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Gadolinium Brain

Masafumi Toyoshima, Keita Tsuji, Shogo Shigeta, Hideki Tokunaga, Kiyoshi Ito, Yoh Watanabe, Kosuke Yoshinaga, Takeo Otsuki, Hitoshi Niikura, Nobuo Yaegashi
Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is rarely observed in gynecologic cancers. As gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) is highly effective for diagnosing LM, the aim of this study is to describe the clinical behaviors and outcomes of LM patients who were diagnosed by Gd-MRI. After securing institutional review board approvals, we retrospectively reviewed patient records. Eight patients were found to have LM from gynecological malignancies. Primary tumors included three ovarian cancers, one tubal cancer, one peritoneal cancer, two endometrial cancers, and one cervical cancer...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Imaging
Yasuo Amano, Fumi Yanagisawa, Masaki Tachi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Shogo Imai, Shinichiro Kumita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of T2 mapping for detecting myocardial injuries in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: Twenty-one HCM patients and 7 healthy volunteers were examined. The T2 values were measured at hyperintense areas (high-T2 areas) identified with T2 mapping, at late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) areas, and in nullified myocardium of the HCM patients. The associations between T2 values and laboratory data or LGE areas were assessed...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Makoto Nakao, Hideki Muramatsu, Tetsushi Takahashi, Shunsuke Niwa, Yusuke Kagawa, Ryota Kurokawa, Kazuki Sone, Yuki Uozumi, Misako Ohkusu, Katsuhiko Kamei, Hiroshi Koga
A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a four-week history of headache and a two-week history of low-grade fever. Chest X-rays showed a tumor of approximately 50 mm in size in the right lower field. A histopathological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen from the right S9/10 revealed numerous fungal elements that appeared as encapsulated yeast with clear halos. Gadolinium-enhanced brain magnetic resonance images showed multiple cerebral nodules. Cryptococcus gattii (Genotype VGIIa) was isolated from the bronchial lavage and cerebrospinal fluid specimens...
2016: Internal Medicine
John Y-K Lee, Jayesh P Thawani, John Pierce, Ryan Zeh, Maria Martinez-Lage, Michelle Chanin, Ollin Venegas, Sarah Nims, Kim Learned, Jane Keating, Sunil Singhal
BACKGROUND: Although real-time localization of gliomas has improved with intraoperative image guidance systems, these tools are limited by brain shift, surgical cavity deformation, and expense. OBJECTIVE: To propose a novel method to perform near-infrared (NIR) imaging during glioma resections based on preclinical and clinical investigations, in order to localize tumors and to potentially identify residual disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients were identified and administered a Food and Drug Administration-approved, NIR contrast agent (Second Window indocyanine green [ICG], 5 mg/kg) before surgical resection...
October 11, 2016: Neurosurgery
Nandor K Pinter, Joshua P Klein, Laszlo L Mechtler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent research on gadolinium deposit formation in the brain linked to contrast-enhanced MRI studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Human and animal studies have confirmed the presence of gadolinium in the brain following the serial administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. This is a relatively new and growing field of research primarily driven by concerns regarding unknown and potentially harmful side effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yoshiki Takai, Tatsuro Misu, Shuhei Nishiyama, Hirohiko Ono, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ichiro Nakashima, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Toshihiro Kumabe, Shunji Mugikura, Mika Watanabe, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the pathogenic factors and mechanisms underlying the development of concentric demyelinating lesions in Balo disease. METHODS: We conducted serial clinical, MRI, and histopathologic assessments of concentric lesion formation in a case of relapsing Balo disease. RESULTS: The patient experienced 2 attacks caused by left parietal and left frontal lesions in 5 years. In MRI findings from both episodes of expanding lesions, there were diffusion-restricted rings that antedated the appearance of gadolinium enhancement; subsequently, typical concentric T2 lesions appeared concurrently with the disappearance of this enhancement...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Zaw Aung Khant, Toshinori Hirai, Yoshihito Kadota, Rie Masuda, Takanori Yano, Minako Azuma, Yukiko Suzuki, Kuniyuki Tashiro
We report a 34-year-old male who manifested T1 shortening of the cerebral cortices after more than 86 contrast-enhanced MRI studies. We observed high-signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) not only in the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus, and pulvinar of thalamus, but also in the cortices of the pre- and post-central gyri and around the calcarine sulcus. High SI in the cerebral cortices was not clearly demonstrated on T1WI scans performed 11 years earlier. The high SI we observed in these areas of the brain corresponded to areas with a normal iron-deposition predilection...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Nozomu Murata, Kiyoko Murata, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar, Kenneth Maravilla
Until recognition of the association of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) in 2006, these agents were considered extremely safe and without major adverse effects. Even after the recognition of NSF, most physicians considered all GBCAs to be safe when used in patients with normal renal function. This belief has been called into question with the discovery by Kanda in 2014 that Gd is deposited in brain tissue in patients with normal kidney function. Since that initial report, there have been a number of important studies analyzing the effects of various GBCAs in brain using MR T1 signal intensity measurements and postmortem tissue analyses with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
October 5, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Panagiotis Papanagiotou, Katharina Hein, Refik Pul, Kerstin Scholz, Christoph Heesen, Ricarda Diem
Changes in cerebral lesion load by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study on erythropoietin in clinically isolated optic neuritis (, NCT00355095) were analyzed. Therefore, patients with acute optic neuritis were assigned to receive either 33,000 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin (IV) daily for three days, or a placebo, as an add-on to methylprednisolone. Of 35 patients, we investigated changes in cerebral lesion load in MRIs obtained at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 16...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bruce A Bowser, Norbert G Campeau, Carrie M Carr, Felix E Diehn, Jennifer S McDonald, Gary M Miller, Timothy J Kaufmann
INTRODUCTION: Ferumoxytol (Feraheme) is a parenteral therapy approved for treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The product insert for ferumoxytol states that it may affect the diagnostic ability of MRI for up to 3 months. However, the expected effects may not be commonly recognized among clinical neuroradiologists. Our purpose is to describe the artifacts we have seen at our institution during routine clinical practice. METHODS: We reviewed the patients at our institution that had brain MRI performed within 90 days of receiving intravenous ferumoxytol...
