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dynein light chain

Oxana Nekrasova, Robert M Harmon, Joshua A Broussard, Jennifer L Koetsier, Lisa M Godsel, Gillian N Fitz, Margaret L Gardel, Kathleen J Green
The epidermis is a multi-layered epithelium that serves as a barrier against water loss and environmental insults. Its morphogenesis occurs through a tightly regulated program of biochemical and architectural changes during which basal cells commit to differentiate and move towards the skin's surface. Here, we reveal an unexpected role for the vertebrate cadherin desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) in remodeling the actin cytoskeleton to promote the transit of basal cells into the suprabasal layer through a process of delamination, one mechanism of epidermal stratification...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Palida Emmanoch, Nanthawat Kosa, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc
Four isoforms of calcium binding proteins containing 2 EF hand motifs and a dynein light chain-like domain in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini , namely OvCaBP1, 2, 3, and 4, were characterized. They had molecular weights of 22.7, 21.6, 23.7, and 22.5 kDa, respectively and showed 37.2-42.1% sequence identity to CaBP22.8 of O. viverrini . All were detected in 2- and 4-week-old immature and mature parasites. Additionally, OvCaBP4 was found in newly excysted juveniles. Polyclonal antibodies against each isoform were generated to detect the native proteins in parasite extracts by Western blot analysis...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
In-Gyun Lee, Mara A Olenick, Malgorzata Boczkowska, Clara Franzini-Armstrong, Erika L F Holzbaur, Roberto Dominguez
Cytoplasmic dynein is the major minus-end-directed microtubule-based motor in cells. Dynein processivity and cargo selectivity depend on cargo-specific effectors that, while generally unrelated, share the ability to interact with dynein and dynactin to form processive dynein-dynactin-effector complexes. How this is achieved is poorly understood. Here, we identify a conserved region of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain 1 (LIC1) that mediates interactions with unrelated dynein-dynactin effectors. Quantitative binding studies map these interactions to a conserved helix within LIC1 and to N-terminal fragments of Hook1, Hook3, BICD2, and Spindly...
March 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Guorui Li, Jinguang Huang, Jun Yang, Dan He, Chao Wang, Xiaoxuan Qi, Ian A Taylor, Junfeng Liu, You-Liang Peng
Magnaporthe oryzae is a model fungal plant pathogen employed for studying plant-fungi interactions. Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analyses revealed that this fungal pathogen has more than 12,000 protein-coding genes with 65% of the genes remaining functionally un-annotated. Here, we determine the structure of the hypothetical protein, MGG_01005 and show that it is the Magnaporthe oryzae Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (dynlt1/3), demonstrated by its structural similarity to other orthologous dynlt1 proteins and its conserved interaction with the N-terminus of the Magnaporthe oryzae dynein intermediate chain, MoDyn1I2...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jack Carson, Charlotte M Thomas, Aaron McGinty, Gustavo Takata, David J Timson
Schistosoma mansoni, like other trematodes, expresses a number of unusual calcium binding proteins which consist of an EF-hand domain joined to a dynein light chain-like (DLC-like) domain by a flexible linker. These proteins have been implicated in host immune responses and drug binding. Three members of this protein family from S. mansoni (SmTAL1, SmTAL2 and SmTAL3) have been well characterised biochemically. Here we characterise the remaining family members from this species (SmTAL4-13). All of these proteins form homodimers and all except SmTAL5 bind to calcium and manganese ions...
February 14, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Sébastien Houy, Alexander J Groffen, Iwona Ziomkiewicz, Matthijs Verhage, Paulo S Pinheiro, Jakob Balslev Sørensen
Doc2B is a cytosolic protein with binding sites for Munc13 and Tctex-1 (dynein light chain), and two C2-domains that bind to phospholipids, Ca2+ and SNAREs. Whether Doc2B functions as a calcium sensor akin to synaptotagmins, or in other calcium-independent or calcium-dependent capacities is debated. We here show by mutation and overexpression that Doc2B plays distinct roles in two sequential priming steps in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Mutating Ca2+-coordinating aspartates in the C2A-domain localizes Doc2B permanently at the plasma membrane, and renders an upstream priming step Ca2+-independent, whereas a separate function in downstream priming depends on SNARE-binding, Ca2+-binding to the C2B-domain of Doc2B, interaction with ubMunc13-2 and the presence of synaptotagmin-1...
December 23, 2017: ELife
Gábor Erdős, Tamás Szaniszló, Mátyás Pajkos, Borbála Hajdu-Soltész, Bence Kiss, Gábor Pál, László Nyitray, Zsuzsanna Dosztányi
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) formed between short linear motifs and globular domains play important roles in many regulatory and signaling processes but are highly underrepresented in current protein-protein interaction databases. These types of interactions are usually characterized by a specific binding motif that captures the key amino acids shared among the interaction partners. However, the computational proteome-level identification of interaction partners based on the known motif is hindered by the huge number of randomly occurring matches from which biologically relevant motif hits need to be extracted...
