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Phytohormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149453/melatonin-and-serotonin-mediators-in-the-symphony-of-plant-morphogenesis
#1
Lauren A E Erland, Mukund R Shukla, Amritpal S Singh, Susan J Murch, Praveen K Saxena
Melatonin and serotonin are important signaling and stress mitigating molecules that play important roles across growth and development in plants. Despite many well-documented responses, a systematic investigation of the entire metabolic pathway (tryptophan, tryptamine and N-acetylserotonin) does not exist, leaving many open questions. The objective of this study was to determine the responses of Hypericum perforatum (L.) to melatonin, serotonin and their metabolic precursors. Two well characterized germplasm lines (#4 and 112) created by mutation and a haploid breeding program were compared to wildtype to identify specific responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140446/up-regulation-of-mpk4-increases-the-feeding-efficiency-of-the-green-peach-aphid-under-elevated-co2-in-nicotiana-attenuata
#2
Huijuan Guo, Xinhong Peng, Liyuan Gu, Jianqiang Wu, Feng Ge, Yucheng Sun
Previous research has shown that elevated CO2 reduces plant resistance against insects and enhances the water use efficiency of C3 plants, which improves the feeding efficiency of aphids. Although plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to regulate water relations and phytohormone-mediated resistance, little is known about the effect of elevated CO2 on MAPKs and the cascading effects on aphids. By using stably transformed Nicotiana attenuata plants silenced in MPK4, wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), or salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK), we determined the functions of MAPKs in plant-aphid interactions and their responses to elevated CO2...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140310/effect-of-abscisic-acid-on-accumulation-of-five-active-components-in-root-of-glycyrrhiza-uralensis
#3
Jing Qiao, Zuliang Luo, Yanpeng Li, Guangxi Ren, Chunsheng Liu, Xiaojun Ma
Licorice is one of the most generally used herbal medicines in the world; however, wild licorice resources have decreased drastically. Cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer are the main source of licorice at present, but the content of main active components in cultivated G. uralensis are lower than in wild G. uralensis. Therefore, the production of high-quality cultivated G. uralensis is an urgent issue for the research and production fields. In this study, the content of five active components and seven endogenous phytohormones in cultivated G...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134282/aba-and-iaa-control-microsporogenesis-in-petunia-hybrida-l
#4
L V Kovaleva, A S Voronkov, E V Zakharova, I M Andreev
The formation of fertile male gametophyte is known to require timely degeneration of polyfunctional tapetum tissue. The last process caused by the programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of the anther program maturation which leads to sequential anther tissue destruction coordinated with pollen differentiation. In the present work, distribution of abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in developing anthers of male-fertile and male-sterile lines of petunia (Petunia hybrida L.) was analyzed by using the immunohistochemical method...
November 13, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134140/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-gras-transcription-factors-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum
#5
Yiling Niu, Tingting Zhao, Xiangyang Xu, Jingfu Li
Solanum lycopersicum, belonging to Solanaceae, is one of the commonly used model plants. The GRAS genes are transcriptional regulators, which play a significant role in plant growth and development, and the functions of several GRAS genes have been recognized, such as, axillary shoot meristem formation, radial root patterning, phytohormones (gibberellins) signal transduction, light signaling, and abiotic/biotic stress; however, only a few of these were identified and functionally characterized. In this study, a gene family was analyzed comprehensively with respect to phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern; the 54 GRAS members were screened from tomato by bioinformatics for the first time...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134115/plant-stem-cells-in-cosmetics-current-trends-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Sonia Trehan, Bozena Michniak-Kohn, Kavita Beri
Plant regeneration at the cellular and tissue level is a unique process. Similar to animals, the stem cells in plants have properties that help stimulate and regenerate plants after injury. The unique properties of plant stem cells have been a recent area of interest and focus both in developing new cosmetics and studying how these extracts/phytohormones will influence animal skin. This special report focuses on the current evidence-based trends in plant stem cell-based cosmetics and sheds light on the challenges that we need to overcome in order to see meaningful changes in human skin using topical cosmetics derived from plant stem cells...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127659/characterization-of-lhsortga2-a-novel-tga2-like-protein-that-interacts-with-lhsornpr1-in-oriental-hybrid-lily-sorbonne
#7
Le Wang, Zhihong Guo, Yubao Zhang, Yajun Wang, Li Wang, Guo Yang, Wenmei Li, Ruoyu Wang, Zhongkui Xie
BACKGROUND: Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) regulates expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes by interacting with TGA family proteins during systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, no TGA-like proteins or their interacting partners have been characterized in lily. RESULTS: In the present study, LhSorTGA2, a novel TGA-like protein, was identified as an interacting partner of LhSorNPR1 (an NPR-like protein) by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BIFC) and yeast two-hybrid assay (Y2H)...
