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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102581/molecular-mechanisms-and-ecological-function-of-far-red-light-signalling
#1
REVIEW
David J Sheerin, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Land plants possess the ability to sense and respond to far-red light (700-760 nm), which serves as an important environmental cue. Due to the nature of far-red light, it is not absorbed by chlorophyll and thus is enriched in canopy shade, and will also penetrate deeper into soil than other visible wavelengths. Far-red light responses include regulation of seed germination, suppression of hypocotyl growth, induction of flowering, and accumulation of anthocyanins, which depend on one member of the phytochrome photoreceptor family, phytochrome A (phyA)...
January 19, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102350/manipulation-of-auxin-response-factor-19-affects-seed-size-in-the-woody-perennial-jatropha-curcas
#2
Yanwei Sun, Chunming Wang, Ning Wang, Xiyuan Jiang, Huizhu Mao, Changxiang Zhu, Fujiang Wen, Xianghua Wang, Zhijun Lu, Genhua Yue, Zengfu Xu, Jian Ye
Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100961/auxin-extraction-and-purification-based-on-recombinant-aux-iaa-proteins
#3
Yi Su, Weigui Luo, Xiaofei Chen, Huizhen Liu, Yueqing Hu, Wanhuang Lin, Langtao Xiao
BACKGROUND: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) extraction and purification are of great importance in auxin research, which is a hot topic in the plant growth and development field. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is frequently used for IAA extraction and purification. However, no IAA-specific SPE columns are commercially available at the moment. Therefore, the development of IAA-specific recognition materials and IAA extraction and purification methods will help researchers meet the need for more precise analytical methods for research on phytohormones...
2017: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096328/dynamic-pin-formed-auxin-efflux-carrier-phosphorylation-at-the-plasma-membrane-controls-auxin-efflux-dependent-growth
#4
Benjamin Weller, Melina Zourelidou, Lena Frank, Inês C R Barbosa, Astrid Fastner, Sandra Richter, Gerd Jürgens, Ulrich Z Hammes, Claus Schwechheimer
The directional distribution of the phytohormone auxin is essential for plant development. Directional auxin transport is mediated by the polarly distributed PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. We have previously shown that efficient PIN1-mediated auxin efflux requires activation through phosphorylation at the four serines S1-S4 in Arabidopsis thaliana The Brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and the BFA-insensitive PINOID (PID) phosphorylate and activate PIN1 through phosphorylation at all four phosphosites...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096190/gain-of-function-mutants-of-the-cytokinin-receptors-ahk2-and-ahk3-regulate-plant-organ-size-flowering-time-and-plant-longevity
#5
Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondrej Novak, Miroslav Strnad, Tomas Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3 and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion and only very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095469/characterization-of-dof-transcription-factors-and-their-responses-to-osmotic-stress-in-poplar-populus-trichocarpa
#6
Han Wang, Shicheng Zhao, Yuchi Gao, Jingli Yang
The DNA-binding One Zinc Finger (Dof) genes are ubiquitous in many plant species and are especial transcription regulators that participate in plant growth, development and various procedures, including biotic and abiotic stress reactions. In this study, we identified 41 PtrDof members from Populus trichocarpa genomes and classified them into four groups. The conserved motifs and gene structures of some PtrDof genes belonging to the same subgroup were almost the same. The 41 PtrDof genes were dispersed on 18 of the 19 Populus chromosomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093630/brassica-napus-ds-3-encoding-a-della-protein-negatively-regulates-stem-elongation-through-gibberellin-signaling-pathway
#7
Bo Zhao, Haitao Li, Juanjuan Li, Bo Wang, Cheng Dai, Jing Wang, Kede Liu
Identification and characterization of a semi-dwarfing gene ds-3 encoding a mutant DELLA protein regulating plant height through gibberellin signaling pathway. Lodging is one of the most important factors causing severe yield loss in oilseed rape. Utilization of semi-dwarf varieties has been proved the most effective way to increase lodging resistance and yield in many crops. To develop semi-dwarf germplasm in oilseed rape, we identified a semi-dwarf mutant ds-3 which showed a reduced response to phytohormones gibberellins (GAs)...
