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Youth justice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921348/the-early-memories-of-warmth-and-safeness-scale-for-adolescents-cross-sample-validation-of-the-complete-and-brief-versions
#1
Paula Vagos, Diana Ribeiro da Silva, Nélio Brazão, Daniel Rijo, Paul Gilbert
: This work presents psychometric analyses on the Early Memories of Warmth and Safeness Scale, which intends to evaluate the subjective perception of ones' early rearing experiences. Factor structure, measurement invariance, latent mean comparisons and validity in relation to external variables (i.e., forms of self-criticism/self-assurance, experiential avoidance and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms) were investigated. A sample of 1464 adolescents (52.3% male adolescents, mean age = 16...
December 6, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876062/elevated-risk-of-incarceration-among-street-involved-youth-who-initiate-drug-dealing
#2
Carly Hoy, Brittany Barker, Jackie Regan, Huiru Dong, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
BACKGROUND: Street-involved youth are known to be an economically vulnerable population that commonly resorts to risky activities such as drug dealing to generate income. While incarceration is common among people who use illicit drugs and associated with increased economic vulnerability, interventions among this population remain inadequate. Although previous research has documented the role of incarceration in further entrenching youth in both the criminal justice system and street life, less is known whether recent incarceration predicts initiating drug dealing among vulnerable youth...
November 22, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872274/voices-through-cameras-using-photovoice-to-explore-food-justice-issues-with-minority-youth-in-east-harlem-new-york
#3
May May Leung, Alen Agaronov, Tara Entwistle, Lorene Harry, Julie Sharkey-Buckley, Nicholas Freudenberg
Engaging and empowering youth to promote health could be important in promoting sustainable positive behaviors. Photovoice is a community-based participatory research tool giving priority populations opportunities for active community engagement and advocacy through photography. Our project objective was to better understand youth perceptions related to food justice within their own community and identify solutions to promote positive change, using photovoice. Twelve minority youth from a low-income New York City neighborhood participated...
November 21, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864532/the-impact-of-types-and-extent-of-trauma-on-depressive-affect-among-male-juvenile-sexual-offenders
#4
Jennifer W Jencks, George S Leibowitz
High levels of depression have been found among incarcerated youth, which suggests that mental health problems are associated with delinquent behavior and are part of a constellation of risk factors that contribute to youth entering the juvenile justice system. In this project, we investigated trauma and mental health issues among male youth in residential treatment, and addressed the following questions: (a) Does childhood trauma predict current depression for male juvenile sexual offenders? (b) If so, do different types of traumas predict depressive affect better than others? and, (c) Does extent of trauma exposure predict depression? Data on incarcerated male juvenile sexual offenders were analyzed (n = 379)...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862005/predicting-homelessness-among-emerging-adults-aging-out-of-foster-care
#5
Melissa Ford Shah, Qinghua Liu, J Mark Eddy, Susan Barkan, David Marshall, David Mancuso, Barbara Lucenko, Alice Huber
This study examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after "aging out" of foster care. Using a state-level integrated administrative database, we identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. Initial bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between candidate predictive factors and an indicator of homelessness in a 12-month follow-up period. After deploying a stepwise regression process, the final logistic regression model included 15 predictive factors...
November 10, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844248/the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-involvement-in-the-criminal-justice-system-among-youth-on-the-autism-spectrum
#6
Julianna Rava, Paul Shattuck, Jessica Rast, Anne Roux
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of involvement in the criminal justice system among a nationally representative sample of youth with autism. We examined whether youth had been stopped and questioned by police or arrested at 14-15 years old and 21-22 years old. By age 21, approximately 20% of youth with autism had been stopped and questioned by police and nearly 5% had been arrested. Female youth were less likely to be involved in the criminal justice system, whereas youth displaying externalizing behaviors were more likely to be involved in the criminal justice system...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822300/mental-health-problems-in-male-young-offenders-in-custodial-versus-community-based-programs-implications-for-juvenile-justice-interventions
#7
Daniel Rijo, Nélio Brazão, Ricardo Barroso, Diana Ribeiro da Silva, Paula Vagos, Ana Vieira, Ana Lavado, Ana Margarida Macedo
BACKGROUND: Young offenders are known to be a population with high prevalence of mental health disorders. In most cases, these disorders are neither identified nor treated properly, with the majority of them being chronic and difficult to treat. In many countries, the prevalence rates of psychopathology in male young offenders are still unknown and no psychotherapeutic interventions are delivered. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to assess mental health problems in Portuguese male young offenders placed in either custodial or community-based programs and discuss treatment implications within the juvenile justice interventions...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797547/risk-assessment-matters-but-only-when-implemented-well-a-multisite-study-in-juvenile-probation
#8
Gina M Vincent, Laura S Guy, Rachael T Perrault, Bernice Gershenson
There is a strong movement toward juvenile justice agencies' use of risk assessment and risk-need-responsivity approaches to improve case management decisions for young offenders. However, little is known about whether adoption of risk assessment actually effectuates any changes in the way young offenders are handled. This was a multisite study of the impact on case processing of implementation of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) or Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory in 6 juvenile probation offices using a prepost design and 1,694 propensity score-matched young offenders...
