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Phytohormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340324/vps36-mediated-plasma-membrane-protein-turnover-is-critical-for-arabidopsis-root-gravitropism
#1
Ya-Wen Hsu, Guang-Yuh Jauh
The gravitropic response is an evolutionary adaptation for plants to cope with the altered gravitational field. It involves reestablishing the distribution of the phytohormone auxin by differential degradation of auxin influx and efflux carriers. This process includes the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to recognize ubiquitinated proteins and deliver them to vacuoles for degradation, as evidenced by vps36-1 mutants. Here, we generated RNAi knockdown plants of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 36 (VPS36) that could survive to adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338758/mistletoe-infestation-mediates-alteration-of-the-phytohormone-profile-and-anti-oxidative-metabolism-in-bark-and-wood-of-its-host-pinus-sylvestris
#2
Bin Hu, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Yumiko Takebayashi, Franziska S Peters, Jörg Schumacher, Monika Eiblmeier, Leila Arab, Jürgen Kreuzwieser, Andrea Polle, Heinz Rennenberg
European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) has largely infested Central European forests and causes high mortality probability particularly in dry years. However, little information is available about the consequences of mistletoe infestation for metabolic processes in bark and wood of its host, despite their important roles in infestation defense. We analyzed the tissue hydration, carbohydrate composition, phytohormone profile, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidant levels in bark and wood of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332706/jasmonic-acid-dependent-regulation-of-seed-dormancy-following-maternal-herbivory-in-arabidopsis
#3
Prashant Singh, Anuja Dave, Fabian E Vaistij, Dawn Worrall, Geoff H Holroyd, Jonathan G Wells, Filip Kaminski, Ian A Graham, Michael R Roberts
Maternal experience of abiotic environmental factors such as temperature and light are well known to control seed dormancy in many plant species. Maternal biotic stress alters offspring defence phenotypes, but whether it also affects seed dormancy remains unexplored. We exposed Arabidopsis thaliana plants to herbivory and investigated plasticity in germination and defence phenotypes in their offspring, along with the roles of phytohormone signalling in regulating maternal effects. Maternal herbivory resulted in the accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine and loss of dormancy in seeds of stressed plants...
March 23, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332623/identification-and-characterization-of-the-abscisic-acid-aba-receptor-gene-family-and-its-expression-in-response-to-hormones-in-the-rubber-tree
#4
Dong Guo, Ying Zhou, Hui-Liang Li, Jia-Hong Zhu, Ying Wang, Xiong-Ting Chen, Shi-Qing Peng
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone involved in diverse physiological processes. Although genome-wide analyses of the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) protein/gene family have been performed in certain plant species, little is known about the ABA receptor protein/gene family in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this study, we identified 14 ABA receptor PYL proteins/genes (designated HbPYL1 through HbPYL14) in the most recent rubber tree genome. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, which demonstrated that HbPYLs can be divided into three subfamilies that correlate well with the corresponding Arabidopsis subfamilies...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330565/phytohormone-profiling-in-relation-to-osmotic-adjustment-in-nacl-treated-plants-of-the-halophyte-tomato-wild-relative-species-solanum-chilense-comparatively-to-the-cultivated-glycophyte-solanum-lycopersicum
#5
Emna Gharbi, Juan-Pablo Martínez, Hela Benahmed, Imène Hichri, Petre I Dobrev, Václav Motyka, Muriel Quinet, Stanley Lutts
A holistic approach was used to investigate the hormonal profile in relation with osmotic adjustment under salinity in Solanum lycopersicum and its halophyte wild relative Solanum chilense. Plants were subjected to 125mM NaCl for 7days. Solanum chilense displayed a contrasting behaviour comparatively to S. lycopersicum, not only for mineral nutrition, but also regarding the modalities of osmotic adjustment and phytohormonal profiling. The extent of osmotic adjustment was higher in S. chilense than in S. lycopersicum...
