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Phytohormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222234/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-brassica-napus-leptosphaeria-maculans-pathosystem-identifies-receptor-signalling-and-structural-genes-underlying-plant-resistance
#1
Michael G Becker, Xuehua Zhang, Philip L Walker, Joey C Wan, Jenna L Millar, Deirdre Khan, Matthew J Granger, Jacob D Cavers, Ainsley C Chan, Dilantha W G Fernando, Mark F Belmonte
The hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease in Brassica napus (canola, oilseed rape) and causes significant yield loss worldwide. While genetic resistance has been used to mitigate the disease using traditional breeding strategies, there is little knowledge about the genes contributing to blackleg resistance. RNA sequencing and a streamlined bioinformatics pipeline identified unique genes and plant defense pathways specific to plant resistance in the B. napus-L...
February 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221787/multiple-pesticides-detoxification-function-of-maize-zea-mays-gst34
#2
Dongzhi Li, Li Xu, Sen Pang, Zhiqian Liu, Weisong Zhao, Chengju Wang
ZmGST34 is a maize tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased approximately 2 to 5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220137/proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-positive-effect-of-exogenous-spermidine-in-tomato-seedlings-response-to-high-temperature-stress
#3
Qinqin Sang, Xi Shan, Yahong An, Sheng Shu, Jin Sun, Shirong Guo
Polyamines are phytohormones that regulate plant growth and development as well as the response to environmental stresses. To evaluate their functions in high-temperature stress responses, the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) were determined in tomato leaves using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. A total of 67 differentially expressed proteins were identified in response to high-temperature stress and/or exogenous Spd, which were grouped into different categories according to biological processes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#4
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214444/the-boosted-biomass-and-lipid-accumulation-in-chlorella-vulgaris-by-supplementation-of-synthetic-phytohormone-analogs
#5
Tingting Liu, Fei Liu, Chao Wang, Zhenyao Wang, Yuqin Li
This study attempted at maximizing biomass and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris by supplementation of natural abscisic acid (ABA) or synthetic 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) hormone analogs. Amongst three tested additives, NAA-treatment performed remarkable promoting effect on cell growth and lipid biosynthesis. The favorable lipid productivity (418.6mg/L/d) of NAA-treated cells showed 1.48 and 2.24 times more than that of 2,4-D and ABA. NAA-treatment also positively modified the proportions of saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) and monounsaturated fatty acids (C18:1) which were prone to high-quality biofuels-making...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201612/jasmonate-regulates-leaf-senescence-and-tolerance-to-cold-stress-crosstalk-with-other-phytohormones
#6
Yanru Hu, Yanjuan Jiang, Xiao Han, Houping Wang, Jinjing Pan, Diqiu Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199080/characterization-of-cyp115-as-a-gibberellin-3-oxidase-indicates-that-certain-rhizobia-can-produce-bioactive-gibberellin-a4
#7
Ryan S Nett, Tiffany Contreras, Reuben J Peters
The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones are produced not only by plants but also by fungi and bacteria. Previous characterization of a cytochrome P450 (CYP)-rich GA biosynthetic operon found in many symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia led to the elucidation of bacterial GA biosynthesis and implicated GA9 as the final product. However, GA9 does not exhibit hormonal/biological activity and presumably requires further transformation to elicit an effect in the legume host plant. Some rhizobia that contain the GA operon also possess an additional CYP (CYP115), and here we show that this acts as a GA 3-oxidase to produce bioactive GA4 from GA9...
