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Gadolinium Brain MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229892/safety-and-efficacy-of-opicinumab-in-acute-optic-neuritis-renew-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#1
Diego Cadavid, Laura Balcer, Steven Galetta, Orhan Aktas, Tjalf Ziemssen, Ludo Vanopdenbosch, Jette Frederiksen, Mark Skeen, Glenn J Jaffe, Helmut Butzkueven, Focke Ziemssen, Luca Massacesi, Yi Chai, Lei Xu, Stefanie Freeman
BACKGROUND: The human monoclonal antibody opicinumab (BIIB033, anti-LINGO-1) has shown remyelinating activity in preclinical studies. We therefore assessed the safety and tolerability, and efficacy of opicinumab given soon after a first acute optic neuritis episode. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study (RENEW) was done at 33 sites in Australia, Canada, and Europe in participants (aged 18-55 years) with a first unilateral acute optic neuritis episode within 28 days from study baseline...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193901/exceedingly-small-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-positive-mri-contrast-agents
#2
He Wei, Oliver T Bruns, Michael G Kaul, Eric C Hansen, Mariya Barch, Agata Wiśniowska, Ou Chen, Yue Chen, Nan Li, Satoshi Okada, Jose M Cordero, Markus Heine, Christian T Farrar, Daniel M Montana, Gerhard Adam, Harald Ittrich, Alan Jasanoff, Peter Nielsen, Moungi G Bawendi
Medical imaging is routine in the diagnosis and staging of a wide range of medical conditions. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for visualizing soft tissue and organs, with over 60 million MRI procedures performed each year worldwide. About one-third of these procedures are contrast-enhanced MRI, and gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are the mainstream MRI contrast agents used in the clinic. GBCAs have shown efficacy and are safe to use with most patients; however, some GBCAs have a small risk of adverse effects, including nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), the untreatable condition recently linked to gadolinium (Gd) exposure during MRI with contrast...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185158/outcome-measures-in-clinical-trials-for-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Caspar E P van Munster, Bernard M J Uitdehaag
Due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, it is a challenge to capture disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a reliable and valid way. Therefore, it can be difficult to assess the true efficacy of interventions in clinical trials. In phase III trials in MS, the traditionally used primary clinical outcome measures are the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the relapse rate. Secondary outcome measures in these trials are the number or volume of T2 hyperintense lesions and gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain...
February 9, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183276/peginterferon-beta-1a-improves-mri-measures-and-increases-the-proportion-of-patients-with-no-evidence-of-disease-activity-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-2-year-results-from-the-advance-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Douglas L Arnold, Peter A Calabresi, Bernd C Kieseier, Shifang Liu, Xiaojun You, Damian Fiore, Serena Hung
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a has previously been shown to reduce the number of T2-hyperintense and gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions over 2 years in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to reduce T1-hypointense lesion formation and the proportion of patients showing evidence of disease activity, based on both clinical and radiological measures, compared with placebo over 1 year of treatment. The objectives of the current analyses were to evaluate T1 lesions and other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures, including whole brain volume and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT), and the proportions of patients with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA), over 2 years...
February 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148632/serum-neurofilament-is-associated-with-progression-of-brain-atrophy-and-disability-in-early-ms
#5
Jens Kuhle, Bardia Nourbakhsh, Donna Grant, Steve Morant, Christian Barro, Özgür Yaldizli, Daniel Pelletier, Gavin Giovannoni, Emmanuelle Waubant, Sharmilee Gnanapavan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a potential effect of riluzole on serum neurofilaments (Nf) compared to placebo and the relationship between longitudinal clinical and MRI outcomes and serum Nf levels. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from participants enrolled in a randomized double-blind trial of neuroprotection with riluzole vs placebo as an add-on to weekly interferon-β (IFN-β)-1a IM initiated 3 months after randomization. Nf measurements were performed by ELISA and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
February 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131210/tnf-alpha-inhibitor-associated-myelopathies-a-neurological-complication-in-patients-with-rheumatologic-disorders
#6
Paula Barreras, Maureen A Mealy, Carlos A Pardo
OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFα-I) are biological agents used in the treatment of rheumatologic disorders. TNFα-I have been associated with demyelinating disorders mimicking multiple sclerosis. The goal of this report is to illustrate cases of myelopathy which developed during the use of TNFα-I. METHODS: We describe the clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features of 4 cases of myelopathy associated with TNFα-I. RESULTS: The mean period of TNFα-I exposure was 27 [12-36] months...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128810/-comparing-the-activity-of-multiple-sclerosis-ms-at-the-minute-and-at-20-minutes-of-gadolinium-application-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-of-the-brain
#7
Christina Saldívar-Uribe, Mario Alberto de la Portilla-Villanueva, Alberto Esau-Mendoza-García
The aim was to compare active disease in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, brain by MRI after gadolinium application at one minute and 20 minutes. A longitudinal, prospective, observational, analytical and comparative study was conducted in 18 patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). An analysis was made for each patient, watching for inflammatory activity in MS lesions, comparing the results to one minute and 20 minutes after the application of gadolinium. For the descriptive analysis, absolute frequencies and percentages were used, as well as means and standard deviations or medians with ranges for the inferential analysis comparing the presence or absence of enhancement in lesions at one minute and 20 minutes; the exact probability test used was Fisher...
