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Ashley E Archer, Robert S Rogers, Alex T Von Schulze, Joshua L Wheatley, E Matthew Morris, Colin S McCoin, John P Thyfault, Paige C Geiger
Induction of the chaperone Heat Shock Protein 72 (HSP72) through heat treatment, exercise, or overexpression improves glucose tolerance and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Less is known about HSP72 function in the liver where lipid accumulation can result in insulin resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether weekly in vivo heat treatment (HT) induces hepatic HSP72 and improves glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and 2) to determine the ability of HSP72 to protect against lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in primary hepatocytes...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Tatjana Zake, Sandra Skuja, Ieva Kalere, Ilze Konrade, Valerija Groma
Th17 cells together with their hallmark cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 were identified as crucial contributing factors in the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmunity. The cytokine-regulated tight junction (Tj) disruption is thought to be essential in the initiation and/or development of several diseases. Still, the role of IL-17 maintaining Tj integrity in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) has not yet been evaluated. We aimed to investigate integrity of the thyroid follicle by studying immunoexpression of cellular Tj - zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and claudin-1 proteins coupled to IL-17A and CD68 detection in AITD patients compared with controls...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Suhrid Banskota, Sadan Dahal, Eunju Kwon, Dong Young Kim, Jung-Ae Kim
PURPOSE: Over half of the colon cancer patients suffer from cancer-related events, mainly metastasis. Loss of β-catenin activity has previously been found to facilitate cancer cell dissociation and migration. Here, we aimed to investigate whether epigenetic silencing of β-catenin induces human colon cancer cell migration and/or invasion. METHODS: HCT-116, Caco-2, HT-29 and SW620 cell migration and invasion capacities were assessed using scratch wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
Elif Sinem Iplik, Baris Ertugrul, Ilknur Kozanoglu, Yusuf Baran, Bedia Cakmakoglu
Objectives: Colon cancer is risen up with its complex mechanism that directly impacts on its treatment as well as its common prevalence. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as a therapeutic candidate for conventional disease including cancer. In this research, we have focused on apoptotic effects of adipose tissue-derived MSCs in colon cancer. Materials and Methods: MSCs were obtained from adipose tissue and characterized by Flowcytometer using suitable antibodies...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Marta Kowalska, Magdalena Kapelusiak-Pielok, Teresa Grzelak, Ewa Wypasek, Wojciech Kozubski, Jolanta Dorszewska
Migraine is one of the most common primary headache disorders that affects 11% of the adult population. The disease is divided into two main clinical subtypes: migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Both serotonergic and hypocretinergic systems are involved in the migraine pathomechanism. Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene ( SLC6A4 ) and the hypocretin receptor 1 gene ( HCRTR1 ) may be risk factors for migraine development due to their ability to affect serotonin and hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) concentrations...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Hui-Ai Zhang, Nan Sang, Xian Ge, Qian Huang, Xue-Liang Li, Jie Sha
Nesfatin-1, a satiety molecule processed from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2), is implicated in visceral hypersensitivity in rats and colocalized with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Maternal separation (MS) in rats contributes to visceral hypersensitivity via elevated expression of 5-HT in the DRN. Intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin-1 activates DRN 5-HT neurons. In this study, A model of visceral hypersensitivity was developed by subjecting rats to MS. Colorectal distension was used to detect visceral sensitivity, which was evaluated by abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores and electromyogram (EMG) magnitude...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marin Kovacic, Jozefina Katic, Hrvoje Kusic, Ana Loncaric Bozic, Mirjana Metikos Hukovic
