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Gadolinium Brain MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138536/spotlight-on-siponimod-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-of-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-the-evidence-to-date
#1
REVIEW
Alberto Gajofatto
Siponimod (BAF312) is a synthetic molecule belonging to the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) modulator family, which has putative neuroprotective properties and well-characterized immunomodulating effects mediated by sequestration of B and T cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Compared to fingolimod (ie, precursor of the S1P modulators commercially available for the treatment of relapsing-remitting [RR] multiple sclerosis [MS]), siponimod exhibits selective affinity for types 1 and 5 S1P receptor, leading to a lower risk of adverse events that are mainly induced by S1P3 receptor activation, such as bradycardia and vasoconstriction...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111024/cognition-and-quality-of-life-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-patients-starting-a-disease-modifying-therapy-in-the-qualicis-study-may-not-predict-treatment-response-at-one-year
#2
Mikael Cohen, Bruno Brochet, Pierre Clavelou, Emmanuelle Le Page, Patrick Vermersch, Ayman Tourbah, Thibault Moreau, Héloïse Joly, Charlotte Sakarovitch, Christine Lebrun
Cognition and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are early involved in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of QUALICIS study was to monitor cognition and HRQoL prospectively in a cohort of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients starting a treatment with subcutaneous beta-1b interferon as a first disease modifying treatment (DMT), and to assess their correlation with the clinical outcome 6years later. Relapse history, EDSS and yearly standardized brain MRI data were also collected. 37 patients were included...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109793/acute-inflammatory-response-following-increased-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-induced-by-focused-ultrasound-is-dependent-on-microbubble-dose
#3
Dallan McMahon, Kullervo Hynynen
Rationale: Focused ultrasound (FUS), in conjunction with circulating microbubbles (MBs), can be used to transiently increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a targeted manner, allowing therapeutic agents to enter the brain from systemic circulation. While promising preclinical work has paved the way for the initiation of 3 human trials, there remains concern regarding neuroinflammation following treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of this response following sonication and explore the influence of MB dose...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096054/comparison-of-ferumoxytol-based-cerebral-blood-volume-estimates-using-quantitative-r1-and-r2-relaxometry
#4
Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Tilman Schubert, Gesine Knobloch, Patrick A Turski, Oliver Wieben, Scott B Reeder, Kevin M Johnson
PURPOSE: Cerebral perfusion is commonly assessed clinically with dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI using a bolus injection of gadolinium-based contrast agents, resulting in semi-quantitative values of cerebral blood volume (CBV). Steady-state imaging with ferumoxytol allows estimation of CBV with the potential for higher precision and accuracy. Prior CBV studies have focused on the signal disrupting T2* effects, but ferumoxytol also has high signal-enhancing T1 relaxivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare CBV estimation using T1 and T2*, with the goal of understanding the contrast mechanisms and quantitative differences...
November 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095877/volumetric-brain-tumour-detection-from-mri-using-visual-saliency
#5
Somosmita Mitra, Subhashis Banerjee, Yoichi Hayashi
Medical image processing has become a major player in the world of automatic tumour region detection and is tantamount to the incipient stages of computer aided design. Saliency detection is a crucial application of medical image processing, and serves in its potential aid to medical practitioners by making the affected area stand out in the foreground from the rest of the background image. The algorithm developed here is a new approach to the detection of saliency in a three dimensional multi channel MR image sequence for the glioblastoma multiforme (a form of malignant brain tumour)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090380/central-nervous-system-aquaporin4-autoimmunity-revealed-by-a-single-pseudotumoral-encephalic-lesion
#6
Guillaume Fargeot, J Aboab, J Savatovsky, R Marignier, A Lecler, O Gout
The radiological spectrum of neuromyelitis optica has become broader since the detection of aquaporin4 antibodies. We report a case of neuromyelitis optica patient with pseudotumoral encephalic lesion. A 66 year-old woman presented with sudden left lateral homonymous hemianopsia. A brain MRI showed an isolated and extensive right temporo-parieto-occipital lesion, involving periventricular white matter and the corpus callosum, with strong enhancement on post-gadolinium T1 weighted images, highly suggestive of lymphoma...
