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Youth justice

Patricia K Kerig, Crosby A Modrowski
The increasing prevalence of girls in the juvenile justice system suggests the importance of examining whether models of adolescent offending are differentiated by gender. Polyvictimization has emerged as a robust predictor of youth justice involvement, especially for girls, and research exploring mechanisms underlying the link between polyvictimization and offending suggests further gender differences in that callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been implicated in samples of boys whereas borderline personality (BP) traits have been implicated amongst girls...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Julian D Ford, Ruby Charak, Crosby A Modrowski, Patricia K Kerig
Polyvictimization (PV) has been shown to be associated with psychosocial and behavioral impairment in community and high risk populations, including youth involved in juvenile justice. However, the mechanisms accounting for these adverse outcomes have not been empirically delineated. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation are documented sequelae of PV and are associated with a wide range of behavioral/emotional problems. This study used a cross-sectional research design and bootstrapped multiple mediation analyses with self-report measures completed by a large sample of justice-involved youth (N = 809, ages 12-19 years old, 27% female, 46...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Titilola Balogun, Catherine Troisi, Michael D Swartz, Linda Lloyd, Rebecca Beyda
Youth involved in the juvenile justice system represent a medically underserved population. Recidivist youth have poorer health outcomes compared to youth detained for the first time. This study determined differences in immunization history, substance use, mental health symptoms, and sexual behavior between recidivist youth and first-time detainees following improvements in intake screenings at a large, urban juvenile detention center in the Southeastern United States. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that recidivist youth had significantly higher acellular pertussis immunization rates compared with first-time detainees (odds ratio [ OR] = 3...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Elizabeth Miller
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Benjamin Wu, Eric J Bruns, Ming-Hui Tai, Bethany R Lee, Ramesh Raghavan, Susan dosReis
OBJECTIVE: The study examined differences in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who received coordinated care services (CCS) that used a wraparound model and a matched sample of youths who received traditional services. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design compared psychotropic polypharmacy one year before and one year after discharge from CCS. The cohort was youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who were enrolled in CCS from December 2009 through May 2014...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Jordan P Davis, Tara M Dumas, Benjamin Berey, Gabriel J Merrin, Kevin Tan, Danielle R Madden
BACKGROUND: Justice involved youth exposed to multiple forms of victimization (i.e., poly-victimization) may be at risk for long term substance use problems and difficulty in self-regulation, placing them at higher risk of long-term problematic behaviors. This study empirically identifies victimization classifications in a sample of justice involved youth and how long-term binge drinking is related to victimization experiences. We further sought to understand how self-regulatory abilities such as impulse control and emotion regulation effect emergent profiles and binge drinking trajectories...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Merrian Brooks, Elizabeth Miller, Kaleab Abebe, Edward Mulvey
BACKGROUND: Future orientation (FO), an essential construct in youth development, encompassing goals, expectations for life, and ability to plan for the future. This study uses a multidimensional measure of future orientation to assess the relationship between change in future orientation and change in substance use over time. METHODS: Data were from the Pathways to Desistence study. Justice involved youth (n = 1,354), ages 14 to 18 at time of recruitment, completed interviews every six months for three years...
March 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Stefania Sarsah Cobbinah, Jan Lewis
Racial discrimination has been increasingly reported to have a causal link with morbidity and mortality of Black Americans, yet this issue is rarely addressed in a public health perspective. Racism affects health at different levels: institutional racism is a structural and legalized system that results in differential access to health services; cultural racism refers to the negative racial stereotypes, often reinforced by media, that results in poorer psychological and physiological wellbeing of the minorities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Stephanie A Torres, Catherine DeCarlo Santiago, Katherine Kaufka Walts, Maryse H Richards
Currently, 15 million Mexican and Central American individuals live in the United States, with this number projected to rise in the next few decades (Lesser & Batalova, 2017; Zong & Batalova, 2017). Research has begun to investigate the impact of the nation's immigration practices and policies on immigrant Latino/a families and youth. Current immigration policies can create vulnerabilities, including fear and mistrust, discrimination, limited access to services, parent-child separation, and poverty...
March 5, 2018: American Psychologist
Liu Liu, Wing Hong Chui, Ye Chen
Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amanda Venta, Melissa Magyar, Shabnam Hossein, Carla Sharp
The present study sought to assess the performance of the Borderline Features (BOR) Scale of the adolescent version of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 2007b) in 2 high-risk samples: inpatient and justice-involved adolescents. This study is the first to evaluate the BOR scale in high-risk adolescent samples, outside the initial standardization studies. Across both samples (NClinical = 327, NForensic = 151), results indicated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated poor fit of the 4-factor structure proposed by the measure's authors...