January 16, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086804/comparative-analysis-of-the-root-transcriptomes-of-cultivated-sweetpotato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-and-its-wild-ancestor-ipomoea-trifida-kunth-g-don
#8
Sathish K Ponniah, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Ketaki Bhide, Venu Kal Kalavacharla, Muthusamy Manoharan
BACKGROUND: The complex process of formation of storage roots (SRs) from adventitious roots affects sweetpotato yield. Identifying the genes that are uniquely expressed in the SR forming cultivated species, Ipomoea batatas (Ib), and its immediate ancestral species, Ipomoea trifida (It), which does not form SRs, may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying SR formation in sweetpotato. RESULTS: Illumina paired-end sequencing generated ~208 and ~200 million reads for Ib and It, respectively...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076366/plum-fruit-development-occurs-via-gibberellin-sensitive-and-insensitive-della-repressors
#9
Islam El-Sharkawy, Sherif Sherif, Mahboob Abdulla, Subramanian Jayasankar
Fruit growth depends on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by triggering degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which such proteins contribute to GA-mediated fruit development remains to be clarified. Three new plum genes encoding DELLA proteins, PslGAI, PslRGL and PslRGA were isolated and functionally characterized. Analysis of expression profile during fruit development suggested that PslDELLA are transcriptionally regulated during flower and fruit ontogeny with potential positive regulation by GA and ethylene, depending on organ and developmental stage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070585/effect-of-proline-on-biochemical-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-lettuce-lactuca-sativa-l-exposed-to-uv-b-radiation
#10
Ozkan Aksakal, Dilruba Tabay, Aslıhan Esringu, Feyza Icoglu Aksakal, Nevzat Esim
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of proline (Pro) in relieving UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress in lettuce. Lettuce seedlings were exposed to 3.3 W m(-2) UV-B radiation for 12 h after pre-treatment sprayed with 20 mM Pro. The data for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), endogenous Pro level, the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD)], total phenolic concentration, antioxidant capacity, expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) and proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) genes, phytohormone levels such as abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA), soluble sugars and organic acids were recorded...
January 10, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067238/jasmonate-response-decay-and-defense-metabolite-accumulation-contributes-to-age-regulated-dynamics-of-plant-insect-resistance
#11
Ying-Bo Mao, Yao-Qian Liu, Dian-Yang Chen, Fang-Yan Chen, Xin Fang, Gao-Jie Hong, Ling-Jian Wang, Jia-Wei Wang, Xiao-Ya Chen
Immunity deteriorates with age in animals but comparatively little is known about the temporal regulation of plant resistance to herbivores. The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of plant insect defense. Here, we show that the JA response decays progressively in Arabidopsis. We show that this decay is regulated by the miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE9 (SPL9) group of proteins, which can interact with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, including JAZ3. As SPL9 levels gradually increase, JAZ3 accumulates and the JA response is attenuated...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061864/identification-of-brassinosteroid-genes-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#12
Claudia Corvalán, Sunghwa Choe
BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that are involved in diverse physiological processes and affect many important traits, such as plant stature, stress tolerance, leaf angle, fertility, and grain filling. BR signaling and biosynthetic pathways have been studied in various plants, such as the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana; however, relatively little is known about these pathways in monocots. RESULTS: To characterize BR-related processes in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, we studied the response of these plants to the specific BR biosynthesis inhibitor, propiconazole (Pcz)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056558/mechanisms-and-strategies-of-plant-defense-against-botrytis-cinerea
#13
Synan AbuQamar, Khaled Moustafa, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Biotic factors affect plant immune responses and plant resistance to pathogen infections. Despite the considerable progress made over the past two decades in manipulating genes, proteins and their levels from diverse sources, no complete genetic tolerance to environmental stresses has been developed so far in any crops. Plant defense response to pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea, is a complex biological process involving various changes at the biochemical, molecular (i.e. transcriptional) and physiological levels...
January 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056496/chloroplast-the-trojan-horse-in-plant-virus-interaction
#14
REVIEW
Dhriti Bhattacharyya, Supriya Chakraborty
Chloroplast is one of the most dynamic organelle of a plant cell. It carries out photosynthesis, synthesizes major phytohormones, takes active part in defence response, and is crucial for inter-organelle signaling. Viruses, on the other hand, are extremely strategic in manipulating the internal environment of the host cell. Chloroplast, a prime target for viruses, undergoes enormous structural and functional damage during viral infection. In fact, large proportions of affected gene products in a virus infected plant are closely associated to chloroplast and photosynthesis process...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054942/a-comprehensive-proteomic-survey-of-aba-induced-protein-phosphorylation-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#15
Jiehua Qiu, Yuxuan Hou, Yifeng Wang, Zhiyong Li, Juan Zhao, Xiaohong Tong, Haiyan Lin, Xiangjin Wei, Hejun Ao, Jian Zhang
abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone regulating plant development and stress response. The signal transduction of ABA largely relies on protein phosphorylation. However; little is known about the phosphorylation events occurring during ABA signaling in rice thus far. By employing a label-free; MS (Mass Spectrometry)-based phosphoproteomic approach; we identified 2271 phosphosites of young rice seedlings and their intensity dynamics in response to ABA; during which 1060 proteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054231/regulation-of-root-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-phytohormone-secreting-epiphytic-methylobacteria
#16
Jana Klikno, Ulrich Kutschera
In numerous experimental studies, seedlings of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have been raised on sterile mineral salt agar. However, under natural conditions, no plant has ever grown in an environment without bacteria. Here, we document that germ-free (gnotobiotic) seedlings, raised on mineral salt agar without sucrose, develop very short root hairs. In the presence of a soil extract that contains naturally occurring microbes, root hair elongation is promoted; this effect can be mimicked by the addition of methylobacteria to germ-free seedlings...
