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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350248/natural-variation-and-genetic-make-up-of-leaf-blade-area-in-spring-barley
#1
Ahmad M Alqudah, Helmy M Youssef, Andreas Graner, Thorsten Schnurbusch
GWAS analysis for leaf blade area (LA) revealed intriguing genomic regions associated with putatively novel QTL and known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. Despite long-standing studies in the morpho-physiological characters of leaf blade area (LA) in cereal crops, advanced genetic studies to explore its natural variation are lacking. The importance of modifying LA in improving cereal grain yield and the genes controlling leaf traits have been well studied in rice but not in temperate cereals...
January 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344831/interaction-network-of-core-aba-signaling-components-in-maize
#2
Ying-Ge Wang, Feng-Ling Fu, Hao-Qiang Yu, Tao Hu, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Yi Tao, Jian-Kang Zhu, Yang Zhao, Wan-Chen Li
We defined a comprehensive core ABA signaling network in monocot maize, including the gene expression, subcellular localization and interaction network of ZmPYLs, ZmPP2Cs, ZmSnRK2s and the putative substrates. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in plant developmental processes and abiotic stress responses. In Arabidopsis, ABA is sensed by the PYL ABA receptors, which leads to binding of the PP2C protein phosphatase and activation of the SnRK2 protein kinases. These components functioning diversely and redundantly in ABA signaling are little known in maize...
January 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344683/the-root-transcriptome-of-achyranthes-bidentata-and-the-identification-of-the-genes-involved-in-the-replanting-benefit
#3
Yan Hui Yang, Ming Jie Li, Yan Jie Yi, Rui Fang Li, Cheng Dong, Zhong Yi Zhang
The transcriptome profiling in replanting roots revealed that expression pattern changes of key genes promoted important metabolism pathways, antioxidant and pathogen defense systems, adjusted phytohormone signaling and inhibited lignin biosynthesis. The yield of the medicinal plant Achyranthes bidentata could be significantly increased when replanted into a field cultivated previously for the same crop, but the biological basis of this so-called "replanting benefit" is unknown. Here, the RNA-seq technique was used to identify candidate genes responsible for the benefit...
January 17, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339553/engineering-abiotic-stress-response-in-plants-for-biomass-production
#4
Rohit Joshi, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek, Ashwani Pareek
One of the major challenges in today's agriculture is to achieve enhanced plant growth and biomass even under adverse environmental conditions. Recent advancements in genetics and molecular biology have enabled identification of a complex signaling network contributing towards plant growth and development on the one hand and abiotic stress response on the other. As an outcome of these studies, three major approaches have been identified having a potential to improve biomass production in plants under abiotic stress conditions...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338771/regulation-of-aquaporins-in-plants-under-stress
#5
REVIEW
Ranganathan Kapilan, Maryam Vaziri, Janusz J Zwiazek
Aquaporins (AQP) are channel proteins belonging to the Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) superfamily that play an important role in plant water relations. The main role of aquaporins in plants is transport of water and other small neutral molecules across cellular biological membranes. AQPs have remarkable features to provide an efficient and often, specific water flow and enable them to transport water into and out of the cells along the water potential gradient. Plant AQPs are classified into five main subfamilies including the plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), nodulin 26 like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) and X intrinsic proteins (XIPs)...
January 16, 2018: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338040/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-wrky-genes-reveal-their-involvement-in-growth-and-abiotic-stress-response-in-watermelon-citrullus-lanatus
#6
Xiaozhen Yang, Hao Li, Yongchao Yang, Yongqi Wang, Yanling Mo, Ruimin Zhang, Yong Zhang, Jianxiang Ma, Chunhua Wei, Xian Zhang
Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III) and five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335584/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-spl-transcription-factor-family-and-their-evolution-and-expression-profiling-analysis-in-cotton
#7
Caiping Cai, Wangzhen Guo, Baohong Zhang
Plant specific transcription factors, SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL), are involved in many biological processes. However, no systematical study has been reported in cotton. In this study, a total of 177 SPL genes were identified, including 29, 30, 59 and 59 SPLs in Gossypium arboreum, G. raimondii, G. barbadense, and G. hirsutum, respectively. These SPL genes were classified into eight phylogenetical groups. The gene structure, conserved motif, and clustering were highly conserved within each orthologs...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333043/picroside-i-and-picroside-ii-from-tissue-cultures-of-picrorhiza-kurroa
#8
Yamjala Ganeshkumar, Ajmera Ramarao, Ciddi Veeresham
Background: Picrorhiza kurroa (PK) belongs to Scrophulariaceae family and is a representative endemic, medicinal herb, widely distributed throughout the higher altitudes of alpine Himalayas from west to east, between 3000 and 4500 m above mean sea level. Objective: The objective of the present study is to assess the production of picroside I and picroside II from tissue cultures of PK. Materials and Methods: Auxiliary shoot tips of PK were incubated in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid and kinetin phytohormones...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330693/the-enhanced-biomass-and-lipid-accumulation-in-coccomyxa-subellipsoidea-with-an-integrated-treatment-strategy-initiated-by-brewery-effluent-and-phytohormones
#9
Tingting Liu, Fei Luo, Zhenyao Wang, Yuqin Li
Brewery effluent (BE) as an appreciable and sustainable resource presented new possibilities in low-cost algal biomass production, whereas the relatively low essential macronutrients hindered extensive applications as growth medium for microalgae cultivation. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an integrated treatment strategy initiated by BE coupling phytohormones in augmenting biomass and lipid accumulation in Coccomyxa subellipsoidea. Results revealed that BE coupling synthetic 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) accomplished the favorable lipid productivity of 481...
