Read by QxMD icon Read


Antonella Vitti, Elisa Pellegrini, Cristina Nali, Stella Lovelli, Adriano Sofo, Maria Valerio, Antonio Scopa, Maria Nuzzaci
Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elisete P Rodrigues, Cleiton de Paula Soares, Patrícia G Galvão, Eddie L Imada, Jean L Simões-Araújo, Luc F M Rouws, André L M de Oliveira, Márcia S Vidal, José I Baldani
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tomonobu Toyomasu, Koji Miyamoto, Matthew R Shenton, Arisa Sakai, Chizu Sugawara, Kiyotaka Horie, Hiroshi Kawaide, Morifumi Hasegawa, Masaru Chuba, Wataru Mitsuhashi, Hisakazu Yamane, Nori Kurata, Kazunori Okada
Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) possesses various labdane-related diterpene synthase genes, homologs of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS) that are responsible for the biosynthesis of phytohormone gibberellins. The CPS homologs and KS like (KSL) homologs successively converted geranylgeranyl diphosphate to cyclic diterpene hydrocarbons via ent-copalyl diphosphate or syn-copalyl diphosphate in O. sativa. Consequently, a variety of labdane-related diterpenoids, including phytoalexin phytocassanes, momilactones and oryzalexins, have been identified from cultivated rice...
October 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qinglin Li, Baoshen Liu
The determining process of pistil fate are central to maize sex determination, mainly regulated by a genetic network in which the sex-determining genes SILKLESS 1 , TASSEL SEED 1 , TASSEL SEED 2 and the paramutagenic locus Required to maintain repression 6 play pivotal roles. Maize silks, which emerge from the ear shoot and derived from the pistil, are the functional stigmas of female flowers and play a pivotal role in pollination. Previous studies on sex-related mutants have revealed that sex-determining genes and phytohormones play an important role in the regulation of flower organogenesis...
October 21, 2016: Planta
Yuying Sang, Yaru Wang, Hong Ni, Anne-Claire Cazalé, Yi-Min She, Nemo Peeters, Alberto P Macho
The subversion of plant cellular functions is essential for bacterial pathogens to proliferate in host plants and cause disease. Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins inside plant cells, where they contribute to the pathogen-induced alteration of plant physiology. In this work, we found that the Ralstonia solanacearum T3E RipAY suppresses plant immune responses triggered by bacterial elicitors and by the phytohormone salicylic acid. Further biochemical analysis indicated that RipAY associates in planta with thioredoxins from Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wenqi Yang, Wei Zhang, Xiaoxue Wang
The plant phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays significant roles in integrating environmental signals with embryogenesis, germination, seedling establishment, the floral transition, and the adaptation of plants to stressful environments by modulating stomatal movement and stress-responsive gene expression. ABA signaling consists of ABA perception, signal transduction, and ABA-induced responses. ABA receptors such as members of the PYR/PYL family, group A type 2C protein phosphatases (as negative regulators), SnRK2 protein kinases (as positive regulators), bZIP transcription factors, and ion channels are key components of ABA signaling...
October 21, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Alberto Campanaro, Raffaella Battaglia, Massimo Galbiati, Ari Sadanandom, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
SUMOylation and anther growth. During fertilization, stamen elongation needs to be synchronized with pistil growth. The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) promotes stamen growth by stimulating the degradation of growth repressing DELLA proteins. DELLA accumulation is negatively regulated by GAs through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a proportion of DELLAs is also conjugated to the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein, which stabilizes DELLAs. Increased DELLA levels occur in the SUMO protease-deficient OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT 1 and 2 (ots1 ots2) double mutants, especially under salt stress conditions...
October 19, 2016: Plant Reproduction
Caiyun He, Guori Gao, Jianguo Zhang, Aiguo Duan, Hongmei Luo
BACKGROUND: Low temperature is one of the crucial environmental factors limiting the productivity and distribution of plants. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), a well recognized multipurpose plant species, live successfully in in cold desert regions. But their molecular mechanisms underlying cold tolerance are not well understood. METHODS: Physiological and biochemical responses to low-temperature stress were studied in seedlings of sea buckthorn. Differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed using multiplexing fluorescent two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), the concentration of phytohormone was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a spectrophotometric assay was used to measure enzymatic reactions...
