 (MOT1) were identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula and their expression in nodules was determined. Yeast toxicity assays, confocal microscopy, and phenotypical characterization of a Transposable Element from Nicotiana tabacum (Tnt1) insertional mutant line were carried out in the one M...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805882/plant-array-chip-for-the-germination-and-growth-screening-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Youn-Hee Park, Nayoung Lee, Giltsu Choi, Je-Kyun Park
A screening process for the germination and growth of seed is generally required for plant research. Such a repetitive screening process is costly and time-consuming, and its bulky setup requires a lot of space. In particular, the control of the variables, such as light, nutrients, hormones and temperature, is difficult due to the limited space for incubation. In addition, small seeds such as Arabidopsis thaliana are difficult to handle as they are hundreds of microns in diameter and require a more precisely controllable screening environment...
August 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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