November 10, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127500/distinct-communities-of-poplar-endophytes-on-an-unpolluted-and-a-risk-element-polluted-site-and-their-plant-growth-promoting-potential-in-vitro
#8
C S Schmidt, P Lovecká, L Mrnka, A Vychodilová, M Strejček, M Fenclová, K Demnerová
Numerous studies demonstrated that endophytic microbes can promote plant growth and increase plant stress resistance. We aimed at isolating poplar endophytes able to increase their hosts' fitness both in nutrient-limited and polluted environments. To achieve this goal, endophytic bacteria and fungi were isolated from roots and leaves of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii clone Max-4) on an unpolluted and a risk element-polluted site in the Czech Republic and subsequently screened by a number of in vitro tests...
November 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125985/cadmium-toxicity-and-its-amelioration-by-kinetin-in-tomato-seedlings-vis-%C3%A3-vis-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle
#9
Shikha Singh, Anita Singh, Prabhat Kumar Srivastava, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The supplementation of plant hormones may enhance the tolerance capacity of plants against certain environmental stresses by increasing their physiological functioning and detoxification capacity. To answer the question that whether a phytohormone 'kinetin' (KN, 6-furfuylaminopurine), one of the artificial cytokinins could ameliorate the cadmium induced toxicity in tomato seedlings, the effect of KN was assessed in differentially cadmium (Cd1: 3mgkg(-1) sand and Cd2: 9mgkg(-1) sand) intoxicated tomato seedlings by estimating the changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS, viz...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124815/diluted-seawater-affects-phytohormone-receptors-and-maintain-the-protonema-stage-in-physcomitrella-patens
#10
Zhenbing Zheng, Shan Gao, Li Huan, Guang-Ce Wang
Due to its highly efficient homologous recombination ability and unusual evolutionary position, the moss Physcomitrella patens has begun to attract more attention in genetic and evolutionary studies. Protonema, the filament stage of the gametophyte is of great significance in P. patens protoplast isolation. Moreover, protonema is widely used in genetic engineering. However, difficulties in the induction and state maintenance of protonema restrict its wider application. In this work, protonema was induced efficiently in a diluted seawater medium, and the filamentous state was maintained without further cell differentiation...
November 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119269/molecular-regulation-of-aluminum-resistance-and-sulfur-nutrition-during-root-growth
#11
REVIEW
Edith Alarcón-Poblete, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Miren Alberdi, Zed Rengel, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter ( SULTR2;1 ) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene ( SULTR12 ), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al(3+)) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S)...