January 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120771/diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-in-children-interest-of-robotic-frameless-assisted-biopsy-a-technical-note
#8
H A Coca, H Cebula, M Benmekhbi, M P Chenard, N Entz-Werle, F Proust
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) constitute 10-15% of all brain tumors in the pediatric population; currently prognosis remains poor, with an overall survival of 7-14 months. Recently the indication of DIPG biopsy has been enlarged due to the development of molecular biology and various ongoing clinical and therapeutic trials. Classically a biopsy is performed using a stereotactic frame assisted procedure but the workflow may sometimes be heavy and more complex especially in children...
December 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117925/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-vestibular-schwannoma-a-new-hybrid-approach-for-analysis-of-t1-w-dce-mri
#9
Ka-Loh Li, Xiaoping Zhu, Sha Zhao, Alan Jackson
PURPOSE: To develop and assess a "hybrid" method that combines a first-pass analytical approach and the Patlak plot (PP) to improve assessment of low blood-brain barrier permeability from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with vestibular schwannoma were enrolled. T1 -W DCE imaging was acquired on a 1.5T scanner. Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) was divided into four regions of interest (ROIs) based on the magnitude of changes in longitudinal relaxation rate (ΔR1) after gadolinium administration...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090589/spiral-perfusion-imaging-with-consecutive-echoes-spice%C3%A2-for-the-simultaneous-mapping-of-dsc-and-dce-mri-parameters-in-brain-tumor-patients-theory-and-initial-feasibility
#10
Eric S Paulson, Douglas E Prah, Kathleen M Schmainda
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the perfusion imaging techniques most frequently used to probe the angiogenic character of brain neoplasms. With these methods, T1- and T2/T2*-weighted imaging sequences are used to image the distribution of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. However, it is well known that Gd exhibits combined T1, T2, and T2* shortening effects in tissue, and therefore, the results of both DCE- and DSC-MRI can be confounded by these opposing effects...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087916/-a-case-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis-presenting-as-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#11
Zhan He, Fang Ding, Jiandong Rong, Yongli Gan
A 26-year-old male presented with a 6-day history of paroxysmal headache which was worsen with nausea and vomiting for 1 day. Head CT on admission revealed left chronic subdural hematoma with midline shift. An emergency Burr hole drainage for hematoma was performed. Headache recurred 6 days later. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse thickening and a gadolinium-enhancement of the falx, cranial dura mater and tentorium cerebelli on the left side with pia mater involved. Lumber puncture showed increased intracranial pressure and elevated IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048162/su-f-r-08-can-normalization-of-brain-mri-texture-features-reduce-scanner-dependent-effects-in-unsupervised-machine-learning
#12
K Ogden, T Bradford, L Cussen, R O'Dwyer
PURPOSE: To reduce differences in features calculated from MRI brain scans acquired at different field strengths with or without Gadolinium contrast. METHODS: Brain scans were processed for 111 epilepsy patients to extract hippocampus and thalamus features. Scans were acquired on 1.5 T scanners with Gadolinium contrast (group A), 1.5T scanners without Gd (group B), and 3.0 T scanners without Gd (group C). A total of 72 features were extracted. Features were extracted from original scans and from scans where the image pixel values were rescaled to the mean of the hippocampi and thalami values...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046259/su-g-tep3-12-retrospective-assessment-of-r2star-using-ultra-high-field-mri-in-a-rodent-model-of-radiation-necrosis
#13
J Belliveau, R Menon
PURPOSE: To establish a quantitative MRI method that would be capable of predicting radiation necrosis without using a contrast agent. METHODS: Healthy male Fischer 344 rats were irradiated using an animal irradiator capable of delivering 2.3 Gy/min with a kVp of 225 V. A dose of 40 Gy was given to half the brain in a single session. Rats were scanned using a 9.4 T animal MRI before irradiation and every two weeks following radiation until either necrosis developed or they were sacrificed for health reasons...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043954/an-abnormal-periventricular-magnetization-transfer-ratio-gradient-occurs-early-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
J William L Brown, Matteo Pardini, Wallace J Brownlee, Kryshani Fernando, Rebecca S Samson, Ferran Prados Carrasco, Sebastien Ourselin, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, David H Miller, Declan T Chard
In established multiple sclerosis, tissue abnormality-as assessed using magnetization transfer ratio-increases close to the lateral ventricles. We aimed to determine whether or not (i) these changes are present from the earliest clinical stages of multiple sclerosis; (ii) they occur independent of white matter lesions; and (iii) they are associated with subsequent conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis and disability. Seventy-one subjects had MRI scanning a median of 4.6 months after a clinically isolated optic neuritis (49 females, mean age 33...
