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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766374/perceived-importance-of-substance-use-prevention-in-juvenile-justice-a-multi-level-analysis
#1
Jessica M Sales, Gail Wasserman, Katherine S Elkington, Wayne Lehman, Sheena Gardner, Larkin McReynolds, Tisha Wiley, Hannah Knudsen
BACKGROUND: Youth under juvenile justice (JJ) supervision are at high-risk of adverse outcomes from substance use, making prevention important. Few studies have examined prevention-related attitudes of JJ employees, yet such attitudes may be important for implementing prevention programs. Attitudes toward prevention may reflect individual characteristics and organizational contexts. METHODS: Mixed effects regression was used to analyze data from 492 employees in 36 sites participating in the Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) cooperative agreement...
May 15, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713840/using-goal-achievement-training-in-juvenile-justice-settings-to-improve-substance-use-services-for-youth-on-community-supervision
#2
Jacqueline Horan Fisher, Jennifer E Becan, Philip W Harris, Alexis Nager, Connie Baird-Thomas, Aaron Hogue, John P Bartkowski, Tisha Wiley
BACKGROUND: The link between substance use and involvement in the juvenile justice system has been well established. Justice-involved youth tend to have higher rates of drug use than their non-offending peers. At the same time, continued use can contribute to an elevated risk of recidivism, which leads to further, and oftentimes more serious, involvement with the juvenile justice system. Because of these high rates of use, the juvenile justice system is well positioned to help identify youth with substance use problems and connect them to treatment...
April 30, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692293/understanding-the-link-between-exposure-to-violence-and-aggression-in-justice-involved-adolescents
#3
Tina D Wall Myers, Abigail Salcedo, Paul J Frick, James V Ray, Laura C Thornton, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
The current study advanced research on the link between community violence exposure and aggression by comparing the effects of violence exposure on different functions of aggression and by testing four potential (i.e., callous-unemotional traits, consideration of others, impulse control, and anxiety) mediators of this relationship. Analyses were conducted in an ethnically/racially diverse sample of 1,216 male first-time juvenile offenders (M = 15.30 years, SD = 1.29). Our results indicated that violence exposure had direct effects on both proactive and reactive aggression 18 months later...
May 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665006/police-contacts-arrests-and-decreasing-self-control-and-personal-responsibility-among-female-adolescents
#4
Alison E Hipwell, Joseph Beeney, Feifei Ye, Sabrina H Gebreselassie, Madeline R Stalter, Dyuti Ganesh, Kate Keenan, Stephanie D Stepp
BACKGROUND: Female involvement in the juvenile justice system (JJS) has increased rapidly in recent years. Although deficits in self-control and responsibility are associated with delinquency and higher rates of police contacts and arrests, much of this research has focused on males and/or selected samples of youth who already have a history of JJS involvement. Furthermore, little is known about the extent to which police contacts and arrests may disrupt normative psychosocial maturation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660967/a-call-for-implementing-preferred-practices-for-brain-injury-screening-in-youth-to-improve-transition
#5
Drew A Nagele, Melissa McCart, Stephen R Hooper
BACKGROUND: It is vital to engage in systematic screening to identify and serve children who may have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI) - either traumatic or non-traumatic, so they can be successfully transitioned between environments and life stages. This is particularly important for children and adolescents given the impact an ABI can have on learning and social functioning over the course of the neurodevelopmental process. A pattern of repeated, undiagnosed mild brain injuries may lead to mood or behavior disorders, learning problems...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658091/improving-the-evidence-base-for-services-working-with-youth-at-risk-of-involvement-in-the-criminal-justice-system-developing-a-standardised-program-approach
#6
Alice Knight, Myfanwy Maple, Anthony Shakeshaft, Bernie Shakehsaft, Tania Pearce
BACKGROUND: Young people who engage in multiple risk behaviour (high-risk young people) such as substance abuse, antisocial behaviour, low engagement in education and employment, self-harm or suicide ideation are more likely to experience serious harms later in life including homelessness, incarceration, violence and premature death. In addition to personal disadvantage, these harms represent an avoidable social and economic cost to society. Despite these harms, there is insufficient evidence about how to improve outcomes for high-risk young people...
