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Youth justice

Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Felice Carabellese, Donatella La Tegola, Lucia Margari, Francesco Craig, Alessio Ostuni, Ermenegilda Scardaccione, Francesca Perrini, Francesco Margari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify possible risk factors related to carrying out of illegal conducts by minors on their first offense, and any individual variables, family, economic and socio-cultural related to phenomenon also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The longitudinal study involved the acquisition of a series of biographical information, family, school, behavioral and clinical characteristics of children on their first crime recruited over a year in Puglia Region...
July 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
L E W Leenarts, C Dölitzsch, K Schmeck, J M Fegert, T Grisso, M Schmid
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that it is important to have well-standardized procedures for identifying the mental health needs of youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions. One of the most widely used tools for mental health screening in the juvenile justice system is the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2). To contribute to the body of research examining the utility of the MAYSI-2 as a mental health screening tool; the first objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between the MAYSI-2 and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) in a sample of Swiss youths in welfare and juvenile justice institutions using a cross-sectional design...
September 30, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jay Teachman, Lucky Tedrow
Using data taken from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we examine the relationship between military service and contact with the criminal justice system. Drawing on the life course concept of a turning point, we show that military service does little to affect the risk of being arrested or being convicted of crimes involving violence or destructive behavior, while at the same time significantly reducing the risk of being arrested or being convicted of non-violent crimes. We find no evidence that service in a combat zone alters these relationships...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Pamela C Snow, Mary N Woodward
PURPOSE: Although a number of studies have described high rates of wide-ranging language difficulties in youth offender samples, minimal intervention research has been conducted with this population. The aim of this study was to implement a small-scale speech-language pathology (SLP) intervention study in a secure youth justice facility and to identify key practical challenges associated with conducting SLP interventions in youth custodial settings. METHOD: Six young males were recruited and underwent assessment via a range of standardised and self-report communication measures...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Cheryl D Wills
Although juveniles have developmental, educational, healthcare, and rehabilitation needs that differ from adults, thousands of them have been confined in adult corrections facilities in the past 30 years. This manuscript will review how and why juveniles end up in adult corrections facilities, who they are, their rehabilitative needs, and how they differ from adults in corrections facilities and youths in the juvenile justice system. The importance of providing developmentally-informed mental health services to youths in adult corrections facilities is examined, along with barriers to traditional adolescent psychiatric practice...
October 5, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Adam Fine, Caitlin Cavanagh, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Judgments about a youth's level of remorse are frequently used to make important decisions in the juvenile justice system that can have serious consequences to the person. Unfortunately, little is known about these ratings and what factors may influence them. In a sample of 325 1st-time youth offenders who were arrested for offenses of moderate severity, we tested whether probation officers' ratings of an adolescent's remorse soon after arrest were associated with the youth's self-report of showing a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, being arrested for a violent offense, and several demographic and background characteristics (e...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Samantha M Kempker, Adam T Schmidt, Erin M Espinosa
Justice-involved youth have high rates of psychiatric diagnoses, and these youth are often placed out-of-home, although evidence identifies several negative implications of juvenile confinement, especially for youth with psychopathology. Furthermore, youth in the justice system may be processed differently based on gender. As males and females tend to manifest symptoms differently, the psychopathology of youth may act to moderate the relationship between gender and placement in the juvenile justice system. The present study used a large, diverse sample (n = 9 851, 19...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Michael T Baglivio, Kevin T Wolff, Alex R Piquero, Mark A Greenwald, Nathan Epps
Psychiatric disorder prevalence has been shown demonstrably higher among justice-involved adolescents than youth in the general population. Yet, among arrested juveniles, little is known regarding racial/ethnic differences in disorder prevalence, the role of trauma exposure in the diagnosis of behavioral disorders, or subsequent psychiatric treatment provided to adolescents with such diagnoses. The current study examines racial/ethnic disparity in psychiatric diagnoses and treatment of behavioral disorders associated with delinquency, controlling for traumatic experiences, behavioral indicators, and prior offending among serious juvenile offenders...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
(no author information available yet)
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
George C Patton, Susan M Sawyer, David A Ross, Russell M Viner, John S Santelli
In May 2016, The Lancet published a report titled, "Our Future: A Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing," the culmination of three years of work from a geographically diverse interdisciplinary group. The report argued that healthy growth across adolescence and young adulthood shapes life course and intergenerational trajectories so that health investments yield a "triple dividend." With current global interest in adolescent health at an unprecedented level, it outlines three next steps to advance from advocacy to effective action: (1) there is a pressing need for comprehensive and integrated strategies, inclusive of, but extending beyond, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV; (2) interventions should address both adolescent health service coverage and determinants of health that lie in sectors such as education, justice, transport, and industry and employment, as well as families and local communities; and (3) scale-up of responses will require not only investments in country-level capacities for measuring need and responding with evidence-based practice but also the establishment of processes for accountability and meaningful youth engagement...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Inge Simons, Eva Mulder, Henk Rigter, René Breuk, Wander van der Vaart, Robert Vermeiren
BACKGROUND: Treatment and rehabilitation interventions in juvenile justice institutions aim to prevent criminal reoffending by adolescents and to enhance their prospects of successful social reintegration. There is evidence that these goals are best achieved when the institution adopts a family-centered approach, involving the parents of the adolescents. The Academic Workplace Forensic Care for Youth has developed two programs for family-centered care for youth detained in groups for short-term and long-term stay, respectively...
