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Youth justice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060202/the-relationship-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-criminality-in-juvenile-offenders
#1
Wayne A Gordon, Lisa A Spielman, Amanda E Hahn-Ketter, Karla Therese L Sy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and criminal behavior in youth who are incarcerated or on probation in Texas. SETTING: Seven juvenile justice facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Juvenile offenders in state or county correctional facilities or on probation. DESIGN: Screening for TBI was conducted among adolescents at 7 juvenile justice centers. MAIN MEASURES: Participants were administered the Brain Injury Screening Questionnaire, and results were linked to participants' offense history and psychiatric diagnoses...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044032/overcoming-challenges-to-care-in-the-juvenile-justice-system-a-case-study-and-commentary
#2
Rebekah J Savage, Jasmine M Reese, Stephenie Wallace, Timothy Wang, Traci Jester, Robert Lowe, LaKeshia Hyndman, Nefertiti Durant
Youth in the criminal justice system commonly suffer from multiple medical and psychological health problems. Because they likely live in lower socioeconomic environments, the medical care they receive through the justice system might be their only recent medical care and can result in the discovery of health problems or chronic illnesses that must be managed while in the system and beyond. We describe the case of an adolescent diagnosed with a serious chronic disease during his time in an urban detention center to illustrate how health workers and justice staff must use a team approach in caring for this vulnerable population of children...
January 2017: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024682/coming-of-age-women-s-sexual-and-reproductive-health-after-twenty-one-years-of-democracy-in-south-africa
#3
Diane Cooper, Jane Harries, Jennifer Moodley, Deborah Constant, Rebecca Hodes, Cathy Mathews, Chelsea Morroni, Margaret Hoffman
This paper is a sequel to a 2004 article that reviewed South Africa's introduction of new sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights laws, policies and programmes, a decade into democracy. Similarly to the previous article, this paper focuses on key areas of women's SRH: contraception and fertility, abortion, maternal health, HIV, cervical and breast cancer and sexual violence. In the last decade, South Africa has retained and expanded its sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) policies in the areas of abortion, contraception, youth and HIV treatment (with the largest antiretroviral treatment programme in the world)...
November 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017908/the-child-protection-and-juvenile-justice-nexus-in-australia-a-longitudinal-examination-of-the-relationship-between-maltreatment-and-offending
#4
Catia G Malvaso, Paul H Delfabbro, Andrew Day
There is convincing evidence that many young people who are in the justice system have had contact with child protection services and that victims of childhood maltreatment are at increased risk of subsequent youth justice involvement. In Australia, however, there have been few longitudinal studies that have examined these associations and relatively less is known in this area. This study examines the overlap between the child protection and youth justice involvement in South Australia, and determines how substantiated maltreatment and variations in these experiences (e...
December 22, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003390/diagnostic-changes-to-dsm-5-the-potential-impact-on-juvenile-justice
#5
Emily Haney-Caron, Leah Brogan, Amanda NeMoyer, Sharon Kelley, Kirk Heilbrun
Legal decision-makers have discretion at every stage of processing in the juvenile justice system, and individual youth characteristics (e.g., a particular psychiatric diagnosis) influence how a youth progresses through the system. As a result, changes in diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) may affect the rates of diagnoses among justice-involved youths and subsequently influence youths' experiences within the justice system. In this article, we identify the diagnoses most likely to exert such influences and review the prevalence of diagnosis and psychiatric disorder symptomatology in justice-involved youths...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997232/human-trafficking-of-minors-and-childhood-adversity-in-florida
#6
Joan A Reid, Michael T Baglivio, Alex R Piquero, Mark A Greenwald, Nathan Epps
OBJECTIVES: To examine the link between human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity. METHODS: We compared the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cumulative childhood adversity (ACE score) among a sample of 913 juvenile justice-involved boys and girls in Florida for whom the Florida child abuse hotline accepted human trafficking abuse reports between 2009 and 2015 with those of a matched sample. RESULTS: ACE composite scores were higher and 6 ACEs indicative of child maltreatment were more prevalent among youths who had human trafficking abuse reports...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988206/what-do-pediatric-residents-gain-from-an-experience-in-juvenile-justice-a-qualitative-analysis-of-community-based-learning
#7
Elizabeth R Hanson, Erin P Finley, Jean A Petershack
BACKGROUND: Training in advocacy and community pediatrics often involves the use of community site visits. However, data on the specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained from these experiences are limited. In this study we use qualitative analysis of written narratives to explore the response of residents to a juvenile justice experience. METHODS: Pediatric residents participated in a week-long experience in the juvenile probation department and completed a written narrative...