February 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Sterling Quinn, Nathaniel Swain
Research suggests that transgender young offenders are a uniquely vulnerable caseload that may benefit from speech pathology intervention to help bring their voice into alignment with their gender identity. However, no previous studies have investigated treatment efficacy in this population. This study investigated the impact of intensive voice feminisation therapy targeting fundamental frequency and oral resonance in a 17 year old transgender individual within a youth justice institution. Acoustic analysis, listener and self-ratings of vocal femininity, self-ratings of vocal satisfaction, a post-treatment structured interview, and pre- and post- treatment completion of the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) were utilised to determine treatment impact...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Stephane Shepherd, Benjamin Spivak, Rohan Borschmann, Stuart A Kinner, Henning Hachtel
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and correlates of self-harm among young people in detention in Australia. The sample included 215 (177 male; 38 female) young people who were in youth detention in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were administered a series of questionnaires related to self-harm, mental health, socio-environmental experiences and behaviours. Overall, one-third (33%) of the sample reported previous self-harm and 12% reported at least one suicide attempt...
2018: PloS One
Roy F Oman, Sara K Vesely, Jennifer Green, Kristen Clements-Nolle, Minggen Lu
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the Power Through Choices (PTC) intervention can increase the use of birth control and reduce pregnancy among system-involved youths living in group care homes. METHODS: We performed a 2-arm cluster randomized controlled trial involving group care homes operated by child welfare or juvenile justice systems in California, Maryland, and Oklahoma with assessments immediately before and after the intervention, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up...
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Carol Bower, Rochelle E Watkins, Raewyn C Mutch, Rhonda Marriott, Jacinta Freeman, Natalie R Kippin, Bernadette Safe, Carmela Pestell, Candy S C Cheung, Helen Shield, Lodewicka Tarratt, Alex Springall, Jasmine Taylor, Noni Walker, Emma Argiro, Suze Leitão, Sharynne Hamilton, Carmen Condon, Hayley M Passmore, Roslyn Giglia
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) among young people in youth detention in Australia. Neurodevelopmental impairments due to FASD can predispose young people to engagement with the law. Canadian studies identified FASD in 11%-23% of young people in corrective services, but there are no data for Australia. DESIGN: Multidisciplinary assessment of all young people aged 10-17 years 11 months and sentenced to detention in the only youth detention centre in Western Australia, from May 2015 to December 2016...
February 13, 2018: BMJ Open
David A Wolfe
The five important papers in this series reflect the evolving state of research on violence and victimization. Their findings and methods underscore the importance of studying poly-victimization as the more encompassing genesis of harm across stages of development, rather than singular, isolated events. That is, children and youth who experience one type of violence are more likely than not to have experienced (or will experience) many others. Poly-victimized children become victims of further abuse and trauma and, in turn, are at increased risk of becoming perpetrators toward peers and future partners...
March 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Patricia K Kerig
A recent dramatic rise in girls' arrests has increased our need to examine whether our models of youth justice system involvement need to be differentiated by gender. Polyvictimization, in particular, has been implicated as a powerful predictor of youth problem behavior. However, recent research suggests that polyvictimization is associated with youth involvement in the justice system in ways that differ for girls at the levels of the independent variables (i.e., the sources of risk), the dependent variables (i...
March 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Geri Donenberg, Erin Emerson, Ashley D Kendall
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual risk taking, increasing the possibility of HIV. This 2-arm group randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of PHAT Life, a sexual risk reduction program, compared with a time-matched health promotion program for youth on probation. METHOD: Male and female 13- to 17-year-olds (M = 16.08; SD = 1.09) recently arrested and placed on probation at an Evening Reporting Center were eligible for the study. Youth were 66% male, and 90% African American...
February 1, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Lushan V Hettiarachchi, Stuart A Kinner, Holly Tibble, Rohan Borschmann
Self-harm is prevalent in incarcerated adults, yet comparatively few studies of self-harm in detained youth (and even fewer in low- and middle-income countries) have been published. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a sample of 181 young people (mean age 15.0 years, SD = 2.3) detained in the youth justice system in Sri Lanka. Structured face-to-face questionnaires assessed demographic characteristics, family and social background, substance use, self-harm history (including frequency, method, and intention), bullying victimization, physical and sexual abuse (victimization and perpetration), and exposure to self-harm/suicide by others...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jordan M Braciszewski, Golfo K Tzilos Wernette, Roland S Moore, Tanya B Tran, Beth C Bock, Robert L Stout, Patricia Chamberlain, Adam Vose-O'Neal
Youth who are aging out of the foster care system face significant barriers to accessing substance use treatment. Mobile interventions have shown efficacy for several mental and physical health issues and may be helpful in overcoming barriers facing foster youth with substance use problems. A program (iHeLP) for substance use reduction was developed that used a computerized screening and brief intervention (SBI) followed by six months of dynamically-tailored text messages. The program was shown to focus groups of youth (N = 24) ages 18-19 who recently left foster care and had moderate to severe substance use risk...
January 19, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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