December 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
I Wiedemann, A Maehlmeyer, S Jansen, A R Sharifi, C Knorr
The flagellar beating of a spermatozoa's axoneme is caused by the varying activation and inactivation of dynein molecules. Dynein, axonemal, light chain 4 (DNAL4) is a functional candidate gene for sperm motility as it encodes a small subunit of the dyneins. We resequenced the porcine DNAL4 using three artificial insemination (AI) boars each with high (>68%) or low (<60%) motility, and detected 23 SNP. These were then genotyped for 82 AI boars. Using spermatological records, significantly negative genetic correlations between ejaculate volume (VOL) and the further spermatological parameters concentration (CONC) (r = -...
April 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Quentin Osseman, Lara Gallucci, Shelly Au, Christian Cazenave, Elodie Berdance, Marie-Lise Blondot, Aurélia Cassany, Dominique Bégu, Jessica Ragues, Cindy Aknin, Irina Sominskaya, Andris Dishlers, Birgit Rabe, Fenja Anderson, Nelly Panté, Michael Kann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a DNA genome but replicates within nucleus by transcription of an RNA pregenome, which is converted to DNA in cytoplasmic capsids. Capsids in this compartment are correlated with inflammation and epitopes of the capsid protein core (Cp) are the main target for T cell-mediated immune response. We investigated the mechanism of cytoplasmic capsid transport, which is important for infection but also for cytosolic capsid removal. METHODS: We used virion-derived capsids with a mature rcDNA (matC), empty capsids (empC), and RNA containing capsids (rnaC) as control...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Hasini Jayatilaka, Anjil Giri, Michelle Karl, Ivie Aifuwa, Nicholaus J Trenton, Jude M Phillip, Shyam Khatau, Denis Wirtz
Microtubules have long been implicated to play an integral role in metastatic disease, for which a critical step is the local invasion of tumor cells into the 3-dimensional (3D) collagen-rich stromal matrix. Here we show that cell migration of human cancer cells uses the dynamic formation of highly branched protrusions that are composed of a microtubule core surrounded by cortical actin, a cytoskeletal organization that is absent in cells on 2-dimensional (2D) substrates. Microtubule plus-end tracking protein End-binding 1 and motor protein dynein subunits light intermediate chain 2 and heavy chain 1, which do not regulate 2D migration, critically modulate 3D migration by affecting RhoA and thus regulate protrusion branching through differential assembly dynamics of microtubules...
November 2, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jacques Brocard, Fabrice Dufour, Sylvie Gory-Fauré, Christophe Arnoult, Christophe Bosc, Eric Denarier, Leticia Peris, Yasmina Saoudi, Michel De Waard, Annie Andrieux
MAP6 proteins were first described as microtubule-stabilizing agents, whose properties were thought to be essential for neuronal development and maintenance of complex neuronal networks. However, deletion of all MAP6 isoforms in MAP6 KO mice does not lead to dramatic morphological aberrations of the brain but rather to alterations in multiple neurotransmissions and severe behavioural impairments. A search for protein partners of MAP6 proteins identified Tctex1 - a dynein light chain with multiple non-microtubule-related functions...
December 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
María-José Sandí, Christopher B Marshall, Marc Balan, Étienne Coyaud, Ming Zhou, Daniel M Monson, Noboru Ishiyama, Arun A Chandrakumar, José La Rose, Amber L Couzens, Anne-Claude Gingras, Brian Raught, Wei Xu, Mitsuhiko Ikura, Deborah K Morrison, Robert Rottapel
The PAR-1-MARK pathway controls cell polarity through the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins. Rho-Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (ARHGEF2), which activates Ras homolog family member A (RHOA), is anchored to the microtubule network and sequestered in an inhibited state through binding to dynein light chain Tctex-1 type 1 (DYNLT1). We showed in mammalian cells that liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activated the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3 (MARK3), which in turn phosphorylated ARHGEF2 at Ser(151) This modification disrupted the interaction between ARHGEF2 and DYNLT1 by generating a 14-3-3 binding site in ARHGEF2, thus causing ARHGEF2 to dissociate from microtubules...
October 31, 2017: Science Signaling
Ting Zhu, Xing Liang, Xiang-Ming Wang, Kang Shen
Our previous work showed that the cell adhesion molecule SAX-7 forms an elaborate pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal cells, which instructs PVD dendrite branching. However, the molecular mechanism forming the SAX-7 pattern in the epidermis is not fully understood. Here, we report that the dynein light intermediate chain DLI-1 and the fusogen EFF-1 are required in epidermal cells to pattern SAX-7. While previous reports suggest that these two molecules act cell-autonomously in the PVD, our results show that the disorganized PVD dendritic arbors in these mutants are due to the abnormal SAX-7 localization patterns in epidermal cells...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Siwen Li, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Yizhi Shao, Bangyi Wang, Yulong Wang, Mingwei Xing
Basal autophagy has an indispensable role in the functioning and maintenance of cardiac geometry under physiological conditions. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that arsenic (As)/copper (Cu) play important roles in the autophagy of the heart. The current study was to evaluate whether oxidative damage by As or/and Cu was correlated with autophagy through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the heart of birds. Arsenic trioxide (30mg/kg) or/and cupric sulfate (300mg/kg) were administered in a basal diet to male Hy-line chickens (one-day-old) for 12 weeks...