May 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330319/roles-of-plant-hormones-and-anti-apoptosis-genes-during-drought-stress-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#6
Mohammad Ubaidillah, Fika Ayu Safitri, Jun-Hyeon Jo, Sang-Kyu Lee, Adil Hussain, Bong-Gyu Mun, Il Kyung Chung, Byung-Wook Yun, Kyung-Min Kim
We previously identified the rice (Oryza sativa) senescence-associated gene OsSAP which encodes a highly conserved protein involved in anti-apoptotic activity. This novel Bax suppressor-related gene regulates tolerance to multiple stresses in yeast. Here, we show the effects of drought stress on leaf and root tissues of plants over-expressing OsSAP in relation to the levels of phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA), gibberellic acid (GA3), and zeatin. Results showed that rice plants over-expressing SAP were tolerant to drought stress compared to wild type and the plants over-expressing AtBI-1, which is a homolog of the human Bax inhibitor-1 in Arabidopsis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321368/plant-growth-promoting-endophytic-bacteria-versus-pathogenic-infections-an-example-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-rwl-1-and-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-lycopersici-in-tomato
#7
Raheem Shahzad, Abdul Latif Khan, Saqib Bilal, Sajjad Asaf, In-Jung Lee
Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320293/regulatory-peptides-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
B F Vanyushin, V V Ashapkin, N I Aleksandrushkina
Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303151/the-combination-of-trichoderma-harzianum-and-chemical-fertilization-leads-to-the-deregulation-of-phytohormone-networking-preventing-the-adaptive-responses-of-tomato-plants-to-salt-stress
#9
M B Rubio, Rosa Hermosa, Rubén Vicente, Fabio A Gómez-Acosta, Rosa Morcuende, Enrique Monte, Wagner Bettiol
Plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. In addition to biocontrol abilities, Trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. Morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. The application of Trichoderma harzianum T34 to tomato seeds had very positive effects on plant growth, independently of chemical fertilization...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299960/molecular-dissection-of-the-response-of-the-rice-systemic-acquired-resistance-deficient-1-sard1-gene-to-different-types-of-ionizing-radiation
#10
In Jung Jung, Jung Eun Hwang, Sung Min Han, Dong Sub Kim, Joon-Woo Ahn, Hong-Il Choi, Soon-Jae Kwon, Si-Yong Kang, Jin-Baek Kim
PURPOSE: Exposure to ionizing radiation induces plant defenses by regulating the expression of response genes. The systemic acquired resistance deficient 1 (SARD1) is a key gene in plant defense response. In this study, the function of Oryza sativa SARD1 (OsSARD1) was investigated after exposure of seeds/plants to ionizing radiation, jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rice seeds exposed to two types of ionizing radiations (gamma ray [GR] and ion beam [IB]) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to identify the genes that are altered in response to ionizing radiation...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298915/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-mechanisms-of-sterile-and-fertile-flower-differentiation-and-development-in-viburnum-macrocephalum-f-keteleeri
#11
Zhaogeng Lu, Jing Xu, Weixing Li, Li Zhang, Jiawen Cui, Qingsong He, Li Wang, Biao Jin
Sterile and fertile flowers are an important evolutionary developmental (evo-devo) phenotype in angiosperm flowers, playing important roles in pollinator attraction and sexual reproductive success. However, the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying fertile and sterile flower differentiation and development remain largely unknown. Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri, which possesses fertile and sterile flowers in a single inflorescence, is a useful candidate species for investigating the regulatory networks in differentiation and development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296178/photosynthetic-bacterium-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-gj-22-induces-systemic-resistance-against-viruses
#12
Pin Su, Xinqiu Tan, Chenggang Li, Deyong Zhang, Ju'e Cheng, Songbai Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Qingpin Yan, Jing Peng, Zhuo Zhang, Yong Liu, Xiangyang Lu
Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have been extensively used in agriculture to promote plant growth and to improve crop quality. Their potential application in plant disease management, however, is largely overlooked. In this study, the PSB strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris GJ-22 was investigated for its ability to induce resistance against a plant virus while promoting plant growth. In the field, a foliar spray of GJ-22 suspension protected tobacco plants against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Under axenic conditions, GJ-22 colonized the plant phyllosphere and induced resistance against TMV...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293845/kinase-assay-for-constitutive-triple-response-1-ctr1-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Han Yong Lee, Gyeong Mee Yoon
Protein kinases are central components of signal transduction pathways in the cell. They catalyze the phosphorylation of substrate proteins, resulting in changes of the activity, localization, stability, and protein interactions of the substrates, ultimately coordinating the activity of important cellular processes. CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE 1 (CTR1) is a Raf-like protein kinase that functions as a negative regulator in the phytohormone ethylene signaling pathway. CTR1 physically interacts with ethylene receptors via its N-terminal domain at the endoplasmic reticulum, and is involved in suppressing ethylene signaling in the absence of ethylene...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293840/assay-methods-for-acs-activity-and-acs-phosphorylation-by-map-kinases-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Xiaomin Han, Guojing Li, Shuqun Zhang