February 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198417/chilling-affects-phytohormone-and-post-embryonic-development-pathways-during-bud-break-and-fruit-set-in-apple-malus-domestica-borkh
#8
Gulshan Kumar, Khushboo Gupta, Shivalika Pathania, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Usha Kumari Rattan, Gagandeep Singh, Ram Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar Singh
The availability of sufficient chilling during bud dormancy plays an important role in the subsequent yield and quality of apple fruit, whereas, insufficient chilling availability negatively impacts the apple production. The transcriptome profiling during bud dormancy release and initial fruit set under low and high chill conditions was performed using RNA-seq. The comparative high number of differentially expressed genes during bud break and fruit set under high chill condition indicates that chilling availability was associated with transcriptional reorganization...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195221/transcriptome-analysis-around-the-onset-of-strawberry-fruit-ripening-uncovers-an-important-role-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-ripening
#9
Qing-Hua Wang, Cheng Zhao, Miao Zhang, Yu-Zhong Li, Yuan-Yue Shen, Jia-Xuan Guo
Although much progress has been made towards understanding the ripening of non-climacteric fruit using the strawberry as a model plant, the defined molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, RNA-sequencing was performed using four cDNA libraries around the onset of ripening, and a total of 31,793 unigenes and 335 pathways were annotated including the top five pathways, which were involved in ribosome, spliceosome, protein processing, plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signaling, and the important DEGs related to ripening were annotated to be mainly involved in protein translation and processing, sugar metabolism, energy metabolism, phytohormones, antioxidation, pigment and softening, especially finding a decreased trend of oxidative phosphorylation during red-coloring...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195159/sirtinol-a-sir2-protein-inhibitor-affects-stem-cell-maintenance-and-root-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-modulating-auxin-cytokinin-signaling-components
#10
Sharmila Singh, Alka Singh, Sandeep Yadav, Vibhav Gautam, Archita Singh, Ananda K Sarkar
In Arabidopsis thaliana, besides several key transcription factors and chromatin modifiers, phytohormones auxin and cytokinin play pivotal role in shoot and root meristem maintenance, and lateral root (LR) development. Sirtinol, a chemical inhibitor of Sir2 proteins, is known to promote some auxin induced phenotypes in Arabidopsis. However, its effect on plant stem cell maintenance or organ formation remained unaddressed. Here we show that sirtinol affects meristem maintenance by altering the expression of key stem cell regulators, cell division and differentiation by modulating both auxin and cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193765/a-novel-chemical-inhibitor-of-aba-signaling-targets-all-aba-receptors
#11
Ya-Jin Ye, Lijuan Zhou, Xue Liu, Hao Liu, Deqiang Li, Minjie Cao, Haifeng Chen, Lin Xu, Jiankang Zhu, Yang Zhao
Abscisic acid (ABA), the most important stress-induced phytohormone, regulates seed dormancy, germination, plant senescence and abiotic stress response. ABA signaling is repressed by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), then ABA binds to its receptor of the PYR/PYL/RCAR family, which in turn inhibits PP2Cs and activates downstream ABA signaling. The agonist/antagonist of ABA receptors have the potential to unveil the ABA signaling machinery and to become lead compounds for agrochemicals, however, up to now, no broad-spectrum antagonists of ABA receptors blocking all PYR/PYL-PP2C interactions have been identified...
February 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193162/genome-wide-characterization-of-jasmonate-zim-domain-transcription-repressors-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#12
Yukun Wang, Linyi Qiao, Jianfang Bai, Peng Wang, Wenjing Duan, Shaohua Yuan, Guoliang Yuan, Fengting Zhang, Liping Zhang, Changping Zhao
BACKGROUND: The JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor family proteins are jasmonate co-receptors and transcriptional repressor in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and they play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plants. Recently, more and more researches on JAZ gene family are reported in many plants. Although the genome sequencing of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives is complete, our knowledge about this gene family remains vacant. RESULTS: Fourteen JAZ genes were identified in the wheat genome...
February 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190389/phosphoproteomics-protein-phosphorylation-in-regulation-of-seed-germination-and-plant-growth
#13
Xiaojian Yin, Xin Wang, Setsuko Komatsu
Seed germination and plant growth are key stages in the plant life cycle and they are affected by abiotic stresses. Protein phosphorylation is commonly involved in key regulatory process, which mediates plant growth/development and stress responses. In plant, phosphoproteins play roles in stress responses and provide basic backbone in complex signaling networks. The mechanism of plant responses to abiotic stresses has been uncovered through study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, the methods for enrichment of phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins have been developed...
February 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188272/aldehyde-oxidase-4-plays-a-critical-role-in-delaying-silique-senescence-by-catalyzing-aldehyde-detoxification
#14
Sudhakar Srivastava, Galina Brychkova, Dmitry Yarmolinsky, Aigerim Soltabayeva, Talya Samani, Moshe Sagi
The Arabidopsis aldehyde oxidases are a multigene family of four AAOs (1-4) that oxidize a variety of aldehydes, amongst them abscisic aldehyde, which is oxidized to the phytohormone abscisic acid.Toxic aldehydes are generated in plants both under normal conditions and in response to stress.The detoxification of such aldehydes by oxidation is attributed to aldehyde dehydrogenases but never to aldehyde oxidases. The feasibility of detoxification of aldehydes in siliques via oxidation by AAO4 was demonstrated, first, by its ability to efficiently oxidize an array of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, including the reactive carbonyl species (RCS) acrolein, hydroxyl-2-nonenal, and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186640/insights-into-the-formation-of-carlactone-from-in-depth-analysis-of-the-ccd8-catalyzed-reactions
#15
Mark Bruno, Martina Vermathen, Adrian Alder, Florian Wüst, Patrick Schaub, Rob van der Steen, Peter Beyer, Sandro Ghisla, Salim Al-Babili
Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of phytohormones synthesized from carotenoids via carlactone. The complex structure of carlactone is not easily deducible from its precursor, a cis-configured β-carotene cleavage product, and is thus formed via a poorly understood series of reactions and molecular rearrangements, all catalyzed by only one enzyme, the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 (CCD8). Moreover, the reactions leading to carlactone are expected to form a second, yet unidentified product. In this study, we used (13) C and (18) O-labelling to shed light on the reactions catalyzed by CCD8...