October 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Prafull Kumar Singh, Aristomenis Roukounakis, Daniel O Frank, Susanne Kirschnek, Kushal Kumar Das, Simon Neumann, Josef Madl, Winfried Römer, Carina Zorzin, Christoph Borner, Aladin Haimovici, Ana Garcia-Saez, Arnim Weber, Georg Häcker
The Bcl-2 family protein Bim triggers mitochondrial apoptosis. Bim is expressed in nonapoptotic cells at the mitochondrial outer membrane, where it is activated by largely unknown mechanisms. We found that Bim is regulated by formation of large protein complexes containing dynein light chain 1 (DLC1). Bim rapidly inserted into cardiolipin-containing membranes in vitro and recruited DLC1 to the membrane. Bim binding to DLC1 induced the formation of large Bim complexes on lipid vesicles, on isolated mitochondria, and in intact cells...
September 1, 2017: Genes & Development
Shuangshuang Dong, Yongjin Zhang, Jingfeng Ming, Xinzhi Zhang, Xiuming Li, Jing Xu, Zhenjie Sun, Zenglin Cai, Xiaomin Li
Tctex1 is an important structure of dynein light chain in mammalian cells, clarifying the role of Tctex1 in α-synuclein autophagy lysosomal degradation may offer insights into the formation of Lewy bodies and neuronal death. We constructed dsRED-N1-Tctex1 overexpression, pDsRED2-N1-Tctex1(T94E) mutation and transfected into SH-SY5Y cells. Relative protein expression was measured by Western Blot and mRNA levels were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Confocal microscopy was used to observe their sublocalizations in cells...
November 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Ashleigh King, Lingli Li, David M Wong, Rui Liu, Rebecca Bamford, Andreas Strasser, David M Tarlinton, Jörg Heierhorst
Mechanistic differences in the development and function of adaptive, high-affinity antibody-producing B-2 cells and innate-like, "natural" antibody-producing B-1a cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that the multi-functional dynein light chain (DYNLL1/LC8) plays important roles in the establishment of B-1a cells in the peritoneal cavity and in the ongoing development of B-2 lymphoid cells in the bone marrow of mice. Epistasis analyses indicate that Dynll1 regulates B-1a and early B-2 cell development in a single, linear pathway with its direct transcriptional activator ASCIZ (ATMIN/ZNF822), and that the two genes also have complementary functions during late B-2 cell development...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
Patrick Midoux, Lucie Pigeon, Cristine Gonçalves, Chantal Pichon
Synthetic vectors such as cationic polymers and cationic lipids remain attractive tools for non-viral gene transfer which is a complex process whose effectiveness relies on the ability to deliver a plasmid DNA (pDNA) into the nucleus of non-dividing cells. Once in the cytosol, the transport of pDNAs towards the nuclear envelope is strongly impaired by their very low cytosolic mobility due to their large size. To promote their movement towards the cell nucleus, few strategies have been implemented to exploit dynein, the microtubule's (MT's) motor protein, for propagation of cytosolic pDNA along the MTs towards the cell nucleus...
October 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Fauzia Jamal, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Manish Kumar Singh, Abul Hasan Sardar, Pushpanjali, Selvasankar Murugesan, Shyam Narayan, Anil Kumar Gupta, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The unreliability of most of the existing antibody-based diagnostic kits to discriminate between active and treated VL cases, relapse situation and reinfection are a major hurdle in controlling the cases of Kala-azar in an endemic area. An antigen targeted diagnostic approaches can be an attractive strategy to overcome these problems. Hence, this study was focused on identifying the Leishmania antigens, lies in circulating immune complex (CICs), can be used for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. The present study was conducted on peripheral blood samples of 115 human subjects, based on isolation of CICs...
2017: PloS One
Tabita Kreko-Pierce, Benjamin A Eaton
Because of their functional polarity and elongated morphologies, microtubule-based transport of proteins and organelles is critical for normal neuronal function. The proteasome is required throughout the neuron for the highly regulated degradation of a broad set of protein targets whose functions underlie key physiological responses, including synaptic plasticity and axonal degeneration. Molecularly, the relationship between proteasome transport and the transport of the targets of proteasomes is unclear. The dynein motor complex is required for the microtubule-based motility of numerous proteins and organelles in neurons...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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