October 31, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074315/basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-scalp-with-destruction-and-invasion-into-the-calvarium-and-dura-mater-report-of-7-cases-and-review-of-literature
#7
Churl-Su Kwon, Omar Al Awar, Valeria Ripa, Ghassan Said, Saulius Rocka
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy in humans. Giant BCC is a rarer entity that is characterised by aggressive biological behaviour. Intracranial invasion by a BCC on the scalp is extremely rare. The gold standard treatment of BCCs is represented by surgical excision with a wide variety of reconstructive techniques. In this paper, we describe the largest series to date of recurrent BCCs with intracranial extension involving the dura mater. We report recurrent giant BCC of the scalp with dura mater invasion in 7 patients...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070755/a-case-of-optic-perineuritis-a-literature-review-of-japanese-cases-and-clinical-problems
#8
Makoto Takemaru, Keisuke Tachiyama, Yuji Shiga, Yuhei Kanaya, Yutaka Shimoe, Masaru Kuriyama
A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital owing to decreased visual acuity and visual field defect. She had a similar history of decreased visual acuity and received steroid therapy 10 years ago. Brain MRI revealed gadolinium-enhancement in the sheath of the optic nerve, called "tram-track" and "doughnut" signs. Optic perineuritis (OPN) was diagnosed on the basis of her clinical manifestations, which improved on treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone (mPSL). However, clinical manifestations relapsed 10 days post-discharge; hence, she was re-admitted...
October 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070750/a-case-of-recurrent-myelitis-associated-with-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-that-developed-only-as-localized-short-spinal-cord-lesions
#9
Arifumi Matsumoto, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima, Kinya Hisanaga, Isao Nagano
A 65-year-old man initially developed numbness and hypesthesia in the right shoulder and brachial regions that disappeared within several months. MRI revealed a small lesion extending to a vertebral segment in the right dorsal region of the cervical spinal cord at the vertebral height of C2/3. About 15 months later, the intermittent lancinating pain identical to the right trigeminal and occipital neuralgia with pain and hypesthesia distributed in the right C2-C4 dermatome regions appeared. MRI revealed a new oval lesion with gadolinium enhancement in the right dorsal region of the cervical spinal cord at the vertebral height of C1, which was thought to involve the posterior column and lower part of the spinal tract nucleus of the trigeminal nerve...
October 26, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063304/applying-amide-proton-transfer-mr-imaging-to-hybrid-brain-pet-mr-concordance-with-gadolinium-enhancement-and-added-value-to-18-f-fdg-pet
#10
Hongzan Sun, Jun Xin, Jinyuan Zhou, Zaiming Lu, Qiyong Guo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic concordance and metric correlations of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F-]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), using hybrid brain PET/MRI. PROCEDURES: Twenty-one subjects underwent brain gadolinium-enhanced [(18)F]FDG PET/MRI prospectively. Imaging accuracy was compared between unenhanced MRI, MRI with enhancement, APT-weighted (APTW) images, and PET based on six diagnostic criteria...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063255/gadolinium-retention-after-administration-of-contrast-agents-based-on-linear-chelators-and-the-recommendations-of-the-european-medicines-agency
#11
EDITORIAL
Ilona A Dekkers, Rick Roos, Aart J van der Molen
The Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) earlier this year recommended to suspend some marketing authorisations for Gadolinium Containing Contrast Agents (GCCAs) based on linear chelators due to the potential risk of gadolinium retention in the human body. These recommendations have recently been re-evaluated by EMA's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), and confirmed the final opinion of the European Medicines Agency. This editorial provides an overview of the available GCCAs and summarises the recent evidence of gadolinium retention...
October 23, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063244/efficacy-of-fingolimod-and-interferon-beta-1b-on-cognitive-mri-and-clinical-outcomes-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-an-18-month-open-label-rater-blinded-randomised-multicentre-study-the-golden-study
#12
Giancarlo Comi, Francesco Patti, Maria Assunta Rocca, Flavia Caterina Mattioli, Maria Pia Amato, Paolo Gallo, Diego Centonze, Carlo Pozzilli, Francesco Saccà, Florian Then Bergh, Marta Bartezaghi, Renato Turrini, Massimo Filippi
Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study attempted evaluating the effects of fingolimod and interferon beta-1b (IFN β-1b) on CI progression, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcomes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients over 18 months. The GOLDEN study was a pilot study including RRMS patients with CI randomised (2:1) to fingolimod (0.5 mg daily)/IFN β-1b (250 µg every other day). CI was assessed via Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System test...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055436/brain-white-matter-demyelinating-lesions-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-a-patient-with-c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansion
#13
Miguel Oliveira Santos, Inês Caldeira, Marta Gromicho, Ana Pronto-Laborinho, Mamede de Carvalho
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. It has been described before four patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and C9orf72-ALS. However, C9orf72 positivity is not associated with increased risk of MS. Inflammatory pathways related to NF-κB have been linked to ALS and MS, and appear to be important in C9orf72-ALS patients. A 42-year-old woman presented with progressive bulbar symptoms for 9 months. Neurological examination disclosed spastic dysarthria, atrophic tongue with fasciculations, brisk jaw and limb tendon reflexes, and bilateral Hoffman sign...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048589/impact-of-trajectory-planning-with-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-for-intracranial-electrode-implantation