October 4, 2016: Neuroradiology
María Pascual-Gallego, Pedro Alonso-Lera, Ana Arribi, Juan A Barcia, Javier Marco
Nocardial brain abscesses are uncommon and rarely occur in patients without predisposing factors. They may be mistaken for gliomas or necrotic metastases, and surgical intervention may be required to make the diagnosis. We report the first case of Nocardia farcinica cerebellar abscess in a patient without immunosuppression. He presented to us with headache and instability beginning a week before. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cystic lesion located at the right cerebellar hemisphere, hypointense in T1 and hyperintense in T2, with a fine wall that enhanced after injection of gadolinium...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Joana Ramalho, Miguel Ramalho, Michael Jay, Lauren Burke, Richard C Semelka
GBCAs play an important role in the diagnostic evaluation of many patients. The safety of these agents has been once again questioned after gadolinium deposits were observed and measured in brain and bone of patients with normal renal function. This retention of gadolinium in the human body has been termed "gadolinium storage condition". The long- term and cumulative effects of retained gadolinium in the brain and elsewhere are not as yet understood. Recently, patients who report that they suffer from chronic symptoms secondary to gadolinium exposure and retention created gadolinium-toxicity on-line support groups...
September 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Joana Ramalho, Miguel Ramalho, Mamdoh AlObaidy, Richard C Semelka
Over the last 2years several studies have been published regarding gadolinium deposition in brain structures in patients with normal renal function after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Most of the publications are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based retrospective studies, where gadolinium deposition may be indirectly measured by evaluating changes in T1 signal intensity (SI) in brain tissue, particularly in the dentate nucleus (DN) and/or globus pallidi (GP). The direct correlation between T1 signal changes and gadolinium deposition was validated by human pathology studies...
September 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Sanjay Konakondla, Mayur Jayarao, Jami Skrade, Caterina Giannini, Michael J Workman, Chad J Morgan
INTRODUCTION: The well-described entity of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA) in the setting of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is profound in current literature. It has been described in children as well as adults with or without identifiable clinical presentations of tuberous sclerosis. To our knowledge there has not been any report of a negative genetic workup of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in an adult patient presenting with an isolated SEGA. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 25-year-old female with no medical history who presented to the emergency room for headaches...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Philipp Eisele, Angelika Alonso, Kristina Szabo, Anne Ebert, Melissa Ong, Stefan O Schoenberg, Achim Gass
Recently, several studies reported increased signal intensity (SI) in the dentate nucleus (DN) after repeated application of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), suggesting a deposition of gadolinium in this location. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) frequently show increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier as part of the inflammatory process in the brain parenchyma, which theoretically might increase the risk of gadolinium deposition. In this retrospective study, we investigated a possible increasing SI in the DN after repeated administrations of the macrocyclic contrast agent gadoterate meglumine...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ludwig Schlemm, Claudia Chien, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Jan Dörr, Jens Wuerfel, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have postulated an association between dentate nucleus T1 hyperintensity and multiple sclerosis (MS)-related progressive neurodegeneration. Therefore, MS patients have been excluded from most studies investigating brain deposition of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). OBJECTIVE: To study the hypothesis that dentate nucleus T1 hyperintensity in MS patients is associated with GBCA administration. METHODS: In a cohort of 97 MS patients, the dentate-to-pons signal intensity ratio (DPSIR) was calculated for 265 consecutive T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) scans (including sessions with and without the administration of GBCA)...
September 27, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Adrian P L Smith, Michael Marino, Jeanette Roberts, Janell M Crowder, Jason Castle, Lisa Lowery, Christine Morton, Mark G Hibberd, Paul M Evans
Purpose To measure the levels of gadolinium present in the rat brain 1 and 20 weeks after dosing with contrast agent and to determine if there are any histopathologic sequelae. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the GE Global Research Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Absolute gadolinium levels were quantified in the blood and brains of rats 1 week after dosing and 20 weeks after dosing with up to 20 repeat doses of gadodiamide (cumulative dose, 12 mmol per kilogram of body weight) by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Radiology
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