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Slava Ilnytskyy, Andriy Bilichak
Next-generation sequencing became a method of choice for the investigation of small RNA transcriptomes in plants and animals. Although a technical side of sequencing itself is becoming routine, and experimental costs are affordable, data analysis still remains a challenge, especially for researchers with limited computational experience. Here, we present a detailed description of a computational workflow designed to take raw sequencing reads as input, to obtain small RNA predictions, and to detect the differentially expressed microRNAs as a result...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michael Buchfelder, Sven-Martin Schlaffer
PURPOSE: Surgical extraction of as much tumour mass as possible is considered the first step of treatment in acromegaly in many centers. In this article the potential benefits, disadvantages and limitations of operative acromegaly treatment are reviewed. METHODS: Pertinent literature was selected to provide a review covering current indications, techniques and results of operations for acromegaly. RESULTS: The rapid reduction of tumour volume is an asset of surgery...
October 21, 2016: Pituitary
Wendy Henwood, Helen Moewaka Barnes, Troy Brockbank, Waikarere Gregory, Kaio Hooper, Tim McCreanor
In Aotearoa New Zealand, Māori aspirations around land and water conflict with settler interests. As indigenous people, Māori struggle to enact agency over resources, despite Treaty (Treaty of Waitangi/Te Tiriti o Waitangi is an 1840 agreement between Maori and the crown) settlement processes returning some lands. Returns are complex since changes wrought by dispossession may be extreme, requiring multiple stakeholder engagements. Tāngonge, a heavily modified wetland, in northern Aotearoa New Zealand has been the subject of iwi (tribe or tribes) claims since the 1890s...
October 21, 2016: EcoHealth
Joan Manuel Burdeus González-Solís, Iván Díez-Santacoloma, Albert Isidro Llorens
Anterior tibial tubercle (ATT) osteotomy facilitates exposure in knee arthroplasty. However, it is not without complications. We have introduced some technical modifications that reduce the surgical aggression by designing a short osteotomy that does not invade the intramedullary canal, and synthesizing it with three cerclage wires with a particular layout that increases the solidity of the system. A retrospective review was performed on the surgical revision of total knee replacement cases intervened in our center that required an ATT osteotomy from February 2014 to February 2015, and who had a minimum clinical follow-up of 12 months...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Giulia Marvaso, Barbara Vischioni, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Delia Ciardo, Piero Fossati, Tommaso Giandini, Sara Morlino, Mauro Carrara, Paola Romanelli, Elvio Russi, Francesca Valvo, Riccardo Valdagni, Roberto Orecchia
Hadrontherapy has been in constant progress in the past decades. Due to the increasing interest in this field and the spreading of the technique in Italy and worldwide, the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology surveyed (by an online survey) its members regarding their perception of hadrontherapy. The survey outline addressed different items all related to hadrontherapy, such as: demographics (3 items), personal knowledge (5 items), actual use in clinical practice (5 items), and future perspectives and development (5 items)...
October 21, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Cecilia Nilsson, Jette Led Sorensen, Lars Konge, Mikkel Westen, Morten Stadeager, Bent Ottesen, Flemming Bjerrum
BACKGROUND: Inexperienced operating assistants are often tasked with the important role of handling camera navigation during laparoscopic surgery. Incorrect handling can lead to poor visualization, increased operating time, and frustration for the operating surgeon-all of which can compromise patient safety. The objectives of this trial were to examine how to train laparoscopic camera navigation and to explore the transfer of skills to the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, single-center superiority trial with three groups: The first group practiced simulation-based camera navigation tasks (camera group), the second group practiced performing a simulation-based cholecystectomy (procedure group), and the third group received no training (control group)...
October 21, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
David J Koss, Glynn Jones, Anna Cranston, Heidi Gardner, Nicholas M Kanaan, Bettina Platt
Post-mortem investigations of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) have largely failed to provide unequivocal evidence in support of the original amyloid cascade hypothesis, which postulated deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates to be the cause of a demented state as well as inductive to tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Conflicting evidence suggests, however, that Aβ plaques and NFTs, albeit to a lesser extent, are present in a substantial subset of non-demented individuals. Hence, a range of soluble tau and Aβ species has more recently been implicated as the disease-relevant toxic entities...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
J E Slotta, U Kopsch, M Ghadimi, O Kollmar
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is a common disease which requires immediate surgical treatment of the focus of inflammation. So far there are no reliable data on how much time can pass between hospitalization, indications for surgery and initiating surgery without an increased risk of morbidity and mortality for the patient. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how much time can lapse between admission and initiation of surgery for acute appendicitis while still providing patient safety and no increase in complication rates...
October 21, 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Norimitsu Shirai, Frank J Geoly, Walter F Bobrowski, Carlin Okerberg
Drug-induced phospholipidosis is characterized by intracellular accumulation of phospholipids with lamellar bodies in cells exposed to xenobiotics. Demonstration of the lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the hallmark for a definitive diagnosis of phospholipidosis. However, the preparation of tissue samples for TEM and their ultrastructural evaluation are technically challenging and time consuming. Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is essentially a fat stain, and the staining mechanism is based upon the osmication of unsaturated lipids...
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Kathleen T Puttmann, Bhagwan Satiani, Patrick Vaccaro
Fracture of the first rib with ensuing callus formation is a rare cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. We report a case of a 17-year-old female volleyball player who presented with months of chronic arm pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated nonunion fracture of the first rib. Physical therapy had been unsuccessful in relieving the pain, and surgical management was performed with resection of the first rib through a transaxillary approach with complete resolution of symptoms. Inflammation surrounding such fractures may destroy tissue planes, making dissection more technically difficult...