January 4, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049729/the-plant-hormone-abscisic-acid-is-a-pro-survival-factor-in-human-and-murine-megakaryocytes
#17
Alessandro Malara, Chiara Fresia, Christian Andrea Di Buduo, Paolo Maria Soprano, Francesco Moccia, Cesare Balduini, Elena Zocchi, Antonio De Flora, Alessandra Balduini
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone involved in pivotal physiological functions in higher plants. Recently, ABA proved to be secreted and active also in mammals, where it stimulates the activity of innate immune cells, of mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells and of insulin-releasing pancreatic β-cells through a signaling pathway involving the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). In addition to behaving as an animal hormone, ABA holds promise also as nutraceutical plant-derived compound in humans...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049439/exogenous-spermidine-improves-seed-germination-of-sweet-corn-via-involvement-in-phytohormone-interactions-h2o2-and-relevant-gene-expression
#18
Yutao Huang, Cheng Lin, Fei He, Zhan Li, Yajing Guan, Qijuan Hu, Jin Hu
BACKGROUND: The low seed vigor and poor field emergence are main factors that restricting the extension of sweet corn in China. Spermidine (Spd) plays an important role in plant growth and development, but little is known about the effect of Spd on sweet corn seed germination. Therefore the effect of exogenous Spd on seed germination and physiological and biochemical changes during seed imbibition of Xiantian No.5 were investigated in this study. RESULTS: Spd soaking treatment not only improved seed germination percentage but also significantly enhanced seed vigor which was indicated by higher germination index, vigor index, shoot heights and dry weights of shoot and root compared with the control; while exogenous CHA, the biosynthesis inhibitor of Spd, significantly inhibited seed germination and declined seed vigor...
January 3, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044345/multifaceted-role-of-cycling-dof-factor-3-cdf3-in-the-regulation-of-flowering-time-and-abiotic-stress-responses-in-arabidopsis
#19
Alba-Rocio Corrales, Laura Carrillo, Pilar Lasierra, Sergio G Nebauer, Jose Dominguez-Figueroa, Begoña Renau-Morata, Stephan Pollmann, Antonio Granell, Rosa-Victoria Molina, Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa, Joaquín Medina
DOF (DNA-binding with one finger)-type transcription factors are involved in many fundamental processes in higher plants, from responses to light and phytohormones to flowering time and seed maturation, but their relation with abiotic stress tolerance is largely unknown. Here, we identify the roles of CDF3, an Arabidopsis DOF gene in abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like flowering time. CDF3 is highly induced by drought, extreme temperatures and abscisic acid treatment. The CDF3 T-DNA insertion mutant cdf3-1 is much more sensitive to drought and low temperature stress, whereas CDF3 overexpression enhances the tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, cold and osmotic stress and promotes late flowering...
January 3, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042895/ecological-genomics-of-tropical-trees-how-local-population-size-and-allelic-diversity-of-resistance-genes-relate-to-immune-responses-co-susceptibility-to-pathogens-and-negative-density-dependence
#20
J H Marden, S A Mangan, M Peterson, E Wafula, H W Fescemyer, J Der, C W dePamphilis, L S Comita
In tropical forests, rarer species show increased sensitivity to species-specific soil pathogens and more negative effects of conspecific density on seedling survival (NDD). These patterns suggest a connection between ecology and immunity, perhaps because small population size disproportionately reduces genetic diversity of hyperdiverse loci such as immunity genes. In an experiment examining seedling roots from six species in one tropical tree community, we found that smaller populations have reduced amino acid diversity in pathogen resistance (R) genes but not the transcriptome in general...
January 2, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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