TiO₂-SnS₂ composite semiconducting photocatalysts with different building component ratios were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis (TiO₂-SnS₂-HT) and by immobilization of commercial TiO₂ and SnS₂ particles (TiO₂-SnS₂-COMM). The band gap values, which determine the catalysts’ photoactivity, were examined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Kubelka⁻Munk transformations. The catalysts’ surface properties: specific surface area, charge and adsorption capacitance at the solid⁻solution interface were characterized using BET analysis, potentiometric titration and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Materials
K Höglund, J Häggström, S Hanås, A-C Merveille, V Gouni, M Wiberg, J Lundgren Willesen, K Mc Entee, L Mejer Sørensen, L Tiret, E H Seppälä, H Lohi, V Chetboul, M Fredholm, A-S Lequarré, I Ljungvall
INTRODUCTION: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has several biological functions. In different species, excessive 5-HT has been linked to valvular lesions, similar to those seen in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Previous studies suggest higher 5-HT in healthy Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs), a breed highly affected by myxomatous mitral valve disease, compared to other breeds. OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential interbreed variation in serum 5-HT in healthy dogs...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Jingjing Xu, Jun Zhou, Hanjue Dai, Fei Liu, Wenjing Li, Wenjuan Wang, Feng Guo
BACKGROUND: The carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a controversial role in different cancers, either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. To date, the exact function and underlying mechanism of CHIP in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not yet clear. Here we aimed to determine whether CHIP could affect the biological behaviors of CRC cells and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Stably transfected CHIP overexpression and depletion DLD-1 and HT-29 cells were established using Lipofectamine 2000...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Shayuan Li, Chunli Sun, Peijing Rong, Xu Zhai, Jinling Zhang, Max Baker, Shuxing Wang
Painful neuropathy is a frequent comorbidity in diabetes. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, fa/fa) rats develop type 2 diabetes spontaneously with ageing and show nociceptive hypersensitivity by age of 13wk. In preclinical and clinical studies, the treatment of diabetic neuropathy is challenging but complementary medicine like transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) appears beneficial to the relief of neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism behind the effectiveness of taVNS remains unclear. In this study we show that daily 30min taVNS (2/15Hz, 2mA) for consecutive 27 days effectively inhibited the development of nociceptive hypersensitivity in ZDF rats as detected by thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in hindpaw...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Xiao-Xin Chen, Kar Ho Lam, Yibin Feng, Kai Xu, Stephen C W Sze, Chi Wai Tang, George P H Leung, Calvin Kai-Fai Lee, Jun Shi, Zhijun Yang, Sheng-Tao Li, Zhang-Jin Zhang, Yanbo Zhang
Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a deleterious disease causing millions of death annually. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a first-line chemotherapy for CRC, but chemoresistance and gastrointestinal mucositis limit its efficacy. Polyphenol-rich foods are increasingly popular due to their potential beneficial role in cancer. Ellagitannins is a group of phenolic compounds commonly found in pomegranate, strawberries, raspberries, etc. The objective of this study was to explore whether ellagitannins from pomegranate (PETs) could ameliorate 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis and enhance its efficacy against CRC...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Coralie Berthoux, Alexander Barre, Joël Bockaert, Philippe Marin, Carine Bécamel
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in many high-level cognitive processes. It is densely innervated by serotonergic neurons originating from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, which profoundly influence PFC activity. Among the 5-HT receptors abundantly expressed in PFC, 5-HT2A receptors located in dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons control neuronal excitability and mediate the psychotropic effects of psychedelic hallucinogens, but their impact on glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity remains poorly characterized...