December 14, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977225/the-role-of-mental-health-and-specific-responsivity-in-juvenile-justice-rehabilitation
#8
Sarah McCormick, Michele Peterson-Badali, Tracey A Skilling
Understanding the role that mental health issues play in justice-involved youth poses challenges for research, policy, and practice. While mental health problems are generally not risk factors for criminal behavior according to the risk-needs-responsivity (RNR) framework of correctional psychology practice, prevalence rates are very high and RNR principles suggest that mental health as a responsivity variable may moderate the success of interventions targeted to criminogenic needs. In this study we investigated the relationships among mental health status, criminogenic needs treatment, and recidivism in a sample of 232 youth referred for court-ordered assessments and followed through their community supervision sentence (probation)...
December 15, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921348/the-early-memories-of-warmth-and-safeness-scale-for-adolescents-cross-sample-validation-of-the-complete-and-brief-versions
#9
Paula Vagos, Diana Ribeiro da Silva, Nélio Brazão, Daniel Rijo, Paul Gilbert
: This work presents psychometric analyses on the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale, which intends to evaluate the subjective perception of ones' early rearing experiences. Factor structure, measurement invariance, latent mean comparisons and validity in relation to external variables (i.e., forms of self-criticism/self-assurance, experiential avoidance and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms) were investigated. A sample of 1464 adolescents (52.3% male adolescents, mean age = 16...
December 6, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876062/elevated-risk-of-incarceration-among-street-involved-youth-who-initiate-drug-dealing
#10
Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872274/voices-through-cameras-using-photovoice-to-explore-food-justice-issues-with-minority-youth-in-east-harlem-new-york
#11
May May Leung, Alen Agaronov, Tara Entwistle, Lorene Harry, Julie Sharkey-Buckley, Nicholas Freudenberg
Engaging and empowering youth to promote health could be important in promoting sustainable positive behaviors. Photovoice is a community-based participatory research tool giving priority populations opportunities for active community engagement and advocacy through photography. Our project objective was to better understand youth perceptions related to food justice within their own community and identify solutions to promote positive change, using photovoice. Twelve minority youth from a low-income New York City neighborhood participated...
November 21, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864532/the-impact-of-types-and-extent-of-trauma-on-depressive-affect-among-male-juvenile-sexual-offenders
#12
Jennifer W Jencks, George S Leibowitz
High levels of depression have been found among incarcerated youth, which suggests that mental health problems are associated with delinquent behavior and are part of a constellation of risk factors that contribute to youth entering the juvenile justice system. In this project, we investigated trauma and mental health issues among male youth in residential treatment, and addressed the following questions: (a) Does childhood trauma predict current depression for male juvenile sexual offenders? (b) If so, do different types of traumas predict depressive affect better than others? and, (c) Does extent of trauma exposure predict depression? Data on incarcerated male juvenile sexual offenders were analyzed (n = 379)...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862005/predicting-homelessness-among-emerging-adults-aging-out-of-foster-care
#13
Melissa Ford Shah, Qinghua Liu, J Mark Eddy, Susan Barkan, David Marshall, David Mancuso, Barbara Lucenko, Alice Huber
This study examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after "aging out" of foster care. Using a state-level integrated administrative database, we identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. Initial bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between candidate predictive factors and an indicator of homelessness in a 12-month follow-up period. After deploying a stepwise regression process, the final logistic regression model included 15 predictive factors...
