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Gadolinium Brain MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341021/assessment-of-blood-brain-barrier-leakage-with-gadolinium-enhanced-mri
#1
Min-Chi Ku, Sonia Waiczies, Thoralf Niendorf, Andreas Pohlmann
The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be noninvasively monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conventional MR contrast agents (CAs) containing gadolinium are used in association with MRI in routine clinical practice to detect and quantify BBB leakage. Under normal circumstances CAs do not cross the intact BBB. However due to their small size they extravasate from the blood into the brain tissue even when the BBB is partially compromised. Here we describe an MR method based on T1-weighted images taken prior to and after CA injection...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328539/early-detection-of-myocardial-involvement-by-t1-mapping-of-cardiac-mri-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy
#2
Liuyu Yu, Jianhong Sun, Jiayu Sun, Jiangbo Li, Yang Dong, Xiaoyue Zhou, Andreas Greiser, Yuchi Han, Qing Zhang, Qibing Xie, Yucheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are common types of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), wherein patients are prone to adverse cardiovascular events. PURPOSE: To explore the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting cardiac involvement in PM/DM patients using a T1 mapping technique. STUDY TYPE: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: In all, 25 PM/DM patients free of cardiovascular symptoms and preserved ventricular systolic function and 25 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex served as controls...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328521/the-central-vein-sign-differentiates-ms-from-cns-inflammatory-vasculopathies
#3
Pietro Maggi, Martina Absinta, Matteo Grammatico, Luisa Vuolo, Giacomo Emmi, Giovanna Carlucci, Gregorio Spagni, Alessandro Barilaro, Anna Maria Repice, Lorenzo Emmi, Domenico Prisco, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Niloufar Sadeghi, Gaetano Perrotta, Pascal Sati, Bernard Dachy, Daniel S Reich, Massimo Filippi, Luca Massacesi
OBJECTIVES: In multiple sclerosis (MS), MRI is a sensitive tool for detecting white matter lesions, but its diagnostic specificity is still suboptimal; ambiguous cases are frequent in clinical practice. Detection of perivenular lesions in the brain (the "central vein sign") improves the pathological specificity of MS diagnosis, but comprehensive evaluation of this MRI biomarker in MS-mimicking inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases, such as CNS inflammatory vasculopathies, is missing...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313473/1-5-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-investigate-potential-etiologies-of-brain-swelling-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#4
Michael J Potchen, Samuel D Kampondeni, Karl B Seydel, E Mark Haacke, Sylvester S Sinyangwe, Musaku Mwenechanya, Simon J Glover, Danny A Milner, Eric Zeli, Colleen A Hammond, David Utriainen, Kennedy Lishimpi, Terrie E Taylor, Gretchen L Birbeck
The hallmark of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature. Malawi-based research using 0.35 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established that severe brain swelling is associated with fatal CM, but swelling etiology remains unclear. Autopsy and clinical studies suggest several potential etiologies, but limitations of 0.35 T MRI precluded optimal investigations into swelling pathophysiology. A 1.5 T MRI in Zambia allowed for further investigations including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312473/central-nervous-system-gadolinium-accumulation-in-patients-undergoing-periodical-contrast-mri-screening-for-hereditary-tumor-syndromes
#5
Evelynn Vergauwen, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Carola Brussaard, Peter Janssens, Dieter De Clerck, Michel Van Lint, Anne C Houtman, Olaf Michel, Kathelijn Keymolen, Bieke Lefevere, Susanne Bohler, Dirk Michielsen, Anna C Jansen, Vera Van Velthoven, Sven Gläsker
Background: Patients with hereditary tumor syndromes undergo periodical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening with Gadolinium contrast. Gadolinium accumulation has recently been described in the central nervous system after repeated administrations. The prevalence and rate of accumulation in different subgroups of patients are unknown. Neither are the mechanism nor clinical impact. This may cause uncertainty about the screening. To explore the prevalence and rate of Gadolinium accumulation in different subgroups, we retrospectively analyzed MRIs of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305683/the-use-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-to-assist-gross-total-resection-of-pediatric-astroblastoma
#6
Yuji Agawa, Takafumi Wataya
PURPOSE: Astroblastoma is an uncommon pediatric neuroepithelial tumor. The prognosis and appropriate treatment of astroblastoma were not well understood. Previous reports suggested the best treatment for astroblastoma is surgical total resection. The authors report a case of pediatric astroblastoma that underwent gross total resection with the use of fluorescent guidance by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old girl presented with the tumor that was well-circumscribed cystic and solid mass with marked gadolinium enhancement in the right occipital lobe...
