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Gadolinium Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193901/exceedingly-small-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-positive-mri-contrast-agents
#1
He Wei, Oliver T Bruns, Michael G Kaul, Eric C Hansen, Mariya Barch, Agata Wiśniowska, Ou Chen, Yue Chen, Nan Li, Satoshi Okada, Jose M Cordero, Markus Heine, Christian T Farrar, Daniel M Montana, Gerhard Adam, Harald Ittrich, Alan Jasanoff, Peter Nielsen, Moungi G Bawendi
Medical imaging is routine in the diagnosis and staging of a wide range of medical conditions. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for visualizing soft tissue and organs, with over 60 million MRI procedures performed each year worldwide. About one-third of these procedures are contrast-enhanced MRI, and gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are the mainstream MRI contrast agents used in the clinic. GBCAs have shown efficacy and are safe to use with most patients; however, some GBCAs have a small risk of adverse effects, including nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), the untreatable condition recently linked to gadolinium (Gd) exposure during MRI with contrast...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187173/the-presence-of-the-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-depositions-in-the-brain-and-symptoms-of-gadolinium-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#2
Cyprian Olchowy, Kamil Cebulski, Mateusz Łasecki, Radosław Chaber, Anna Olchowy, Krzysztof Kałwak, Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCAs) are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging, but recently, high signal intensity in the cerebellum structures was reported after repeated administrations of contrast- enhanced magnetic resonance images. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between increased signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus in the brain and repeated administrations of GBCAs. Additionally, we focused on possible short- and long-term consequences of gadolinium use in those patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185158/outcome-measures-in-clinical-trials-for-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Caspar E P van Munster, Bernard M J Uitdehaag
Due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, it is a challenge to capture disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a reliable and valid way. Therefore, it can be difficult to assess the true efficacy of interventions in clinical trials. In phase III trials in MS, the traditionally used primary clinical outcome measures are the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the relapse rate. Secondary outcome measures in these trials are the number or volume of T2 hyperintense lesions and gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain...
February 9, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183276/peginterferon-beta-1a-improves-mri-measures-and-increases-the-proportion-of-patients-with-no-evidence-of-disease-activity-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-2-year-results-from-the-advance-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Douglas L Arnold, Peter A Calabresi, Bernd C Kieseier, Shifang Liu, Xiaojun You, Damian Fiore, Serena Hung
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a has previously been shown to reduce the number of T2-hyperintense and gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions over 2 years in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to reduce T1-hypointense lesion formation and the proportion of patients showing evidence of disease activity, based on both clinical and radiological measures, compared with placebo over 1 year of treatment. The objectives of the current analyses were to evaluate T1 lesions and other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures, including whole brain volume and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal appearing brain tissue (NABT), and the proportions of patients with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA), over 2 years...
February 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168751/easily-measurable-noninvasive-and-novel-finding-for-pulmonary-hypertension-hypertrophy-of-the-basal-segment-of-septomarginal-trabeculation-of-right-ventricle
#5
Gultekin Karakus, Ertugrul Zencirci, Aleks Degirmencioglu, Tolga Sinan Güvenc, Hale Unal Aksu, Aydin Yildirim
BACKGROUND: Effect of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on right ventricular (RV) geometry constitutes an ideal target to assess both pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and its physiological importance. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic power of the basal segment of septomarginal trabeculation (SMT) in predicting the PH and RV hypertrophy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and Eisenmenger's syndrome (ES). METHODS: Eleven patients with IPAH, seven patients with ES, and 20 healthy controls were enrolled...
February 6, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155924/structure-and-dysprosium-dopant-engineering-of-gadolinium-oxide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-dual-modal-magnetic-resonance-and-fluorescence-imaging
#6
Jinchang Yin, Chaorui Li, Deqi Chen, Jiajun Yang, Huan Liu, Wenyong Hu, Yuanzhi Shao
We report a class of multi-functional core-shell nanoarchitectures, consisting of silica nanospheres as the core and Gd2O3:Dy(3+) nanocrystals as the ultra-thin shell, that enable unique multi-color living cell imaging and remarkable in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. These types of targeted cell imaging nanoarchitectures can be used as a variety of fluorescence nanoprobes due to the multi-color emissions of the Gd2O3:Dy(3+) nanophosphor. We also proposed a strategy of modulating core-shell structure design to achieve an enhanced magnetic resonance contrast ability of Gd2O3 nanoagents, and the classical Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan theory was applied to explicate the mechanism underlying the enhancement...