February 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184233/overexpression-of-the-novel-arabidopsis-gene-at5g02890-alters-inflorescence-stem-wax-composition-and-affects-phytohormone-homeostasis
#16
Liping Xu, Viktoria Zeisler, Lukas Schreiber, Jie Gao, Kaining Hu, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Jinxiong Shen, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu
The cuticle is composed of cutin and cuticular wax. It covers the surfaces of land plants and protects them against environmental damage. At5g02890 encodes a novel protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the current study, protein sequence analysis showed that At5g02890 is highly conserved in the Brassicaceae. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing At5g02890 (OE-At5g02890 lines) and an At5g02890 orthologous gene from Brassica napus (OE-Bn1 lines) exhibited glossy stems. Chemical analysis revealed that overexpression of At5g02890 caused significant reductions in the levels of wax components longer than 28 carbons (C28) in inflorescence stems, whereas the levels of wax molecules of chain length C28 or shorter were significantly increased...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182949/catalase2-coordinates-sa-mediated-repression-of-both-auxin-accumulation-and-ja-biosynthesis-in-plant-defenses
#17
Hong-Mei Yuan, Wen-Cheng Liu, Ying-Tang Lu
Plants defend against pathogen attack by modulating auxin signaling and activating the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. SA and JA act antagonistically in resistance to specific pathogen types, yet how plants coordinate these phytohormones remains elusive. Here we report that biotrophic-pathogen-induced SA accumulation dampens both auxin and JA synthesis by inhibiting CATALASE2 (CAT2) activity in the model plant Arabidopsis. SA suppression of CAT2 results in increased H2O2 levels and subsequent sulfenylation of tryptophan synthetase β subunit 1, thus depleting the auxin biosynthetic precursor tryptophan...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182683/a-mathematical-model-of-the-interaction-of-abscisic-acid-ethylene-and-methyl-jasmonate-on-stomatal-closure-in-plants
#18
Allen Lamarca Nazareno, Bryan Sapon Hernandez
Stomatal closure is affected by various stimuli such as light, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity and phytohormones. Our research focuses on phytohormones, specifically: abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) that are responsible for the regulation of several plant processes, especially in guard cell signalling. While several studies show that these three phytohormones cause stomatal closure in plants, only two studies are notable for establishing a mathematical model of guard cell signalling involving phytohormones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179150/transporter-mediated-nuclear-entry-of-jasmonoyl-isoleucine-is-essential-for-jasmonate-signaling
#19
Qingqing Li, Jian Zheng, Shuaizhang Li, Guanrong Huang, Stephen J Skilling, Lijian Wang, Ling Li, Mengya Li, Lixing Yuan, Pei Liu
To control gene expression directly by hormone concentrations, both animal and plant cells have exploited comparable mechanisms to sense small molecular hormones in nucleus. Whether nuclear entry of these hormones is actively transported or passively diffused, as conventionally postulated, through nuclear pore complex remains enigmatic. Here, we identified and characterized a jasmonate transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtJAT1/ AtABCG16, which exhibits an unexpected dual localization in the nuclear envelope and plasma membrane...
February 4, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178961/sequential-above-and-belowground-herbivory-modifies-plant-responses-depending-on-herbivore-identity
#20
Dinesh Kafle, Anne Hänel, Tobias Lortzing, Anke Steppuhn, Susanne Wurst
BACKGROUND: Herbivore-induced changes in plant traits can cause indirect interactions between spatially and/or temporally separated herbivores that share the same host plant. Feeding modes of the herbivores is one of the major factors that influence the outcome of such interactions. Here, we tested whether the effects of transient aboveground herbivory for seven days by herbivores of different feeding guilds on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) alters their interaction with spatially as well as temporally separated belowground herbivores...
February 8, 2017: BMC Ecology
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