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Phytohormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922076/identification-of-bnayucca6-as-a-candidate-gene-for-branch-angle-in-brassica-napus-by-qtl-seq
#1
Hui Wang, Hongtao Cheng, Wenxiang Wang, Jia Liu, Mengyu Hao, Desheng Mei, Rijin Zhou, Li Fu, Qiong Hu
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops in China as well as worldwide. Branch angle as a plant architecture component trait plays an important role for high density planting and yield performance. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) combined with next generation sequencing technology was used to fine map QTL for branch angle. A major QTL, designated as branch angle 1 (ba1) was identified on A06 and further validated by Indel marker-based classical QTL mapping in an F2 population...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918628/phenotypic-and-genome-wide-association-analysis-of-spike-ethylene-in-diverse-wheat-genotypes-under-heat-stress
#2
Ravi Valluru, Matthew P Reynolds, William J Davies, Sivakumar Sukumaran
The gaseous phytohormone ethylene plays an important role in spike development in wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, the genotypic variation and the genomic regions governing spike ethylene (SET) production in wheat under long-term heat stress remain unexplored. We investigated genotypic variation in the production of SET and its relationship with spike dry weight (SDW) in 130 diverse wheat elite lines and landraces under heat-stressed field conditions. We employed an Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array to identify the genetic loci for SET and SDW through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a subset of the Wheat Association Mapping Initiative (WAMI) panel...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918076/genome-wide-association-analyses-of-54-traits-identified-multiple-loci-for-the-determination-of-floret-fertility-in-wheat
#3
Zifeng Guo, Dijun Chen, Ahmad M Alqudah, Marion S Röder, Martin W Ganal, Thorsten Schnurbusch
Increasing grain yield is still the main target of wheat breeding; yet today's wheat plants utilize less than half of their yield potential. Owing to the difficulty of determining grain yield potential in a large population, few genetic factors regulating floret fertility (i.e. the difference between grain yield potential and grain number) have been reported to date. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) by quantifying 54 traits (16 floret fertility traits and 38 traits for assimilate partitioning and spike morphology) in 210 European winter wheat accessions...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917184/studying-secondary-growth-and-bast-fiber-development-the-hemp-hypocotyl-peeks-behind-the-wall
#4
Marc Behr, Sylvain Legay, Eva Žižková, Václav Motyka, Petre I Dobrev, Jean-Francois Hausman, Stanley Lutts, Gea Guerriero
Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916835/synthesis-and-functions-of-jasmonates-in-maize
#5
REVIEW
Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Of the over 600 oxylipins present in all plants, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) remains the best understood in terms of its biosynthesis, function and signaling. Much like their eicosanoid analogues in mammalian system, evidence is growing for the role of the other oxylipins in diverse physiological processes. JA serves as the model plant oxylipin species and regulates defense and development. For several decades, the biology of JA has been characterized in a few dicot species, yet the function of JA in monocots has only recently begun to be elucidated...