June 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Dimitrios Oikonomou, Georgios Georgiopoulos, Vassiliki Katsi, Chris Kourek, Constantinos Tsioufis, Alexendra Alexopoulou, Evaggelia Koutli, Dimitrios Tousoulis
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review summarizing the existing evidence on the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypertension (HT) independent of other components of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We searched the literature through Medline and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the relationship between hypertension and fatty liver disease. RESULTS: Studies testing this association are limited, but agree that HT and fatty liver disease are inter-related independent of other components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes mellitus...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Eun Ji Ryu, Dae Won Kim, Min Jea Shin, Hyo Sang Jo, Jung Hwan Park, Su Bin Cho, Chi Hern Lee, Hyeon Ji Yeo, Eun Ji Yeo, Yeon Joo Choi, Duk-Soo Kim, Sung-Woo Cho, Yong-Jun Cho, Eun Jeong Sohn, Ora Son, Keun Wook Lee, Kyu Hyung Han, Jinseu Park, Won Sik Eum, Soo Young Choi
Oxidative stress is known to be a primary risk factor for neuronal diseases. Glutaredoxin (GLRX)‑1, a redox‑regulator of the thioredoxin superfamily, is known to exhibit an important role in cell survival via various cellular functions. However, the precise roles of GLRX1 in brain ischemia are still not fully understood. The present study investigated whether transduced PEP‑1‑GLRX1 protein has protective effects against oxidative stress in cells and in an animal model. Transduced PEP‑1‑GLRX1 protein increased HT‑22 cell viability under oxidative stress and this fusion protein significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species and levels of DNA damage...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Brian A Baldo
Drugs may cause serotonin toxicity by a number of different mechanisms including inhibition of serotonin uptake and metabolism, increased serotonin synthesis and release, activation of serotonin receptors, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 oxidases. Some drug interactions involving opioids can increase intrasynaptic levels of serotonin, and opioid analgesic drugs are now recognized as being involved in some cases of serotonin toxicity especially if administered in conjunction with other serotonergic medications including monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Ipsa Mohapatra, Sai Chandan Das, Sonia Samantaray
Background: Around 3 billion people use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for cooking and heating, and this number is expected to grow until at least 2030. Around 73.7% of households in rural Odisha use wood for cooking. This current study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of solid cooking fuels on health of rural women in age group of 20-40 years and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure to cooking fuels and various health problems. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a village which is under the field practice area of the rural health and training centre, under Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Yuki Saito, Takashi Maejima, Mitsuhiro Nishitani, Emi Hasegawa, Yuchio Yanagawa, Michihiro Mieda, Takeshi Sakurai
The hypothalamus plays an important role in regulation of sleep/wakefulness states. While the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep, the lateral posterior part of the hypothalamus contains neuronal populations implicated in maintenance of arousal, including orexin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). During a search for neurons that make direct synaptic contact with histidine decarboxylase (HDC)-positive, histaminergic neurons (HDC neurons) in the TMN and orexin neurons in the LHA of male mice, we found that these arousal-related neurons are heavily innervated by GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area (POA) including the VLPO...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ahmet Karakurt, Cennet Yildiz, Abdülmelik Yildiz, Yavuz Karabağ, Metin Çağdaş, İbrahim Rencüzoğulları, İnanç Artaç, Doğan İliş
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate left atrial (LA) deformation parameters strain (S)/strain rate (SR) and time to peak S/SR obtained by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) in patients with hypertension for three LA mechanical phases and to compare them with the same indices in the control subjects. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with hypertension (HT) and 29 healthy controls were included in the study. All patients had normal LA poster-anterior diameter, LA and left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF >50%) in two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE)...
June 18, 2018: Acta Cardiologica
Shan-Ting Zhang, Guy Vitrant, Etienne Pernot, Carmen Jiménez, David Muñoz-Rojas, Daniel Bellet
In this study, we report the use of Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in combination with fluorine doped tin oxide (F:SnO₂, aka FTO) thin films to form hazy Al₂O₃-FTO nanocomposites. In comparison to previously reported FTO-based nanocomposites integrating ZnO and sulfur doped TiO₂ (S:TiO₂) nanoparticles (i.e., ZnO-FTO and S:TiO₂-FTO nanocomposites), the newly developed Al₂O₃-FTO nanocomposites show medium haze factor HT of about 30%, while they exhibit the least loss in total transmittance Ttot. In addition, Al₂O₃-FTO nanocomposites present a low fraction of large-sized nanoparticle agglomerates with equivalent radius req > 1 &mu;m; effectively 90% of the nanoparticle agglomerates show req < 750 nm...
June 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Dionisia Carballo, Guillermina Font, Emilia Ferrer, Houda Berrada
Simultaneous determination of twenty-seven mycotoxins in ready-to-eat food samples using &ldquo;Quick Easy Cheap Rough and Safe&rdquo; (QuEChERS) extraction and chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem is described in this study. Mycotoxins included in this survey were aflatoxins (B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂), enniatins (A, A₁, B, B₁), beauvericin (BEA), fumonisins (FB₁, FB₂), sterigmatocystin (STG), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), zearalenone (ZEA), &alpha;-zearalanol (&alpha;ZAL), &beta;-zearalenone (&beta;ZAL), &alpha;-zearalenol (&alpha;ZOL), &beta;-zearalenol (&beta;zol), T2, and HT-2 toxin...
June 15, 2018: Toxins
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