December 2016: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750182/prevalence-and-correlates-of-substance-use-among-youth-living-with-hiv-in-clinical-settings
#9
Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727266/-adhd-and-illegal-conduct-a-survey-in-juvenile-justice-services-in-puglia
#10
Felice Carabellese, Donatella La Tegola, Lucia Margari, Francesco Craig, Alessio Ostuni, Ermenegilda Scardaccione, Francesca Perrini, Francesco Margari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify possible risk factors related to carrying out of illegal conducts by minors on their first offense, and any individual variables, family, economic and socio-cultural related to phenomenon also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The longitudinal study involved the acquisition of a series of biographical information, family, school, behavioral and clinical characteristics of children on their first crime recruited over a year in Puglia Region...
July 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716175/relationship-between-massachusetts-youth-screening-instrument-second-version-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-youths-in-welfare-and-juvenile-justice-institutions-in-switzerland
#11
L E W Leenarts, C Dölitzsch, K Schmeck, J M Fegert, T Grisso, M Schmid
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that it is important to have well-standardized procedures for identifying the mental health needs of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. One of the most widely used tools for mental health screening in the juvenile justice system is the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2). To contribute to the body of research examining the utility of the MAYSI-2 as a mental health screening tool; the first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the MAYSI-2 and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) in a sample of Swiss youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions using a cross-sectional design...
September 30, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712690/altering-the-life-course-military-service-and-contact-with-the-criminal-justice-system
#12
Jay Teachman, Lucky Tedrow
Using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the relationship between military service and contact with the criminal justice system. Drawing on the life course concept of a turning point, we show that military service does little to affect the risk of being arrested or being convicted of crimes involving violence or destructive behavior, while at the same time significantly reducing the risk of being arrested or being convicted of non-violent crimes. We find no evidence that service in a combat zone alters these relationships...
November 2016: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712123/intervening-to-address-communication-difficulties-in-incarcerated-youth-a-phase-1-clinical-trial
#13
Pamela C Snow, Mary N Woodward
PURPOSE: Although a number of studies have described high rates of wide-ranging language difficulties in youth offender samples, minimal intervention research has been conducted with this population. The aim of this study was to implement a small-scale speech-language pathology (SLP) intervention study in a secure youth justice facility and to identify key practical challenges associated with conducting SLP interventions in youth custodial settings. METHOD: Six young males were recruited and underwent assessment via a range of standardised and self-report communication measures...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701919/caring-for-juveniles-with-mental-disorders-in-adult-corrections-facilities
#14
Cheryl D Wills
Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice...
October 5, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684211/can-probation-officers-identify-remorse-among-male-adolescent-offenders
#15
Adam Fine, Caitlin Cavanagh, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Judgments about a youth's level of remorse are frequently used to make important decisions in the juvenile justice system that can have serious consequences to the person. Unfortunately, little is known about these ratings and what factors may influence them. In a sample of 325 1st-time youth offenders who were arrested for offenses of moderate severity, we tested whether probation officers' ratings of an adolescent's remorse soon after arrest were associated with the youth's self-report of showing a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, being arrested for a violent offense, and several demographic and background characteristics (e...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670664/understanding-the-influence-of-mental-health-diagnosis-and-gender-on-placement-decisions-for-justice-involved-youth
#16
Samantha M Kempker, Adam T Schmidt, Erin M Espinosa
Justice-involved youth have high rates of psychiatric diagnoses, and these youth are often placed out-of-home, although evidence identifies several negative implications of juvenile confinement, especially for youth with psychopathology. Furthermore, youth in the justice system may be processed differently based on gender. As males and females tend to manifest symptoms differently, the psychopathology of youth may act to moderate the relationship between gender and placement in the juvenile justice system. The present study used a large, diverse sample (n = 9 851, 19...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665279/racial-ethnic-disproportionality-in-psychiatric-diagnoses-and-treatment-in-a-sample-of-serious-juvenile-offenders
#17
Michael T Baglivio, Kevin T Wolff, Alex R Piquero, Mark A Greenwald, Nathan Epps
Psychiatric disorder prevalence has been shown demonstrably higher among justice-involved adolescents than youth in the general population. Yet, among arrested juveniles, little is known regarding racial/ethnic differences in disorder prevalence, the role of trauma exposure in the diagnosis of behavioral disorders, or subsequent psychiatric treatment provided to adolescents with such diagnoses. The current study examines racial/ethnic disparity in psychiatric diagnoses and treatment of behavioral disorders associated with delinquency, controlling for traumatic experiences, behavioral indicators, and prior offending among serious juvenile offenders...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664466/international-youth-justice-systems-promoting-youth-development-and-alternative-approaches-a-position-paper-of-the-society-for-adolescent-health-and-medicine
#18
(no author information available yet)
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664465/from-advocacy-to-action-in-global-adolescent-health
#19
George C Patton, Susan M Sawyer, David A Ross, Russell M Viner, John S Santelli
In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619801/family-centered-care-in-juvenile-justice-institutions-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol
#20
Inge Simons, Eva Mulder, Henk Rigter, René Breuk, Wander van der Vaart, Robert Vermeiren
BACKGROUND: Treatment and rehabilitation interventions in juvenile justice institutions aim to prevent criminal reoffending by adolescents and to enhance their prospects of successful social reintegration. There is evidence that these goals are best achieved when the institution adopts a family-centered approach, involving the parents of the adolescents. The Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth has developed two programs for family-centered care for youth detained in groups for short-term and long-term stay, respectively...
September 12, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
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