November 29, 2016: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911402/utilizing-the-ethylene-releasing-compound-2-chloroethylphosphonic-acid-as-a-tool-to-study-ethylene-response-in-bacteria
#6
Richard V Augimeri, Andrew J Varley, Janice L Strap
Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous phytohormone that is involved in numerous aspects of plant development, playing a dominant role in senescence and fruit ripening. Exogenous ethylene applied during early plant development triggers the triple response phenotype; a shorter and thicker hypocotyl with an exaggerated apical hook. Despite the intimate relationship between plants and bacteria, the effect of exogenous ethylene on bacteria has been greatly overlooked. This is partly due to the difficulty of controlling gaseous ethylene within the laboratory without specialized equipment...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909432/volatile-mediated-effects-predominate-in-paraburkholderia-phytofirmans-growth-promotion-and-salt-stress-tolerance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Thomas Ledger, Sandy Rojas, Tania Timmermann, Ignacio Pinedo, María J Poupin, Tatiana Garrido, Pablo Richter, Javier Tamayo, Raúl Donoso
Abiotic stress has a growing impact on plant growth and agricultural activity worldwide. Specific plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have been reported to stimulate growth and tolerance to abiotic stress in plants, and molecular mechanisms like phytohormone synthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination are usual candidates proposed to mediate these bacterial effects. Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is able to promote growth of several plant hosts, and improve their tolerance to chilling, drought and salinity...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905546/transcriptome-analysis-confers-a-complex-disease-resistance-network-in-wild-rice-oryza-meyeriana-against-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#9
Xiao-Jie Cheng, Bin He, Lin Chen, Su-Qin Xiao, Jian Fu, Yue Chen, Teng-Qiong Yu, Zai-Quan Cheng, Hong Feng
Rice bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of rice. It is well established that the wild rice Oryza meyeriana is immune to BB. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis was carried out by RNA sequencing of O. meyeriana leaves, inoculated with Xoo to understand the transcriptional responses and interaction between the host and pathogen. Totally, 57,313 unitranscripts were de novo assembled from 58.7 Gb clean reads and 14,143 unitranscripts were identified after Xoo inoculation...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898830/endoplasmic-reticulum-body-related-gene-expression-in-different-root-zones-of-arabidopsis-isolated-by-laser-assisted-microdissection
#10
Maxime Gotté, Magalie Bénard, Marie-Christine Kiefer-Meyer, Rim Jaber, John P Moore, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin, Azeddine Driouich
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bodies are important organelles for root defense. However, little is known regarding the genetic control of their formation in root tissues. In the present study, (L.) Heynh. roots were dissected using laser-assisted microdissection (LAM) with minimal sample preparation (no fixation or embedding steps) and the expression of genes associated with ER body formation and function was assessed by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qRT-PCR) in the presence and absence of the defense phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA)...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892476/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-between-an-evolved-abscisic-acid-overproducing-mutant-botrytis-cinerea-tbc-a-and-its-ancestral-strain-botrytis-cinerea-tbc-6
#11
Zhongtao Ding, Zhi Zhang, Juan Zhong, Di Luo, Jinyan Zhou, Jie Yang, Liang Xiao, Dan Shu, Hong Tan
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical phytohormone which plays an important role in plant stress resistance. Moreover, ABA is also found to regulate the activation of innate immune cells and glucose homeostasis in mammals. Therefore, this 'stress hormone' is of great importance to theoretical research and agricultural and medical applications. Botrytis cinerea is a well-known phytopathogenic ascomycete that synthesizes ABA via a pathway substantially different from higher plants. Identification of the functional genes involved in ABA biosynthesis in B...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891171/a-rapid-approach-to-investigate-spatiotemporal-distribution-of-phytohormones-in-rice
#12
Wen-Jing Cai, Tian-Tian Ye, Qing Wang, Bao-Dong Cai, Yu-Qi Feng
BACKGROUND: Phytohormones play crucial roles in almost all stages of plant growth and development. Accurate and simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones enabled us to better understand the physiological functions and the regulatory networks of phytohormones. However, simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones in plant is still a challenge due to their low concentrations, structural and chemical diversity, and complex matrix of plant tissues. Therefore, development of a simple and selective method for the simultaneous determination of multiple phytohormones is highly needed...