February 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154284/chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-presenting-with-multiple-punctate-intracranial-lesions-on-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Makoto Terada, Kiyotaka Nakamagoe, Naoshi Obara, Shinichi Ogawa, Noriaki Sakamoto, Taiki Sato, Seitaro Nohara, Shigeru Chiba, Akira Tamaoka
Central nervous system graft-versus-host disease can present quite a diagnostic challenge. We herein present a case of histologically-confirmed chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) involving the central nervous system that occurred at 19 months after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed areas of confluent hyperintensity in the deep/subcortical white matter with multiple punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements, suggesting the disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153849/corticosteroid-responsive-focal-granulomatous-herpes-simplex-type-1-encephalitis-in-adults
#8
Aravinthan Varatharaj, James Ar Nicoll, Emanuela Pelosi, Ashwin A Pinto
We describe corticosteroid-responsive focal granulomatous encephalitis as a manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 disease in the brain: something easily missed and easily treated. Two adult cases presented with cognitive symptoms progressing over weeks, despite aciclovir treatment. Brain imaging showed temporal lobe abnormalities, with gadolinium enhancement but no abnormal diffusion restriction. HSV-1 PCR analysis was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but positive in brain biopsies, which showed vasocentric granulomatous inflammation...
February 2, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148632/serum-neurofilament-is-associated-with-progression-of-brain-atrophy-and-disability-in-early-ms
#9
Jens Kuhle, Bardia Nourbakhsh, Donna Grant, Steve Morant, Christian Barro, Özgür Yaldizli, Daniel Pelletier, Gavin Giovannoni, Emmanuelle Waubant, Sharmilee Gnanapavan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a potential effect of riluzole on serum neurofilaments (Nf) compared to placebo and the relationship between longitudinal clinical and MRI outcomes and serum Nf levels. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from participants enrolled in a randomized double-blind trial of neuroprotection with riluzole vs placebo as an add-on to weekly interferon-β (IFN-β)-1a IM initiated 3 months after randomization. Nf measurements were performed by ELISA and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
February 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131210/tnf-alpha-inhibitor-associated-myelopathies-a-neurological-complication-in-patients-with-rheumatologic-disorders
#10
Paula Barreras, Maureen A Mealy, Carlos A Pardo
OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFα-I) are biological agents used in the treatment of rheumatologic disorders. TNFα-I have been associated with demyelinating disorders mimicking multiple sclerosis. The goal of this report is to illustrate cases of myelopathy which developed during the use of TNFα-I. METHODS: We describe the clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features of 4 cases of myelopathy associated with TNFα-I. RESULTS: The mean period of TNFα-I exposure was 27 [12-36] months...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128810/-comparing-the-activity-of-multiple-sclerosis-ms-at-the-minute-and-at-20-minutes-of-gadolinium-application-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-of-the-brain
#11
Christina Saldívar-Uribe, Mario Alberto de la Portilla-Villanueva, Alberto Esau-Mendoza-García
The aim was to compare active disease in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, brain by MRI after gadolinium application at one minute and 20 minutes. A longitudinal, prospective, observational, analytical and comparative study was conducted in 18 patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). An analysis was made for each patient, watching for inflammatory activity in MS lesions, comparing the results to one minute and 20 minutes after the application of gadolinium. For the descriptive analysis, absolute frequencies and percentages were used, as well as means and standard deviations or medians with ranges for the inferential analysis comparing the presence or absence of enhancement in lesions at one minute and 20 minutes; the exact probability test used was Fisher...
January 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126551/exploring-the-origins-of-echo-time-dependent-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-qsm-measurements-in-healthy-tissue-and-cerebral-microbleeds
#12
Matthew J Cronin, Nian Wang, Kyle S Decker, Hongjiang Wei, Wen-Zhen Zhu, Chunlei Liu
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is increasingly used to measure variation in tissue composition both in the brain and in other areas of the body in a range of disease pathologies. Although QSM measurements were originally believed to be independent of the echo time (TE) used in the gradient-recalled echo (GRE) acquisition from which they are derived; recent literature (Sood et al., 2016) has shown that these measurements can be highly TE-dependent in a number of brain regions. In this work we systematically investigate possible causes of this effect through analysis of apparent frequency and QSM measurements derived from data acquired at multiple TEs in vivo in healthy brain regions and in cerebral microbleeds (CMBs); QSM data acquired in a gadolinium-doped phantom; and in QSM data derived from idealized simulated phase data...
January 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125438/quantification-and-assessment-of-the-chemical-form-of-residual-gadolinium-in-the-brain-after-repeated-administration-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-comparative-study-in-rats
#13
Thomas Frenzel, Chirag Apte, Gregor Jost, Laura Schöckel, Jessica Lohrke, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVE: Multiple clinical and preclinical studies have reported a signal intensity increase and the presence of gadolinium (Gd) in the brain after repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). This bioanalytical study in rat brain tissue was initiated to investigate whether the residual Gd is present as intact GBCA or in other chemical forms by using tissue fractionation and chromatography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided randomly in 6 groups of 10 animals each...
