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dynein light chain

Pervez Ahmed Khoso, Tingru Pan, Na Wan, Zijiang Yang, Ci Liu, Shu Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) deficiency on autophagy-related genes and on ultrastructural changes in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of chickens. The Se deficiency group was fed a basal diet containing Se at 0.033 mg/kg and the control group was fed the same basal diet containing Se at 0.15 mg/kg. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the autophagy genes microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, dynein, autophagy associated gene 5 (ATG5), and target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) were assessed using real-time qPCR...
October 15, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Sarah Cheung, Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson
FH22 has been previously identified as a calcium-binding protein from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. It is part of a family of at least four proteins in this organism which combine an EF-hand containing N-terminal domain with a C-terminal dynein light chain-like domain. Here we report further biochemical properties of FH22, which we propose should be renamed FhCaBP1 for consistency with other family members. Molecular modelling predicted that the two domains are linked by a flexible region and that the second EF-hand in the N-terminal domain is most likely the calcium ion binding site...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Syeda Ridita Sharif, Ariful Islam, Il Soo Moon
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase (GlcNAc kinase or NAGK) primarily catalyzes phosphoryl transfer to GlcNAc during amino sugar metabolism. Recently, it was shown NAGK interacts with dynein light chain roadblock type 1 (DYNLRB1) and upregulates axo-dendritic growth, which is an enzyme activity-independent, non-canonical structural role. The authors examined the distributions of NAGK and NAGK-dynein complexes during the cell cycle in HEK293T cells. NAGK was expressed throughout different stages of cell division and immunocytochemistry (ICC) showed NAGK was localized at nuclear envelope, spindle microtubules (MTs), and kinetochores (KTs)...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson
There is a family of proteins from parasitic worms which combine N-terminal EF-hand domains with C-terminal dynein light chain-like domains. Data are accumulating on the biochemistry and cell biology of these proteins. However, little is known about their functions in vivo Schistosoma mansoni expresses 13 family members (SmTAL1-SmTAL13). Three of these (SmTAL1, SmTAL2 and SmTAL3) have been subjected to biochemical analysis which demonstrated that they have different molecular properties. Although their overall folds are predicted to be similar, small changes in the EF-hand domains result in differences in their ion binding properties...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Javier Merino-Gracia, Héctor Zamora-Carreras, Marta Bruix, Ignacio Rodríguez-Crespo
It has been suggested that DYNLT1, a dynein light chain known to bind to various cellular and viral proteins, can function both as a molecular clamp and as a microtubule-cargo adapter. Recent data have shown that the DYNLT1 homodimer binds to two dynein intermediate chains to subsequently link cargo proteins such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Lfc or the small GTPases RagA and Rab3D. Although over 20 DYNLT1-interacting proteins have been reported, the exact sequence requirements that enable their association to the canonical binding groove or to the secondary site within the DYNLT1 surface are unknown...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sagar P Mahale, Amit Sharma, Sivaram V S Mylavarapu
The multi-functional molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein performs diverse essential roles during mitosis. The mechanistic importance of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain homologs, LIC1 and LIC2 is unappreciated, especially in the context of mitosis. LIC1 and LIC2 are believed to exist in distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes as obligate subunits. LIC1 had earlier been reported to be required for metaphase to anaphase progression by inactivating the kinetochore-microtubule attachment-sensing arm of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC)...
2016: PloS One
Sadiya Malik, Hiroko Saito, Miho Takaoka, Yoshio Miki, Akira Nakanishi
BRCA2 is responsible for familial breast and ovarian cancer and has been linked to DNA repair and centrosome duplication. Here we analyzed the mechanism by which the centrosomal localization signal (CLS) of BRCA2 interacts with cytoplasmic dynein 1 to localize BRCA2 to the centrosome. In vitro pull-down assays demonstrated that BRCA2 directly binds to the cytoplasmic dynein 1 light intermediate chain 2. A dominant-negative HA-CLS-DsRed fusion protein, the depletion of dynein by siRNA, and the inactivation of dynein by EHNA, inhibited the localization of BRCA2 at centrosomes and caused the separation of centrosome pairs during the S-phase...