2016: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889518/proteomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-changes-in-the-central-metabolism-of-the-cambium-during-dormancy-release-in-poplar
#13
Feng Jin, Jing Li, Qi Ding, Qing-Song Wang, Xin-Qiang He
Seasonal cycling of growth and dormancy is an important feature for the woody plants growing in temperate zone, and dormancy is an effective strategy for surviving the winter stress. But the mechanisms of dormancy maintenance and its release are still not clear, especially little information is available with regard to the changes of proteome during the process. A better understanding in the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways would expand our knowledge of the mechanisms of dormancy maintenance and its release in trees...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888675/the-antimicrobial-peptide-snakin-2-is-upregulated-in-the-defense-response-of-tomatoes-solanum-lycopersicum-as-part-of-the-jasmonate-dependent-signaling-pathway
#14
Vera Herbel, Julia Sieber-Frank, Michael Wink
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are produced by all living organisms and play an important role in innate immunity because they are readily available and non-specific against invading pathogenic microorganisms. Snakin-2 (SN2) from tomato is a short, cationic peptide that forms lethal pores in biomembranes of microbes. In plant cells, SN2 is produced as a prepeptide with a signal sequence for ER targeting and an acidic region to decrease toxicity in the producing organism. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR in tomato plants demonstrated that SN2 is constitutively expressed, mostly in leaves and flowers...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881993/transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-genes-associated-with-floral-transition-and-flower-development-in-sugar-apple-annona-squamosa-l
#15
Kaidong Liu, Shaoxian Feng, Yaoling Pan, Jundi Zhong, Yan Chen, Changchun Yuan, Haili Li
Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a semi-deciduous subtropical tree that progressively sheds its leaves in the spring. However, little information is available on the mechanism involved in flower developmental pattern. To gain a global perspective on the floral transition and flower development of sugar apple, cDNA libraries were prepared independently from inflorescent meristem and three flowering stages. Illumina sequencing generated 107,197,488 high quality reads that were assembled into 71,948 unigenes, with an average sequence length of 825...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881976/the-roles-of-alpha-momorcharin-and-jasmonic-acid-in-modulating-the-response-of-momordica-charantia-to-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#16
Ting Yang, Yao Meng, Li-Juan Chen, Hong-Hui Lin, De-Hui Xi
Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879393/natural-variation-of-molecular-and-morphological-gibberellin-responses
#17
Youn-Jeong Nam, Dorota Herman, Jonas Blomme, Eunyoung Chae, Mikiko Kojima, Frederik Coppens, Véronique Storme, Twiggy Van Daele, Stijn Dhondt, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Detlef Weigel, Dirk Inzé, Nathalie Gonzalez
Although phytohormones such as gibberellins are essential for many conserved aspects of plant physiology and development, plants vary greatly in their responses to these regulatory compounds. Here, we use genetic perturbation of endogenous gibberellin levels to probe the extent of intraspecific variation in gibberellin responses in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We find that these accessions vary greatly in their ability to buffer the effects of overexpression of GA20ox1, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme for gibberellin biosynthesis, with substantial differences in bioactive gibberellin concentrations as well as transcriptomes and growth trajectories...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877181/plant-metabolic-engineering-strategies-for-the-production-of-pharmaceutical-terpenoids
#18
REVIEW
Xu Lu, Kexuan Tang, Ping Li
Pharmaceutical terpenoids belong to the most diverse class of natural products. They have significant curative effects on a variety of diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, malaria and Alzheimer's disease. Nowadays, elicitors, including biotic and abiotic elicitors, are often used to activate the pathway of secondary metabolism and enhance the production of target terpenoids. Based on Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, several plant metabolic engineering strategies hold great promise to regulate the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoids...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872246/shade-avoidance-4-is-required-for-proper-auxin-distribution-in-the-hypocotyl
#19
Yanhua Ge, Fenglian Yan, Melina Zourelidou, Meiling Wang, Karin Ljung, Astrid Fastner, Ulrich Zeno Hammes, Martin di Donato, Markus Geisler, Claus Schwechheimer, Yi Tao
The phytohormone auxin is involved in virtually every aspect of plant growth and development. Through polar auxin transport, auxin gradients can be established, which then direct plant differentiation and growth. Shade avoidance responses are well-known processes that require polar auxin transport. Here, we have identified a sav4 (shade avoidance 4) mutant that is defective in shade-induced hypocotyl elongation and basipetal auxin transport. SAV4 encodes an unknown protein with armadillo (ARM) repeat- and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-like domains known to provide protein-protein interaction surfaces...
November 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870062/rwp-rk-domain-containing-transcription-factors-control-cell-differentiation-during-female-gametophyte-development-in-arabidopsis
#20
Francesca Tedeschi, Paride Rizzo, Twan Rutten, Lothar Altschmied, Helmut Bäumlein
The formation of gametes is a prerequisite for any sexually reproducing organism in order to complete its life cycle. In plants, female gametes are formed in a multicellular tissue, the female gametophyte or embryo sac. Although the events leading to the formation of the female gametophyte have been morphologically characterized, the molecular control of embryo sac development remains elusive. We used single and double mutants as well as cell-specific marker lines to characterize a novel class of gene regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana, the RWP-RK domain-containing (RKD) transcription factors...
November 21, 2016: New Phytologist
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