January 25, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120771/diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-in-children-interest-of-robotic-frameless-assisted-biopsy-a-technical-note
#14
H A Coca, H Cebula, M Benmekhbi, M P Chenard, N Entz-Werle, F Proust
INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) constitute 10-15% of all brain tumors in the pediatric population; currently prognosis remains poor, with an overall survival of 7-14 months. Recently the indication of DIPG biopsy has been enlarged due to the development of molecular biology and various ongoing clinical and therapeutic trials. Classically a biopsy is performed using a stereotactic frame assisted procedure but the workflow may sometimes be heavy and more complex especially in children...
December 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117925/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-vestibular-schwannoma-a-new-hybrid-approach-for-analysis-of-t1-w-dce-mri
#15
Ka-Loh Li, Xiaoping Zhu, Sha Zhao, Alan Jackson
PURPOSE: To develop and assess a "hybrid" method that combines a first-pass analytical approach and the Patlak plot (PP) to improve assessment of low blood-brain barrier permeability from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with vestibular schwannoma were enrolled. T1 -W DCE imaging was acquired on a 1.5T scanner. Normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) was divided into four regions of interest (ROIs) based on the magnitude of changes in longitudinal relaxation rate (ΔR1) after gadolinium administration...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104251/efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-natalizumab-in-japanese-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-and-open-label-pharmacokinetic-study
#16
Takahiko Saida, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shuji Kishida, Takashi Yamamura, Yukiko Sudo, Kazutaka Ogiwara, J T Tibung, Nisha Lucas, Meena Subramanyam
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab, an anti-α4 integrin monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated efficacy in phase 2 and 3 studies of predominantly Caucasian patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of natalizumab in Japanese RRMS patients. METHODS: This multicenter, phase 2 study included an open-label PK/PD study in 12 patients (part A) and a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized (computer-generated sequence) study in 94 patients (part B)...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090589/spiral-perfusion-imaging-with-consecutive-echoes-spice%C3%A2-for-the-simultaneous-mapping-of-dsc-and-dce-mri-parameters-in-brain-tumor-patients-theory-and-initial-feasibility
#17
Eric S Paulson, Douglas E Prah, Kathleen M Schmainda
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the perfusion imaging techniques most frequently used to probe the angiogenic character of brain neoplasms. With these methods, T1- and T2/T2*-weighted imaging sequences are used to image the distribution of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents. However, it is well known that Gd exhibits combined T1, T2, and T2* shortening effects in tissue, and therefore, the results of both DCE- and DSC-MRI can be confounded by these opposing effects...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087916/-a-case-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis-presenting-as-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#18
Zhan He, Fang Ding, Jiandong Rong, Yongli Gan
A 26-year-old male presented with a 6-day history of paroxysmal headache which was worsen with nausea and vomiting for 1 day. Head CT on admission revealed left chronic subdural hematoma with midline shift. An emergency Burr hole drainage for hematoma was performed. Headache recurred 6 days later. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse thickening and a gadolinium-enhancement of the falx, cranial dura mater and tentorium cerebelli on the left side with pia mater involved. Lumber puncture showed increased intracranial pressure and elevated IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078634/natalizumab-for-achieving-relapse-free-t1-gadolinium-enhancing-lesion-free-and-t2-lesion-free-status-in-japanese-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-phase-2-trial-subanalysis
#19
Takahiko Saida, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shuji Kishida, Takashi Yamamura, Nobuhisa Ohtsuka, Qunming Dong, J T Tibung
INTRODUCTION: In a phase 2 trial of natalizumab in Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), treatment-related changes in relapses, brain lesions, and disability worsening were found to be comparable with those observed in the phase 3 studies of natalizumab in primarily non-Asian RRMS patients. METHODS: This subanalysis of the placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of natalizumab in Japanese RRMS patients (n = 94) evaluated the effects of natalizumab versus placebo on the proportion of patients who achieved relapse-free, T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion-free, and new/newly enlarged T2 lesion-free status, defined as "no evidence of inflammatory disease activity" (NEDA)-like status, after 24 weeks of treatment...
January 11, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076722/is-there-long-term-signal-intensity-increase-in-the-central-nervous-system-on-t1-weighted-images-after-mr-imaging-with-the-hepatospecific-contrast-agent-gadoxetic-acid-a-cross-sectional-study-in-91-patients
#20
Johannes Kahn, Helena Posch, Ingo G Steffen, Dominik Geisel, Christian Bauknecht, Thomas Liebig, Timm Denecke
Purpose To evaluate whether there is T1-weighted signal intensity (SI) increase in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) in relation to the middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP), pons, and thalamus after repeated administration of the liver-specific contrast agent gadoxetic acid. Materials and Methods This was an institutional review board-approved, prospectively conducted (written informed consent acquired), cross-sectional study performed in a consecutively selected patient group (n = 91; patients received one to 37 doses of gadoxetic acid) and a control group (n = 52; subjects had never received injections of gadolinium-based contrast agent) examined with a standard T1-weighted two-dimensional spin-echo pulse sequence of the brain at 1...
March 2017: Radiology
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