September 12, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Katharan D Cordell, Lonnie R Snowden
BACKGROUND: Children's Full Service Partnerships (FSP), created through California's Mental Health Services Act of 2004 are comprehensive treatment and support programs incorporating a wraparound model designed to serve undertreated families with children who have a serious emotional disturbance and are at risk for suicide, violence, residential instability, criminal justice involvement, or involuntary hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether FSP programs resulted in reduced crisis-related mental health emergency services (MHES) for the children they served...
August 30, 2016: Medical Care
Samantha Teixeira, Anita Zuberi
Black youth are more likely than white youth to grow up in poor, segregated neighborhoods. This racial inequality in the neighborhood environments of black youth increases their contact with hazardous neighborhood environmental features including violence and toxic exposures that contribute to racial inequality in youth health and well-being. While the concept of neighborhood effects has been studied at length by social scientists, this work has not been as frequently situated within an environmental justice (EJ) paradigm...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Howard A Liddle
This article summarizes the 30+-year evidence base of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT), a comprehensive treatment for youth substance abuse and antisocial behaviors. Findings from four types of MDFT studies are discussed: hybrid efficacy/effectiveness randomized controlled trials, therapy process studies, cost analyses, and implementation trials. This research has evaluated various versions of MDFT. These studies have systematically tested adaptations of MDFT for diverse treatment settings in different care sectors (mental health, substance abuse, juvenile justice, and child welfare), as well as adaptations according to treatment delivery features and client impairment level, including adolescents presenting with multiple psychiatric diagnoses...
September 2016: Family Process
Erika Gebo
There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Lauren N Gase, Tony Kuo, Elaine Lai, Michael A Stoll, Ninez Ponce
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194)...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Criminology
Bethany L Strong, Andrea G Shipper, Katherine D Downton, Wendy G Lane
BACKGROUND: Youth violence affects thousands annually, with homicide being the third leading cause of death for those aged 10 to 24 years. This systematic review aims to evaluate the published evidence for the effects of health care-based violence intervention programs (VIPs), which focus on reducing recurrent presentations for injury due to youth violence ("recidivism"). METHODS: Health literature databases were searched. Studies were retained if peer reviewed and if programs were health care based, focused on intentional injury, addressed secondary or tertiary prevention (i...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Wendy Haight, Misa Kayama, Priscilla Ann Gibson
Racial disproportionality in out-of-school suspensions is a persistent social justice issue in public schools. This article examines out-of-school suspensions of four black youths from the perspectives of the youths, their caregivers, and educators. The case involving David, a 14-year-old African American with a learning disability, illustrates the challenges of students experiencing the intersection of disability and race. The case involving George, a 14-year-old Liberian immigrant, illustrates how parents and teachers may form alliances around shared goals and values despite profound cultural differences in understanding of youths' misbehavior...
July 2016: Social Work
Suzanne Pritzker, Katie Richards-Schuster
In the National Association of Social Workers' Code of Ethics, social workers are called on to promote meaningful involvement in decision making among vulnerable populations. The ethical imperatives and social justice implications associated with unequal participation suggest that the field of social work is uniquely situated to lead research and practice in the area of youth civic engagement. This article examines the current state of the social work literature regarding how young people participate civically...
July 2016: Social Work
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