January 5, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280026/management-of-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-surgery
#7
REVIEW
David L Penn, William T Burke, Edward R Laws
Non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign tumors of the pituitary gland that do not over-secrete hormonal products, therefore, they are generally detected through symptoms of mass effect, including headache, vision loss, or hypopituitarism. There are multiple pathological subtypes of NFPAs, such as null cell adenomas, silent gonadotrophs, silent somatotrophs, silent corticotrophs, and silent subtype 3, all of which can be classified based on immunohistochemical studies and electron microscopy. Despite these numerous pathological subtypes, surgical resection remains the first-line treatment for NFPAs...
December 26, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277593/oculoleptomeningeal-amyloidosis-secondary-to-the-rare-transthyretin-c-381t-g-p-ile127met-mutation
#8
Francois Mathieu, Erin Morgan, Joyce So, David G Munoz, Warren Mason, Paul Kongkham
BACKGROUND: Oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis (OLMA) represents a rare subtype of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, characterized by deposition of amyloid in cranial and spinal leptomeninges along with ocular involvement. Of more than 100 TTR mutations identified, few have been associated with OLMA. Herein we describe the first report of leptomeningeal amyloidosis associated with the c.381T>G (p.Ile127Met) TTR mutation, linking this variant in the OLMA phenotype. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53 year-old male presented with a 2-year history of progressive symptoms including upper and lower limb weakness, ataxia, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy...
December 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276498/role-of-hyperintense-acute-reperfusion-marker-for-classifying-the-stroke-etiology
#9
Hee Young Choi, Kyung Mi Lee, Hyug-Gi Kim, Eui Jong Kim, Woo Suk Choi, Bum Joon Kim, Sung Hyuk Heo, Dae-Il Chang
Purpose: The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) is a delayed enhancement of the subarachnoid or subpial space observed on post-contrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images and is associated with permeability changes to the blood-brain barrier in acute stroke. We investigated the relationship between HARM and stroke etiology based on the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between HARM and stroke locations with respect to vascular territories and anatomic compartments...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249763/intravascular-lymphoma-with-an-acute-course-of-cerebellar-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#10
Takeo Uzuka, Fumi Higuchi, Hadzuki Matsuda, Ryohei Otani, Phyo Kim, Keisuke Ueki
Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) has been characterized in many case reports by multiple white matter lesions reflecting ischemic changes. In contrast, there are very few case reports of cerebral or cerebellar hemorrhage resulting from IVL. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our department with two-week history of headache, nausea, and poor appetite. Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilated veins on the cerebellar surface. No ischemic lesions were detected on diffusion-weighted images...
December 15, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247539/fluorescein-sodium-guided-resection-of-intracranial-lesions-in-22-dogs
#11
Yukiko Nakano, Kohei Nakata, Sanae Shibata, Yasuhiro Heishima, Hidetaka Nishida, Hiroki Sakai, Hirohito Yano, Hiroaki Kamishina
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of an intraoperative fluorescein sodium (FS) injection and elucidate the relationships between the MRI findings, pathological diagnoses, and intraoperative staining characteristics of intracranial lesions in 22 dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. ANIMALS: Twenty-two dogs with intracranial lesions. METHODS: FS was intravenously administered to 22 dogs undergoing craniotomy for suspected intracranial tumors to evaluate perioperative and postoperative adverse effects...
December 16, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243005/efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-in-vitamin-d-supplement-users-in-the-fingolimod-phase-3-trials
#12
Kira Hongell, Diego G Silva, Shannon Ritter, Daniela Piani Meier, Merja Soilu-Hänninen
BACKGROUND: Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with worse outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta. Association of vitamin D nutrition on the outcomes of other MS therapies has been studied less. OBJECTIVE: Whether patients in the phase 3 fingolimod trials using vitamin D supplements have better clinical, MRI and safety outcomes than non-users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pooled data from phase 3 FREEDOMS trials was analyzed post hoc...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241141/plasma-exchange-in-severe-acute-relapses-of-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-a-portuguese-cohort
#13
Inês Correia, Joana Jesus Ribeiro, Luís Isidoro, Sónia Batista, Carla Nunes, Carmo Macário, Catarina Borges, Jorge Tomaz, Lívia Sousa
BACKGROUND: Relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are often associated with significant disability impairment which is resultant from poor response to corticosteroids. In such severe cases, plasma exchange (PLEX) may be used, although only a few studies with MS patients have been reported. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of PLEX in severe relapses of MS. METHODS: Retrospective study of MS patients treated with PLEX in acute relapses. Data regarding EDSS, annualized relapse rate (ARR), treatment with corticosteroids, number of PLEX sessions, adverse events, and gadolinium enhancement in brain MRI were analysed...
December 7, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237516/utility-of-cardiac-mri-in-paediatric-myocarditis
#14
Alice Hales-Kharazmi, Nina Hirsch, Michael Kelleman, Timothy Slesnick, Shriprasad R Deshpande
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic role of cardiac MRI in myocarditis is evolving, however with extremely limited data in paediatrics. The goal of this study was to assess the utility of cardiac MRI in paediatric myocarditis and present a new prognostic score for risk stratification. METHOD: The present study is a retrospective investigation of children with a clinical diagnosis of myocarditis, including analysis of demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, including cardiac MRI, and outcomes...