November 10, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844248/the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-involvement-in-the-criminal-justice-system-among-youth-on-the-autism-spectrum
#14
Julianna Rava, Paul Shattuck, Jessica Rast, Anne Roux
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of involvement in the criminal justice system among a nationally representative sample of youth with autism. We examined whether youth had been stopped and questioned by police or arrested at 14-15 years old and 21-22 years old. By age 21, approximately 20% of youth with autism had been stopped and questioned by police and nearly 5% had been arrested. Female youth were less likely to be involved in the criminal justice system, whereas youth displaying externalizing behaviors were more likely to be involved in the criminal justice system...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822300/mental-health-problems-in-male-young-offenders-in-custodial-versus-community-based-programs-implications-for-juvenile-justice-interventions
#15
Daniel Rijo, Nélio Brazão, Ricardo Barroso, Diana Ribeiro da Silva, Paula Vagos, Ana Vieira, Ana Lavado, Ana Margarida Macedo
BACKGROUND: Young offenders are known to be a population with high prevalence of mental health disorders. In most cases, these disorders are neither identified nor treated properly, with the majority of them being chronic and difficult to treat. In many countries, the prevalence rates of psychopathology in male young offenders are still unknown and no psychotherapeutic interventions are delivered. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to assess mental health problems in Portuguese male young offenders placed in either custodial or community-based programs and discuss treatment implications within the juvenile justice interventions...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797547/risk-assessment-matters-but-only-when-implemented-well-a-multisite-study-in-juvenile-probation
#16
Gina M Vincent, Laura S Guy, Rachael T Perrault, Bernice Gershenson
There is a strong movement toward juvenile justice agencies' use of risk assessment and risk-need-responsivity approaches to improve case management decisions for young offenders. However, little is known about whether adoption of risk assessment actually effectuates any changes in the way young offenders are handled. This was a multisite study of the impact on case processing of implementation of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) or Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory in 6 juvenile probation offices using a prepost design and 1,694 propensity score-matched young offenders...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750182/prevalence-and-correlates-of-substance-use-among-youth-living-with-hiv-in-clinical-settings
#17
Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727266/-adhd-and-illegal-conduct-a-survey-in-juvenile-justice-services-in-puglia
#18
Felice Carabellese, Donatella La Tegola, Lucia Margari, Francesco Craig, Alessio Ostuni, Ermenegilda Scardaccione, Francesca Perrini, Francesco Margari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify possible risk factors related to carrying out of illegal conducts by minors on their first offense, and any individual variables, family, economic and socio-cultural related to phenomenon also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The longitudinal study involved the acquisition of a series of biographical information, family, school, behavioral and clinical characteristics of children on their first crime recruited over a year in Puglia Region...
July 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716175/relationship-between-massachusetts-youth-screening-instrument-second-version-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-youths-in-welfare-and-juvenile-justice-institutions-in-switzerland
#19
L E W Leenarts, C Dölitzsch, K Schmeck, J M Fegert, T Grisso, M Schmid
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that it is important to have well-standardized procedures for identifying the mental health needs of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. One of the most widely used tools for mental health screening in the juvenile justice system is the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2). To contribute to the body of research examining the utility of the MAYSI-2 as a mental health screening tool; the first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the MAYSI-2 and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) in a sample of Swiss youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions using a cross-sectional design...
September 30, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712690/altering-the-life-course-military-service-and-contact-with-the-criminal-justice-system
#20
Jay Teachman, Lucky Tedrow
Using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the relationship between military service and contact with the criminal justice system. Drawing on the life course concept of a turning point, we show that military service does little to affect the risk of being arrested or being convicted of crimes involving violence or destructive behavior, while at the same time significantly reducing the risk of being arrested or being convicted of non-violent crimes. We find no evidence that service in a combat zone alters these relationships...
November 2016: Social Science Research
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