January 12, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324765/brassinosteroids-regulate-root-growth-by-controlling-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-and-dual-effect-on-ethylene-synthesis-in-arabidopsis
#10
Bingsheng Lv, Huiyu Tian, Feng Zhang, Jiajia Liu, Songchong Lu, Mingyi Bai, Chuanyou Li, Zhaojun Ding
The brassinosteroids (BRs) represent a class of phytohormones, which regulate numerous aspects of growth and development. Here, a det2-9 mutant defective in BR synthesis was identified from an EMS mutant screening for defects in root length, and was used to investigate the role of BR in root development in Arabidopsis. The det2-9 mutant displays a short-root phenotype, which is result from the reduced cell number in root meristem and decreased cell size in root maturation zone. Ethylene synthesis is highly increased in the det2-9 mutant compared with the wild type, resulting in the hyper-accumulation of ethylene and the consequent inhibition of root growth...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319235/elevated-co2-differentially-affects-tobacco-and-rice-defense-against-lepidopteran-larvae-via-the-jasmonic-acid-signaling-pathway
#11
Chengkai Lu, Jinfeng Qi, Christian Hettenhausen, Yunting Lei, Jingxiong Zhang, Mou Zhang, Cuiping Zhang, Juan Song, Jing Li, Guoyan Cao, Saif Ul Malook, Jianqiang Wu
Atmospheric CO2 levels are rapidly increasing due to human activities. However, the effects of elevated CO2 (ECO2 ) on plant defense against insects and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that ECO2 increased the photosynthetic rates and the biomass of tobacco and rice plants, and the chewing lepidopteran insects Spodoptera litura and Mythimna separata gained less and more mass on tobacco and rice plants, respectively. Consistently, under ECO2 , the levels of jasmonic acid (JA), the main phytohormone controlling plant defense against these lepidopteran insects, as well as the main defense-related metabolites, were increased and decreased in insect-damaged tobacco and rice plants...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316727/cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-phosphoethanolamine-methyltransferase-promoter-from-maize-zea-mays-l
#12
Gai-Li Niu, Wei Gou, Xiang-Long Han, Cheng Qin, Li-Xin Zhang, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Muhammad Ashraf
Betaine, a non-toxic osmoprotectant, is believed to accumulate considerably in plants under stress conditions to maintain the osmotic pressure and promote a variety of processes involved in growth and development. Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), a key enzyme for betaine synthesis, is reported to be regulated by its upstream promoter. In the present investigation, by using the transgenic approach, a 1048 bp long promoter region of ZmPEAMT gene from Zea mays was cloned and functionally characterized in tobacco...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315590/brassinosteroids-regulate-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Ji Hyea Lee, Jeongyeo Lee, HyeRan Kim, Won Byoung Chae, Sun-Ju Kim, Yong Pyo Lim, Man-Ho Oh
Plants must constantly adjust their growth and defense responses to deal with the wide variety of stresses they encounter in their environment. Among phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroid hormones involved in numerous aspects of the plant lifecycle including growth, development, and responses to various stresses including insects. Here, we show that BRs regulate glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis and function in insect herbivory. Preference tests and larval feeding experiments using the generalist herbivore, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), revealed that the larvae of this moth prefer to feed on Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1-5) plants than on wild-type Ws-2 or BRI1-Flag (bri1-5 background) transgenic plants, which leads an increase in larval weight...
January 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314046/jasmonic-and-salicylic-acid-response-in-the-fern-azolla-filiculoides-and-its-cyanobiont
#14
Sophie de Vries, Jan de Vries, Hendrik Teschke, Janina K von Dahlen, Laura E Rose, Sven B Gould
Plants sense and respond to microbes utilizing a multilayered signalling cascade. In seed plants, the phytohormones jasmonic and salicylic acid (JA and SA) are key denominators of how plants respond to certain microbes. Their interplay is especially well-known for tipping the scales in plants' strategies of dealing with phytopathogens. In non-seed plant lineages, the interplay is less well understood, but current data indicates that it is intertwined to a lesser extent and the canonical JA/SA antagonism appears to be absent...