December 14, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208312/gadolinium-deposition-in-the-paediatric-brain-t1-weighted-hyperintensity-within-the-dentate-nucleus-following-repeated-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-administration
#15
J R Young, I Orosz, M A Franke, H J Kim, D Woodworth, B M Ellingson, N Salamon, W B Pope
AIM: To determine whether repeated gadolinium-based contrast agent administration (GBCA) in children is associated with the development of increased T1-weighted signal intensity within the cerebellar dentate nucleus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With institutional review board approval for this The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study, a cohort of 41 patients under the age of 18 years who underwent at least four contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MR) examinations of the brain from 2005 to 2015 were identified...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202449/clonal-relationships-of-csf-b-cells-in-treatment-naive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#16
Erica L Eggers, Brady A Michel, Hao Wu, Sheng-Zhi Wang, Carolyn J Bevan, Aya Abounasr, Natalie S Pierson, Antje Bischof, Max Kazer, Elizabeth Leitner, Ariele L Greenfield, Stanislas Demuth, Michael R Wilson, Roland G Henry, Bruce Ac Cree, Stephen L Hauser, H-Christian von Büdingen
A role of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) is well established, but there is limited understanding of their involvement during active disease. Here, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) B cells in treatment-naive patients with MS or high-risk clinically isolated syndrome. Using flow cytometry, we found increased CSF lymphocytes with a disproportionate increase of B cells compared with T cells in patients with gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions on brain MRI. Ig gene heavy chain variable region (Ig-VH) repertoire sequencing of CSF and PB B cells revealed clonal relationships between intrathecal and peripheral B cell populations, which could be consistent with migration of B cells to and activation in the CNS in active MS...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200014/increased-delay-between-gadolinium-chelate-administration-and-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-acquisition-increases-contrast-enhancing-tumor-volumes-and-t1-intensities-in-brain-tumor-patients
#17
Paula L Piechotta, David Bonekamp, Martin Sill, Antje Wick, Wolfgang Wick, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Kickingereder
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of delayed T1-weighted (T1-w) MRI acquisition after gadolinium chelate administration on brain tumor volumes and T1-w intensities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with histologically confirmed, contrast-enhancing intra-axial brain tumors were analyzed in this prospective test-retest study. Patients underwent 2 consecutive 3 T MRI scans (separated by a 1-minute break) during routine follow-up with contrast-enhanced T1 (ceT1-w), T2, and FLAIR acquisition...
November 29, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196974/the-effects-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-on-the-cerebellum-from-basic-research-to-neurological-practice-and-from-pregnancy-to-adulthood
#18
EDITORIAL
Winda Ariyani, Miski Aghnia Khairinisa, Gaetano Perrotta, Mario Manto, Noriyuki Koibuchi
Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to increase the diagnostic yield. Current reports using animal models or human subjects have shown that GBCAs may be deposited in brain including the cerebellum. Although further studies may be required to clarify the toxicity of GBCAs, we should be more cautious to use these agents particularly in patients who more likely to have repeated enhanced MRI along their lifespan. In this editorial, current studies to clarify the toxicity of GBCAs in the cerebellum are introduced...
December 1, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182995/cocaine-induced-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-mimicking-balo-s-concentric-sclerosis-a-2-year-follow-up-with-serial-imaging-of-a-single-patient
#19
Ayse Sagduyu Kocaman, Pinar Yalinay Dikmen, Ercan Karaarslan
Cocaine abuse may cause stroke, metabolic or multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy. We described a patient with cocaine abuse who presented with Balo's type acute multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain showed onion like patchy concentric ring enhancement on T1-weighted MRI with gadolinium. Balo's Concentric Sclerosis like radiological findings related to cocaine has not been reported. Levamisole is now frequently used as an ingredient in cocaine and may cause leukoencephalopathy...
November 20, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173468/spatially-resolved-quantification-of-gadolinium-deposited-in-the-brain-of-a-patient-treated-with-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#20
Stefanie Fingerhut, Ann-Christin Niehoff, Michael Sperling, Astrid Jeibmann, Werner Paulus, Thomas Niederstadt, Thomas Allkemper, Walter Heindel, Markus Holling, Uwe Karst
Due to its paramagnetic properties resulting from seven unpaired f-electrons, Gd is frequently applied in magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Due to the acute toxicity of free Gd3+, ligand ions based on polyaminocarboxylic acids are used to create thermodynamically stable linear or macrocyclic complexes. The highly water soluble Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are known to be excreted fast and unmetabolized, mostly via the kidneys. Nevertheless, recent studies showed that Gd traces persists not only in animal but also in human brain...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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