October 20, 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Yanzhu Lin, Zhen-Xia Chen, Brian Oliver, Susan T Harbison
Differences in phenotype among genetically identical individuals exposed to the same environmental condition are often noted in genetic studies. Despite this commonplace observation, little is known about the causes of this variability, which has been termed microenvironmental plasticity. One possibility is that stochastic or technical sources of variance produce these differences. A second possibility is that this variation has a genetic component. We have explored gene expression robustness in the transcriptomes of 730 individual Drosophila melanogaster of 16 fixed genotypes, 9 of which are infected with Wolbachia Three replicates of flies were grown controlling for food, day/night cycles, humidity, temperature, sex, mating status, social exposure, and circadian timing of RNA extraction...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Fraser Henderson, Istvan Takacs
BACKGROUND: Troubleshooting of deep brain stimulators (Activa SC/PC/RC Medtronic PLC) sometimes results in a decision to replace a tunneled stretch-coil extension cable. We present a simple technique to accomplish this atraumatically without a tunneling tool. OBJECTIVES: In the treatment of patients with deep brain stimulators, complication avoidance and efficiency of operative time are paramount. We sought to find the most safe, effective, and rapid method for performing the conceptually-simple yet technically-nuanced act of replacing lead extension cables...
October 18, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Dennis Toddenroth, Janakan Sivagnanasundaram, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Thomas Ganslandt
BACKGROUND: The difficulty of managing patient recruitment and documentation for clinical trials prompts a demand for instruments for closely monitoring these critical but unpredictable processes. Increasingly adopted Electronic Data Capture (EDC) applications provide novel opportunities to reutilize stored information for an efficient management of traceable trial workflows. In related clinical and administrative settings, so-called digital dashboards that continuously visualize time-dependent parameters have recently met a growing acceptance...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Jan Hattendorf, Kevin Louis Bardosh, Jakob Zinsstag
Surveillance of zoonotic disease requires special attention because the animal and human health sectors are involved. A proliferation of scholarly literature and technical guidelines exist for early detection of exotic and re-emerging diseases and to demonstrate freedom from disease as part of international trade agreements. In contrast, literature focussing on surveillance of endemic zoonotic diseases is relatively rare. In this article, we describe and discuss the main aspects to consider when planning a surveillance system for endemic zoonotic diseases in a resource-limited country...
October 18, 2016: Acta Tropica
Wei Liu, Jinping Tian, Lujun Chen, Yang Guo
An inventory of lead emissions was established for the lead-acid battery (LAB) manufacturing industry in China from 2000 to 2014. The lead emissions from the LAB manufacturing industry increased from 133 t in 2000 to a peak at 281 t in 2010 with the rapid development of LAB industry. Since 2011, a mandatory national clean action on LAB industry and a series of retrofitting measures have been implemented in China. As a result, more than 80% of small and low-efficient LAB manufacturers were closed, and technical-environmental performance of the industry has been improved significantly...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Alexandre Pico-Blanco, Pablo Castelo-Baz, Leticia Caneiro-Queija, Antonio Liñares-González, Pablo Martin-Lancharro, Juan Blanco-Carrión
INTRODUCTION: Teeth affected by combined endodontic-periodontal lesions are usually considered by all prognosis classifications as hopeless teeth. The development of new biomaterials combined with modern endodontic and periodontal regeneration techniques may improve dental prognosis and maintain the affected teeth. Moreover, 1 of the replacement options for those teeth, dental implants, has shown an increasing number of biological and technical complications. METHODS: Five patients were included in this case series study...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
J-E Bibault, A Pernet, V Mollo, L Gourdon, O Martin, P Giraud
PURPOSE: With the increase of treatment complexity, enhancing safety is a key concern in radiation oncology. Beyond the involvement of the healthcare professional, patient involvement and empowerment could play a major role in that setting. We explored how patients perceived and fulfilled that role during their radiation treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was administered to all patients treated in our department between November 2013 and May 2014...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Angkana Sommanustweechai, Weerasak Putthasri, Mya Lay Nwe, Saw Thetlya Aung, Mya Min Theint, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, San Shway Wynn
BACKGROUND: Myanmar is classified as critical shortage of health workforce. In responses to limited number of trained health workforce in the hard-to-reach and remote areas, the MOH trained the Community Health Worker (CHW) as health volunteers serving these communities on a pro bono basis. This study aimed to assess the socio-economic profiles, contributions of CHW to primary health care services and their needs for supports to maintain their quality contributions in rural hard to reach areas in Myanmar...
October 21, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Jane Bleasel, Annette Burgess, Ruth Weeks, Inam Haq
BACKGROUND: The evidence for the positive impact of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) on feedback in medicine is mixed. An ePortfolio for medical long cases in a Graduate Medical Program was developed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of medical students and faculty of the impact of the ePortfolio on the feedback process. METHODS: In total, 130 Year 3 medical students, and six faculty participated in the study. This is a mixed methods study, using a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Sanja Dacic, Liza C Villaruz, Shira Abberbock, Alyssa Mahaffey, Pimpin Incharoen, Marina N Nikiforova
Break-apart ALK FISH probe is the FDA approved approach for detection of ALK rearrangements in lung carcinoma patients who may benefit from ALK kinase inhibitors. The FISH assay can be technically challenging and difficult to interpret. ALK immunohistochemistry and next generation sequencing have been proposed as alternative approaches. In this study, we compared various ALK -FISH patterns to next -generation sequencing (NGS) for gene fusion detection, ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tumor responses to crizotinib...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
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