August 17, 2016: Cell Cycle
Jaimee Reck, Alexandria M Schauer, Kristyn VanderWaal Mills, Raqual Bower, Douglas Tritschler, Catherine A Perrone, Mary E Porter
The assembly of cilia and flagella depends on the activity of two microtubule motor complexes, kinesin-2 and dynein-2/1b, but the specific functions of the different subunits are poorly defined. Here we analyze Chlamydomonas strains expressing different amounts of the dynein 1b light intermediate chain (D1bLIC). Disruption of D1bLIC alters the stability of the dynein 1b complex and reduces both the frequency and velocity of retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), but it does not eliminate retrograde IFT...
August 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Yasuhiro Itoh, Maiko Higuchi, Koji Oishi, Yusuke Kishi, Tomohiko Okazaki, Hiroshi Sakai, Takaki Miyata, Kazunori Nakajima, Yukiko Gotoh
Neurons migrate a long radial distance by a process known as locomotion in the developing mammalian neocortex. During locomotion, immature neurons undergo saltatory movement along radial glia fibers. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the speed of locomotion are largely unknown. We now show that the serine/threonine kinase Akt and its activator phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) regulate the speed of locomotion of mouse neocortical neurons through the cortical plate. Inactivation of the PDK1-Akt pathway impaired the coordinated movement of the nucleus and centrosome, a microtubule-dependent process, during neuronal migration...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Thanh H Nguyen, Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson, Mark J van Raaij
The common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes an increasing burden on human and animal health, partly because of the spread of drug-resistant isolates. As a consequence, there is considerable interest in developing new drugs to combat liver fluke infections. A group of potential targets is a family of calcium-binding proteins which combine an N-terminal domain with two EF-hand motifs and a C-terminal domain with predicted similarity to dynein light chains (DLC-like domain). The function of these proteins is unknown, although in several species, they have been localised to the tegument, an important structure at the host-parasite interface...
July 2016: Parasitology Research
Aswati Subramanian, Amrita Kabi, Sean F Gray, David Pennock
Dynein light chains are required for the assembly of axonemal dyneins into cilia and flagella. Most organisms express a single p28 dynein light chain and four to nine one-headed inner arm dynein heavy chains. In contrast, Tetrahymena encodes three p28 dynein light chain genes (p28A, p28B, and p28C) and 18 one-headed inner arm dynein heavy chains. In this article it is shown that mutations in p28A and p28B affected both beat frequency and waveform of cilia, while mutations in p28C affected only ciliary beat frequency...
April 2016: Cytoskeleton
Swapnil S Parhad, Deepa Jaiswal, Krishanu Ray, Shyamalava Mazumdar
The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an essential enzyme involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent neurotransmitter. Although previous studies have indicated that the dynein light chain 1 (DLC1) binding to nNOS could inhibit the NO synthesis, the claim is challenged by contradicting reports. Thus, the mechanism of nNOS regulation remained unclear. nNOS has a heme-bearing, Cytochrome P450 core, and the functional enzyme is a dimer. The electron flow from NADPH to Flavin, and finally to the heme of the paired nNOS subunit within a dimer, is facilitated upon calmodulin (CaM) binding...
March 25, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Toshiyuki Oda, Tatsuki Abe, Haruaki Yanagisawa, Masahide Kikkawa
The outer dynein arm (ODA) is a molecular complex that drives the beating motion of cilia/flagella. Chlamydomonas ODA is composed of three heavy chains (HCs), two ICs, and 11 light chains (LCs). Although the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the whole ODA complex has been investigated, the 3D configurations of the ICs and LCs are largely unknown. Here we identified the 3D positions of the two ICs and three LCs using cryo-electron tomography and structural labeling. We found that these ICs and LCs were all localized at the root of the outer-inner dynein (OID) linker, designated the ODA-Beak complex...
April 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
David M Wong, Lingli Li, Sabine Jurado, Ashleigh King, Rebecca Bamford, Meaghan Wall, Mannu K Walia, Gemma L Kelly, Carl R Walkley, David M Tarlinton, Andreas Strasser, Jörg Heierhorst
How MYC promotes the development of cancer remains to be fully understood. Here, we report that the Zn(2+)-finger transcription factor ASCIZ (ATMIN, ZNF822) synergizes with MYC to activate the expression of dynein light chain (DYNLL1, LC8) in the murine Eμ-Myc model of lymphoma. Deletion of Asciz or Dynll1 prevented the abnormal expansion of pre-B cells in pre-cancerous Eμ-Myc mice and potentiated the pro-apoptotic activity of MYC in pre-leukemic immature B cells. Constitutive loss of Asciz or Dynll1 delayed lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc mice, and induced deletion of Asciz in established lymphomas extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice...