2016: Proteome Science
Jaafar Juju Nakasha, Uma Rani Sinniah, Nurashikin Kemat, Kumara Swamy Mallappa
BACKGROUND: Chlorophytum borivilianum is an industrially valued medicinal crop. Propagation through seeds is not feasible because of low germination percentage and long dormancy period. Therefore, callus culture and plant regeneration can be an alternative to improve this crop production. Also, callus can serve as an alternative source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different phytohormones on callus induction, subculture cycle, and regeneration studies of callus in C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Min Chen, Meiling Ji, Binbin Wen, Li Liu, Shaoxuan Li, Xiude Chen, Dongsheng Gao, Ling Li
Golden2-like (GLK) transcription factors are members of the GARP family of Myb transcription factors with an established relationship to chloroplast development in the plant kingdom. In the last century, Golden2 was proposed as a second golden producing factor and identified as controlling cellular differentiation in maize leaves. Then, GLKs were also found to play roles in disease defense and their function is conserved in regulating chloroplast development. Recently, research on GLKs has rapidly increased and shown that GLKs control chloroplast development in green and non-green tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Brian Weselowski, Naeem Nathoo, Alexander William Eastman, Jacqueline MacDonald, Ze-Chun Yuan
BACKGROUND: Paenibacillus polymyxa is a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium that could be exploited as an environmentally friendlier alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Various strains have been isolated that can benefit agriculture through antimicrobial activity, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, plant hormone production, or lignocellulose degradation. However, no single strain has yet been identified in which all of these advantageous traits have been confirmed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jingxue Wang, Sanjay K Singh, Chunfang Du, Chen Li, Jianchun Fan, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world's supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Suvi T Häkkinen, Elisabeth Moyano, Rosa M Cusidó, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey
Plants remain a major source of new drugs, leads and fine chemicals. Cell cultures deriving from plants offer a fascinating tool to study plant metabolic pathways and offer large scale production systems for valuable compounds - commercial examples include compounds such as paclitaxel. The major constraint with undifferentiated cell cultures is that they are generally considered to be genetically unstable and cultured cells tend to produce low yields of secondary metabolites especially over time. Hairy roots, a tumor tissue caused by infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a relevant alternative for plant secondary metabolite production for being fast growing, able to grow without phytohormones, and displaying higher stability than undifferentiated cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maoulida Toueni, Cécile Ben, Aurélie Le Ru, Laurent Gentzbittel, Martina Rickauer
Resistance mechanisms to Verticillium wilt are well-studied in tomato, cotton, and Arabidopsis, but much less in legume plants. Because legume plants establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses in their roots, resistance to root-attacking pathogens merits particular attention. The interaction between the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium alfalfae and the model legume Medicago truncatula was investigated using a resistant (A17) and a susceptible (F83005.5) line. As shown by histological analyses, colonization by the pathogen was initiated similarly in both lines...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juan I Vílchez, Cristina García-Fontana, Desireé Román-Naranjo, Jesús González-López, Maximino Manzanera
A collection of desiccation-tolerant xeroprotectant-producing microorganisms was screened for their ability to protect plants against drought, and their role as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was investigated in two different crops (tomato and pepper). The most commonly described biochemical mechanisms for plant protection against drought by microorganisms including the production of phytohormones, antioxidants and xeroprotectants were analyzed. In particular, the degree of plant protection against drought provided by these microorganisms was characterized...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tong Zhu, Xingguang Deng, Xue Zhou, Lisha Zhu, Lijuan Zou, Pengxu Li, Dawei Zhang, Honghui Lin
Crosstalk between phytohormone pathways is essential in plant growth, development and stress responses. Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ethylene are both pivotal plant growth regulators, and the interaction between these two phytohormones in the tomato response to salt stress is still unclear. Here, we explored the mechanism by which BRs affect ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in tomato seedlings under salt stress. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), an ethylene synthesis enzyme, and the ethylene signaling pathway were activated in plants pretreated with BRs...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matteo Riboni, Alice Robustelli Test, Massimo Galbiati, Chiara Tonelli, Lucio Conti
One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Weiwei Li, Ming Chen, Erhui Wang, Liqin Hu, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Li Zhong, Zhu Chen, Zhaoshi Xu, Liancheng Li, Yongbin Zhou, Changhong Guo, Youzhi Ma
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that is highly evolutionarily-conserved in yeast, plants, and animals. In plants, autophagy plays important roles in regulating intracellular degradation and recycling of amino acids in response to nutrient starvation, senescence, and other environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has strong resistance to stresses and has been proposed as an ideal material for use in the study of the physiological mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Anca Macovei, Andrea Pagano, Paola Leonetti, Daniela Carbonera, Alma Balestrazzi, Susana S Araújo
The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy...
October 11, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"