April 16, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620395/juvenile-probation-officers-evaluation-of-traumatic-event-exposures-and-traumatic-stress-symptoms-as-responsivity-factors-in-risk-assessment-and-case-planning
#7
Evan D Holloway, Keith R Cruise, Samantha L Morin, Holly Kaufman, Richard D Steele
Juvenile probation officers (JPOs) are increasingly using risk/needs assessments to evaluate delinquency risk, identify criminogenic needs and specific responsivity factors, and use this information in case planning. Justice-involved youth are exposed to traumatic events and experience traumatic stress symptoms at a high rate; such information warrants attention during the case planning process. The extent to which JPOs identify specific responsivity factors, in general, and trauma history, specifically, when scoring risk/need assessments is understudied...
April 5, 2018: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552908/restorative-justice-conferencing-not-a-panacea-for-the-overrepresentation-of-australia-s-indigenous-youth-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#8
Simon Little, Anna Stewart, Nicole Ryan
Restorative justice conferencing is a police diversionary strategy used extensively in Australian jurisdictions to channel young offenders away from formal court processing. Advocates view conferencing as culturally appropriate and a means to reduce the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people because it is rooted in Indigenous justice traditions. However, whether conferencing is effective at reducing recidivism by Indigenous young people compared with non-Indigenous young people remains unknown. We examine this using a longitudinal cohort of youth offenders from Australia...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551274/screening-for-chlamydia-gonorrhea-and-high-risk-sexual-behaviors-in-utah-s-juvenile-justice-population-results-and-implications-for-practice
#9
Jennifer M Clifton
Compared with adults, sexually active adolescents are at higher risk of acquiring chlamydia and gonorrhea (CT/GC). Additionally, sex trafficking and sexual violence are serious public health problems. Before this project, no data on the sexual behaviors of adolescents within Utah's Juvenile Justice System had been gathered in a systematic manner that provided a population-based perspective. From July 1, 2015, through December 30, 2016, nurses and staff in 18 Utah Juvenile Justice facilities screened all youth admitted to their facilities...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547077/testing-gender-differentiated-models-of-the-mechanisms-linking-polyvictimization-and-youth-offending-numbing-and-callousness-versus-dissociation-and-borderline-traits
#10
Patricia K Kerig, Crosby A Modrowski
The increasing prevalence of girls in the juvenile justice system suggests the importance of examining whether models of adolescent offending are differentiated by gender. Polyvictimization has emerged as a robust predictor of youth justice involvement, especially for girls, and research exploring mechanisms underlying the link between polyvictimization and offending suggests further gender differences in that callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been implicated in samples of boys whereas borderline personality (BP) traits have been implicated amongst girls...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547076/ptsd-and-dissociation-symptoms-as-mediators-of-the-relationship-between-polyvictimization-and-psychosocial-and-behavioral-problems-among-justice-involved-adolescents
#11
Julian D Ford, Ruby Charak, Crosby A Modrowski, Patricia K Kerig
Polyvictimization (PV) has been shown to be associated with psychosocial and behavioral impairment in community and high risk populations, including youth involved in juvenile justice. However, the mechanisms accounting for these adverse outcomes have not been empirically delineated. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation are documented sequelae of PV and are associated with a wide range of behavioral/emotional problems. This study used a cross-sectional research design and bootstrapped multiple mediation analyses with self-report measures completed by a large sample of justice-involved youth (N = 809, ages 12-19 years old, 27% female, 46...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544377/does-juvenile-detention-impact-health
#12
Titilola Balogun, Catherine Troisi, Michael D Swartz, Linda Lloyd, Rebecca Beyda
Youth involved in the juvenile justice system represent a medically underserved population. Recidivist youth have poorer health outcomes compared to youth detained for the first time. This study determined differences in immunization history, substance use, mental health symptoms, and sexual behavior between recidivist youth and first-time detainees following improvements in intake screenings at a large, urban juvenile detention center in the Southeastern United States. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that recidivist youth had significantly higher acellular pertussis immunization rates compared with first-time detainees (odds ratio [ OR] = 3...