November 8, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113110/two-paralogous-genes-encoding-auxin-efflux-carrier-differentially-expressed-in-bitter-gourd-momordica-charantia
#12
Yi-Li Li, Yun-Shan Lin, Pung-Ling Huang, Yi-Yin Do
The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN) encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1) and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113068/uva-uvb-light-and-methyl-jasmonate-alone-or-combined-redirect-the-biosynthesis-of-glucosinolates-phenolics-carotenoids-and-chlorophylls-in-broccoli-sprouts
#13
Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez, Vimal Nair, Jorge Benavides, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, Daniel A Jacobo-Velázquez
Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting phytochemicals that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV) or phytohormones. The separate and combined effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), UVA, or UVB lights on glucosinolate, phenolic, carotenoid, and chlorophyll profiles were assessed in broccoli sprouts. Seven-day-old broccoli sprouts were exposed to UVA (9.47 W/m²) or UVB (7.16 W/m²) radiation for 120 min alone or in combination with a 25 µM MJ solution, also applied to sprouts without UV supplementation...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111713/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-phytohormone-biosynthesis-and-signaling-genes-in-the-flowers-of-chinese-chinquapin-castanea-henryi
#14
Xiaoming Fan, Deyi Yuan, Xiaoming Tian, Zhoujun Zhu, Meilan Liu, Heping Cao
Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi) nut provides a rich source of starch and nutrients as food and feed, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of female to male flowers. Little is known about the developmental programs underlying sex differentiation of the flowers. To investigate the involvement of phytohormones during sex differentiation, we described the morphology of male and female floral organs and the cytology of flower sex differentiation, analyzed endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in the flowers, investigated the effects of exogenous hormones on flower development, and evaluated the expression profiles of genes related to biosyntheses and signaling pathways of these four hormones using RNA-Seq combined with qPCR...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110072/the-genetic-and-molecular-basis-of-crop-height-based-on-a-rice-model
#15
REVIEW
Fang Liu, Pandi Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Xiaohong Yan, Donghui Fu, Gang Wu
This review presents genetic and molecular basis of crop height using a rice crop model. Height is controlled by multiple genes with potential to be manipulated through breeding strategies to improve productivity. Height is an important factor affecting crop architecture, apical dominance, biomass, resistance to lodging, tolerance to crowding and mechanical harvesting. The impressive increase in wheat and rice yield during the 'green revolution' benefited from a combination of breeding for high-yielding dwarf varieties together with advances in agricultural mechanization, irrigation and agrochemical/fertilizer use...
November 6, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109733/plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-amelioration-of-salinity-stress-a-systems-biology-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Donald L Smith
Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109378/evolutionary-conserved-cysteines-function-as-cis-acting-regulators-of-arabidopsis-pin-formed-2-distribution
#17
Katarzyna Retzer, Jozef Lacek, Roman Skokan, Charo I Del Genio, Stanislav Vosolsobě, Martina Laňková, Kateřina Malínská, Nataliia Konstantinova, Eva Zažímalová, Richard M Napier, Jan Petrášek, Christian Luschnig
Coordination of plant development requires modulation of growth responses that are under control of the phytohormone auxin. PIN-FORMED plasma membrane proteins, involved in intercellular transport of the growth regulator, are key to the transmission of such auxin signals and subject to multilevel surveillance mechanisms, including reversible post-translational modifications. Apart from well-studied PIN protein modifications, namely phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, no further post-translational modifications have been described so far...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107234/changes-in-antioxidants-potential-secondary-metabolites-and-plant-hormones-induced-by-different-fungicides-treatment-in-cotton-plants
#18
Heba Ibrahim Mohamed, Samia Ageeb Akladious
The use of fungicides for an effective control of plant diseases has become crucial in the last decades in the agriculture system. Seeds of cotton plants were treated with systemic and contact fungicides to study the efficiency of seed dressing fungicides in controlling damping off caused by Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse conditions and its effect on plant growth and metabolism. The results showed that Mon-cut showed the highest efficiency (67.99%) while each of Tondro and Hemixet showed the lowest efficiency (31...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102901/transcriptome-dynamics-provide-insights-into-long-term-salinity-stress-tolerance-in-triticum-aestivum-cv-kharchia-local
#19
Mahesh M Mahajan, Etika Goyal, Amit K Singh, Kishor Gaikwad, Kumar Kanika
Kharchia Local, a wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar, is native to the saline-sodic soils of Pali district, Rajasthan, India and well known for its salinity stress tolerance. In the present study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to compare genome wide differential expression pattern between flag leaves of salinity stressed (15 EC) and control plants at anthesis stage. The 63.9 million paired end raw reads were assembled into 74,106 unigenes, of which, 3197 unigenes were found to be differentially expressed...
November 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100656/diversity-and-bioactivities-of-nostocacean-cyanobacteria-isolated-from-paddy-soil-in-vietnam
#20
Hang T L Pham, Lien T T Nguyen, Tuan A Duong, Dung T T Bui, Que T Doan, Ha T T Nguyen, Sabine Mundt
Nostocacean cyanobacteria are one of the important components of paddy fields due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and supply phytohormones for crop growth. In this study, 13 Nostoc strains isolated from paddy soils in Vietnam were classified using a polyphasic approach. The results showed a high diversity of the isolated strains that represented seven morphotypes corresponding to five genotypes, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values ranging between 94.97-99.78% compared to the available sequences from GenBank...
October 14, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
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