January 3, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311497/the-effects-of-abscisic-acid-salicylic-acid-and-jasmonic-acid-on-lipid-accumulation-in-two-freshwater-chlorella-strains
#15
Guanxun Wu, Zhengquan Gao, Huanmin Du, Bin Lin, Yuchen Yan, Guoqiang Li, Yanyun Guo, Shenggui Fu, Gongxiang Wei, Miaomiao Wang, Meng Cui, Chunxiao Meng
Sustainable renewable energy is being hotly debated globally because the continued use of finite fossil fuels is now widely recognized as being unsustainable. Microalgae potentially offer great opportunities for resolving this challenge. Abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are involved in regulating many physiological properties and have been widely used in higher plants. To test if phytohormones have an impact on accumulating lipid for microalgae, ABA, JA and SA were used to induce two Chlorella strains in the present study...
December 30, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311075/phytohormones-isoprenoids-and-role-of-the-apicoplast-in-recovery-from-dihydroartemisinin-induced-dormancy-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#16
Marvin Duvalsaint, Dennis E Kyle
Many organisms undergo dormancy as a stress response to survive under unfavorable conditions that might impede development. This is observed in seed and buds of plants and has been proposed as mechanism of drug evasion and resistance formation in Plasmodium falciparum We explored the effects of the phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA), on dihydroartemisinin induced dormant erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum parasites. Dormant ring stages exposed to ABA and GA recovered from dormancy up to 48 hr earlier than parasites exposed to DHA alone...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307114/genome-wide-investigation-and-expression-profiling-of-apx-gene-family-in-gossypium-hirsutum-provide-new-insights-in-redox-homeostasis-maintenance-during-different-fiber-development-stages
#17
Chengcheng Tao, Xiang Jin, Liping Zhu, Quanliang Xie, Xuchu Wang, Hongbin Li
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a member of heme-containing peroxidases which catalyze the H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide range of substrates in plants and animals. As is known, H2O2 acts as a signaling molecule in the regulation of fiber development. Our previous work reported that ascorbate peroxidase 1 (GhAPX1) was important for cotton fiber elongation. However, knowledge about APX gene family members and their evolutionary and functional characteristics in cotton is limited. Here, we report 26 GhAPX genes by genome-wide investigation of tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306046/circadian-evening-complex-represses-jasmonate-induced-leaf-senescence-in-arabidopsis
#18
Yuanyuan Zhang, Yan Wang, Hua Wei, Na Li, Wenwen Tian, Kang Chong, Lei Wang
Plants initiate leaf senescence to reallocate energy and nutrients from the aging to developing tissues for optimizing growth fitness and reproduction at the end of growing season or under stress. Jasmonate (JA), a lipid-derived phytohormone, is known as an important endogenous singal in inducing leaf senescence. However, whether and how circadian clock gates JA signaling to induce leaf senescence in plants remains elusive. In this study, we show that the Evening Complex (EC), a core component of circadian oscillator, negatively regulates leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304291/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-calax-and-capin-gene-families-in-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-under-various-abiotic-stresses-and-hormones-treatments
#19
Chenghao Zhang, Wenqi Dong, Zong-An Huang, MyeongCheoul Cho, Qingcang Yu, Chuanyu Wu, Chenliang Yu
Auxin plays key roles in regulating plant growth and development as well as in responses to environmental stresses. The intercellular transport of auxin is mediated by four gene families, with the ATP-binding cassette family B (ABCB), the Auxin resistant1/ like (AUX1AUX/LAX) family, the pin-formed(PIN)families, and the PIN-LIKES (PILS) family. Here, the latest assembled pepper genome was used to characterise and analyse the CaLAX and CaPIN families. Genome-wide investigations into these families, including chromosomal distributions, phytogenic relationships and intron/exon structures, were performed...
January 5, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304107/allene-oxide-synthase-allene-oxide-cyclase-and-jasmonic-acid-levels-in-lotus-japonicus-nodules
#20
Anna Zdyb, Marco G Salgado, Kirill N Demchenko, Wolfram G Brenner, Małgorzata Płaszczyca, Michael Stumpe, Cornelia Herrfurth, Ivo Feussner, Katharina Pawlowski
Jasmonic acid (JA), its derivatives and its precursor cis-12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA) form a group of phytohormones, the jasmonates, representing signal molecules involved in plant stress responses, in the defense against pathogens as well as in development. Elevated levels of JA have been shown to play a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza and in the induction of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In this study, the gene families of two committed enzymes of the JA biosynthetic pathway, allene oxide synthase (AOS) and allene oxide cyclase (AOC), were characterized in the determinate nodule-forming model legume Lotus japonicus JA levels were to be analysed in the course of nodulation...
2018: PloS One
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