April 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542391/reclaiming-gender-and-power-in-sexual-violence-prevention-in-adolescence
#13
Elizabeth Miller
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540121/psychotropic-polypharmacy-among-youths-with-serious-emotional-and-behavioral-disorders-receiving-coordinated-care-services
#14
Benjamin Wu, Eric J Bruns, Ming-Hui Tai, Bethany R Lee, Ramesh Raghavan, Susan dosReis
OBJECTIVE: The study examined differences in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who received coordinated care services (CCS) that used a wraparound model and a matched sample of youths who received traditional services. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design compared psychotropic polypharmacy one year before and one year after discharge from CCS. The cohort was youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who were enrolled in CCS from December 2009 through May 2014...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533841/poly-victimization-and-trajectories-of-binge-drinking-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-among-serious-juvenile-offenders
#15
Jordan P Davis, Tara M Dumas, Benjamin Berey, Gabriel J Merrin, Kevin Tan, Danielle R Madden
BACKGROUND: Justice involved youth exposed to multiple forms of victimization (i.e., poly-victimization) may be at risk for long term substance use problems and difficulty in self-regulation, placing them at higher risk of long-term problematic behaviors. This study empirically identifies victimization classifications in a sample of justice involved youth and how long-term binge drinking is related to victimization experiences. We further sought to understand how self-regulatory abilities such as impulse control and emotion regulation effect emergent profiles and binge drinking trajectories...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509061/the-observed-longitudinal-relationship-between-future-orientation-and-substance-use-among-a-cohort-of-youth-with-serious-criminal-offenses
#16
Merrian Brooks, Elizabeth Miller, Kaleab Abebe, Edward Mulvey
BACKGROUND: Future orientation (FO), an essential construct in youth development, encompassing goals, expectations for life, and ability to plan for the future. This study uses a multidimensional measure of future orientation to assess the relationship between change in future orientation and change in substance use over time. METHODS: Data were from the Pathways to Desistence study. Justice involved youth (n = 1,354), ages 14 to 18 at time of recruitment, completed interviews every six months for three years...
March 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508479/racism-health-a-public-health-perspective-on-racial-discrimination
#17
Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah, Jan Lewis
Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504782/immigration-policy-practices-and-procedures-the-impact-on-the-mental-health-of-mexican-and-central-american-youth-and-families
#18
Stephanie A Torres, Catherine DeCarlo Santiago, Katherine Kaufka Walts, Maryse H Richards
Currently, 15 million Mexican and Central American individuals live in the United States, with this number projected to rise in the next few decades (Lesser & Batalova, 2017; Zong & Batalova, 2017). Research has begun to investigate the impact of the nation's immigration practices and policies on immigrant Latino/a families and youth. Current immigration policies can create vulnerabilities, including fear and mistrust, discrimination, limited access to services, parent-child separation, and poverty...
March 5, 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498649/violent-and-non-violent-criminal-behavior-among-young-chinese-drug-users-a-mixed-methods-study
#19
Liu Liu, Wing Hong Chui, Ye Chen
Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469580/the-psychometric-properties-of-the-personality-assessment-inventory-adolescent-s-borderline-features-scale-across-two-high-risk-samples
#20
Amanda Venta, Melissa Magyar, Shabnam Hossein, Carla Sharp
The present study sought to assess the performance of the Borderline Features (BOR) Scale of the adolescent version of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 2007b) in 2 high-risk samples: inpatient and justice-involved adolescents. This study is the first to evaluate the BOR scale in high-risk adolescent samples, outside the initial standardization studies. Across both samples (NClinical = 327, NForensic = 151), results indicated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated poor fit of the 4-factor structure proposed by the measure's authors...
February 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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