Ethylene, a gaseous phytohormone, has profound effects on plant growth, development, and adaptation to the environment. Ethylene-regulated processes begin with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. There are two key steps in ethylene biosynthesis. The first is the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) from S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAM), a common precursor in many metabolic pathways, which is catalyzed by ACC synthase (ACS). The second is the oxidative cleavage of ACC to form ethylene under the action of ACC oxidase (ACO)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293290/nitrogen-starvation-induced-cellular-crosstalk-of-ros-scavenging-antioxidants-and-phytohormone-enhanced-the-biofuel-potential-of-green-microalga-acutodesmus-dimorphus
#15
Kaumeel Chokshi, Imran Pancha, Arup Ghosh, Sandhya Mishra
BACKGROUND: Microalgae accumulate a considerable amount of lipids and carbohydrate under nutrient-deficient conditions, which makes them one of the promising sustainable resources for biofuel production. In the present study, to obtain the biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents, we implemented a short-term nitrogen starvation of 1, 2, and 3 days in a green microalga Acutodesmus dimorphus. Few recent reports suggest that oxidative stress-tolerant microalgae are highly efficient for biofuel production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293246/brachypodium-distachyon-bdpp2ca6-interacts-with-bdpyls-and-bdsnrk2-and-positively-regulates-salt-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#16
Fan Zhang, Qiuhui Wei, Jiaochun Shi, Xia Jin, Yuan He, Yang Zhang, Qingchen Luo, Yuesheng Wang, Junli Chang, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential in plant responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although ABA signaling model is well established in Arabidopsis, ABA receptor PYL family and clade A PP2C subfamily are not yet characterized in monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, we identified 12 PYLs and 8 clade A PP2Cs from B. distachyon genome and successfully cloned 12 PYLs and 7 clade A PP2Cs. Bioinformatic and expression analyses showed that most of the identified genes respond to several signal molecules and abiotic stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292238/fungal-production-and-manipulation-of-plant-hormones
#17
Sandra Fonseca, Dhanya Radhakrishnan, Kalika Prasad, Andrea Chini
Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated co-evolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies...
March 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284108/proteomics-analysis-reveals-the-molecular-mechanism-underlying-the-transition-from-primary-to-secondary-growth-of-poplar
#18
Yuan Li, Feng Jin, Qing Chao, Bai-Chen Wang
Wood is the most important natural source of energy and also provides fuel and fiber. Considering the significant role of wood, it is critical to understand how wood is formed. Integration of knowledge about wood development at the cellular and molecular levels will allow more comprehensive understanding of this complex process. In the present study, we used a comparative proteomic approach to investigate the differences in protein profiles between primary and secondary growth in young poplar stems using tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeling...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282528/spatio-temporal-dynamics-in-global-rice-gene-expression-oryza-sativa%C3%A2-l-in-response-to-high-ammonium-stress
#19
Li Sun, Dongwei Di, Guangjie Li, Herbert J Kronzucker, Weiming Shi
Ammonium (NH4(+)) is the predominant nitrogen (N) source in many natural and agricultural ecosystems, including flooded rice fields. While rice is known as an NH4(+)-tolerant species, it nevertheless suffers NH4(+) toxicity at elevated soil concentrations. NH4(+) excess rapidly leads to the disturbance of various physiological processes that ultimately inhibit shoot and root growth. However, the global transcriptomic response to NH4(+) stress in rice has not been examined. In this study, we mapped the spatio-temporal specificity of gene expression profiles in rice under excess NH4(+) and the changes in gene expression in root and shoot at various time points by RNA-Seq (Quantification) using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282395/bacillus-aryabhattai-srb02-tolerates-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-promotes-the-growth-of-soybean-by-modulating-the-production-of-phytohormones
#20
Yeon-Gyeong Park, Bong-Gyu Mun, Sang-Mo Kang, Adil Hussain, Raheem Shahzad, Chang-Woo Seo, Ah-Yeong Kim, Sang-Uk Lee, Kyeong Yeol Oh, Dong Yeol Lee, In-Jung Lee, Byung-Wook Yun
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are diverse, naturally occurring bacteria that establish a close association with plant roots and promote the growth and immunity of plants. Established mechanisms involved in PGPR-mediated plant growth promotion include regulation of phytohormones, improved nutrient availability, and antagonistic effects on plant pathogens. In this study, we isolated a bacterium from the rhizospheric soil of a soybean field in Chungcheong buk-do, South Korea. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, the bacterium was identified as Bacillus aryabhattai strain SRB02...
2017: PloS One
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