February 16, 2016: Cell Reports
Leon Caly, Vicki T Kassouf, Gregory W Moseley, Russell J Diefenbach, Anthony L Cunningham, David A Jans
Nuclear import of the accessory protein Vpr is central to infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We previously identified the Vpr F72L mutation in a HIV-infected, long-term non-progressor, showing that it resulted in reduced Vpr nuclear accumulation and altered cytoplasmic localisation. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the effects of nuclear accumulation of the F72L mutation are due to impairment of microtubule-dependent-enhancement of Vpr nuclear import. We use high resolution imaging approaches including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and other approaches to document interaction between Vpr and the dynein light chain protein, DYNLT1, and impaired interaction of the F72L mutant with DYNLT1...
February 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xingyu Lu, Huilan Zhang, Manman Lu, Alexander J Vega, Guangjin Hou, Tatyana Polenova
Experimental characterization of one-bond heteronuclear dipolar couplings is essential for structural and dynamics characterization of molecules by solid-state NMR. Accurate measurement of heteronuclear dipolar tensor parameters in magic-angle spinning NMR requires that the recoupling sequences efficiently reintroduce the desired heteronuclear dipolar coupling term, fully suppress other interactions (such as chemical shift anisotropy and homonuclear dipolar couplings), and be insensitive to experimental imperfections, such as radio frequency (rf) field mismatch...
February 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mario T F Pacheco, Kátia L P Morais, Carolina M Berra, Marilene Demasi, Juliana M Sciani, Vania G Branco, Rosemary V Bosch, Asif Iqbal, Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi
The Kunitz-type recombinant protein, Amblyomin-X, is an antitumor recombinant molecule from a cDNA library prepared from the salivary glands of the tick Amblyomma cajennense. The primary target of this protein appears to be the proteasome. Amblyomin-X increased gene and protein expression of distinct subunits of the molecular motor dynein, which plays a key role in the intracellular transport. Herein, Amblyomin-X was specifically taken up by tumor cells through lipid-raft endocytic pathways, but not by fibroblasts...
January 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Kazuhiko Ochiai, Masami Morimatsu, Yuiko Kato, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Chihiro Udagawa, Oumaporn Rungsuriyawiboon, Daigo Azakami, Masaki Michishita, Yuichi Ariyoshi, Hideo Ueki, Yasutomo Nasu, Hiromi Kumon, Masami Watanabe, Toshinori Omi
REIC/DKK-3 is a tumor suppressor, however, its intracellular physiological functions and interacting molecules have not been fully clarified. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA), known as a negative modulator of cytoplasmic androgen receptor (AR) signaling, is a novel interacting partner of REIC/DKK-3. Mammalian two-hybrid and pull-down assay results indicated that the SGTA-REIC/DKK-3 interaction involved the N-terminal regions of both REIC/DKK-3 and SGTA and that REIC/DKK-3 interfered with the dimerization of SGTA, which is a component of the AR complex and a suppressor of dynein motor-dependent AR transport and signaling...
January 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Anna Melkov, Yasmin Simchoni, Yehonatan Alcalay, Uri Abdu
The microtubule (MT) plus-end motor kinesin heavy chain (Khc) is well known for its role in long distance cargo transport. Recent evidence showed that Khc is also required for the organization of the cellular MT network by mediating MT sliding. We found that mutations in Khc and the gene of its adaptor protein, kinesin light chain (Klc) resulted in identical bristle morphology defects, with the upper part of the bristle being thinner and flatter than normal and failing to taper towards the bristle tip. We demonstrate that bristle mitochondria transport requires Khc but not Klc as a competing force to dynein heavy chain (Dhc)...
2015: Biology Open
Ci Liu, Yanbing Zhao, Lijie Chen, Ziwei Zhang, Ming Li, Shu Li
The level of autophagy is considered as an indicator for monitoring the toxic impact of pesticide exposure. Avermectin (AVM), a widely used insecticide, has immunotoxic effects on the pigeon spleen. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of autophagy and the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein1 light chain 3 (LC3), beclin-1, dynein, autophagy associated gene (Atg) 4B, Atg5, target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) and target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) in AVM-treated pigeon spleens...
December 5, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
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