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026111/biomedical-applications-of-metal-encapsulated-fullerene-nanoparticles
#15
REVIEW
Tinghui Li, Harry C Dorn
The carbonaceous nanomaterials known as metallofullerenes have attracted considerable attention due to their attractive properties. The robust nature of the "Trojan Horse" fullerene cage provides an important structural component, which isolates the metal cluster from the bioenvironment. The large carbon surface area is ideally suited for multiple exo-functionalization approaches to modify the hydrophobic cage for a more hydrophilic bioenvironment. Additionally, peptides and other agents are readily covalently attached to this nanoprobe for targeting applications...
February 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018853/mri-flair-lesion-segmentation-in-multiple-sclerosis-does-automated-segmentation-hold-up-with-manual-annotation
#16
Christine Egger, Roland Opfer, Chenyu Wang, Timo Kepp, Maria Pia Sormani, Lothar Spies, Michael Barnett, Sven Schippling
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become key in the diagnosis and disease monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Both, T2 lesion load and Gadolinium (Gd) enhancing T1 lesions represent important endpoints in MS clinical trials by serving as a surrogate of clinical disease activity. T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) lesion quantification - largely due to methodological constraints - is still being performed manually or in a semi-automated fashion, although strong efforts have been made to allow automated quantitative lesion segmentation...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012056/pachymeningitis-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-case-series-with-earlier-onset-in-younger-patients-and-literature-review
#17
Violeta Higuera-Ortiz, Abraham Reynoso, Natllely Ruiz, Rosa Delia Delgado-Hernández, Gilberto Gómez-Garza, Luis Felipe Flores-Suárez
The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with pachymeningitis (PM) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) from Latin America, including three young patients. This is a retrospective case series. Patients were classified according to the ACR criteria, the 2012 Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature and the EMA algorithm. Demographic, clinical, serological, and neuroimaging characteristics are described. Thirteen patients (nine females, four males) were identified. Mean age ± SD of PM diagnosis was 35...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011351/intracranial-hypertension-secondary-to-high-dose-cytosine-arabinoside-a-case-study
#18
Z A Nurgat, H Alzahrani, M Lawrence, A Mannan, M Ashour, W Rasheed, M Aljurf
We report a rare case of intracranial hypertension following high dose cytosine arabinoside (HiDAC) in a 20-year-old man, with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A five drug induction protocol for ALL was initiated; post induction consolidation was with HiDAC (3 g/m(2) IV every 12 h on days 1, 3 and 5). Post consolidation, cytogenetic remission was attained and he received an intensification and maintenance regimen for ALL, for a period of approximately 24 months. Four months following the completion of his treatment, the patient relapsed within the central nervous system (CNS)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997580/natalizumab-related-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-multiple-sclerosis-findings-from-an-italian-independent-registry
#19
Luca Prosperini, Nicola de Rossi, Cristina Scarpazza, Lucia Moiola, Mirco Cosottini, Simonetta Gerevini, Ruggero Capra
BACKGROUND: The monoclonal antibody natalizumab (NTZ) is a highly effective treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, this drug is associated with increased risk of developing Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic infection of central nervous system (CNS) caused by the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV). OBJECTIVE: To describe the 12-month clinical course of 39 patients with MS (28 women, 11 men) who developed NTZ-related PML after a mean exposure of 39 infusions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940585/adult-primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-isolated-small-vessel-vasculitis-represents-distinct-disease-pattern
#20
Hubert de Boysson, Grégoire Boulouis, Achille Aouba, Boris Bienvenu, Loïc Guillevin, Mathieu Zuber, Emmanuel Touzé, Olivier Naggara, Christian Pagnoux
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify whether presentations and outcomes in adult patients with isolated small-vessel primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS) would differ from other patients with large/medium-vessel involvement. METHODS: In the French PACNS cohort, we compared the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with isolated small-vessel disease (normal CT, MR and/or conventional angiograms, brain biopsy positive for vasculitis) with other patients who had large/medium-vessel involvement (vessel abnormalities on CT, MR or conventional angiograms)...
December 10, 2016: Rheumatology
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