#14
Guilherme Barros, Michael J Lang, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Ashwini D Sharan, Chengyuan Wu
BACKGROUND: While T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced (T1-Gd) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard imaging sequence for trajectory planning of stereotactic procedures, including deep brain stimulation, stereoelectroencephalography, and laser interstitial thermal therapy, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been reported to demonstrate increased sensitivity for the visualization of microvasculature. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of SWI visualization on trajectory planning for electrode implantation and evaluate the relationship between the rate of vessel-electrode intersections and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
October 18, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045421/enlarged-virchow-robin-spaces-associate-with-cognitive-decline-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Alice Favaretto, Andrea Lazzarotto, Alice Riccardi, Stefano Pravato, Monica Margoni, Francesco Causin, Maria Giulia Anglani, Dario Seppi, Davide Poggiali, Paolo Gallo
The clinical significance of Virchow Robin spaces (VRS) in inflammatory brain disorders, especially in multiple sclerosis (MS), is still undefined. We analysed enlarged VRS (eVRS) by means of phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) MRI sequence and investigated their association with inflammation or brain atrophy, and to clinical or physical disability. Forty-three MS patients (21 clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS [CIS], 15 RRMS, 7 progressive [PMS]) and 10 healthy controls (HC) were studied. 3DT1, 3DFLAIR and 2DPSIR images were obtained with a 3T MRI scanner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038383/biological-effects-of-mri-contrast-agents-gadolinium-retention-potential-mechanisms-and-a-role-for-phosphorus
#16
REVIEW
Joel Garcia, Stephen Z Liu, Angelique Y Louie
No discussion of challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging would be complete without addressing the elephant in the room-which is that the purest of chemical compounds needs to interact with a biological system in a manner that does not perturb normal biology while still providing efficacious feedback to assist in diagnosis of disease. In the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents long considered inert have produced adverse effects in certain patient populations under certain treatment regimens...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032126/weekly-follow-up-of-acute-lesions-in-three-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients-using-mr-spectroscopy-and-diffusion
#17
Gabriel Kocevar, Claudio Stamile, Salem Hannoun, Jean-Amédée Roch, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Sandra Vukusic, François Cotton, Dominique Sappey-Marinier
OBJECT: Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion formation, including inflammation, demyelination/remyelination and axonal damage, and their temporal evolution are still not clearly understood. To this end, three acute white matter lesions were monitored using a weekly multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three untreated patients with early relapsing-remitting MS and one healthy control subject were followed weekly for two months...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981141/brain-and-heart-magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectroscopy-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#18
REVIEW
Sophie Mavrogeni, Roser Pons, Ioannis Nikas, George Papadopoulos, Dimitrios A Verganelakis, Genovefa Kolovou, George P Chrousos
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked muscle disorder characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of muscular function. As muscular disease progresses, the repair mechanisms cannot compensate for cellular damage, leading inevitably to necrosis and progressive replacement by fibrous and fatty tissue. Cardiomyopathy and respiratory failure are the main causes of death in DMD. In addition to the well-described muscle and heart disease, cognitive dysfunction affects around 30% of DMD boys. Myocardial fibrosis, assessed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), is an early marker of heart involvement in both DMD patients and female carriers...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976476/comparison-of-unenhanced-t1-weighted-signal-intensities-within-the-dentate-nucleus-and-the-globus-pallidus-after-serial-applications-of-gadopentetate-dimeglumine-versus-gadobutrol-in-a-pediatric-population
#19
Diane M Renz, Stefanie Kümpel, Joachim Böttcher, Alexander Pfeil, Florian Streitparth, Matthias Waginger, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Ulf K Teichgräber, Hans-Joachim Mentzel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in T1-weighted signal intensity (SI) within the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) in a pediatric population after serial applications of the linear gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast medium gadopentetate dimeglumine and the more stable macrocyclic agent gadobutrol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained. Two similar pediatric patient cohorts who underwent at least 3 serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with sole application of gadopentetate dimeglumine or gadobutrol were analyzed...
October 2, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933214/magnetic-enhancement-of-stem-cell-targeted-delivery-into-the-brain-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-opening-the-blood-brain-barrier
#20
Wei-Bin Shen, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Ben Nguyen, Deborah Yarnell, Paul J Yarowsky, Victor Frenkel, Paul S Fishman
Focused ultrasound (FUS)-mediated blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) can enable even large therapeutics such as stem cells to enter the brain from the bloodstream. However, the efficiency is relatively low. Our previous study showed that human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in culture were attracted by an external magnetic field. In vivo, enhanced brain retention was observed near a magnet mounted on the skull in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, where BBBD also occurs...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
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