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Gadolinium Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323657/histology-and-gadolinium-distribution-in-the-rodent-brain-after-the-administration-of-cumulative-high-doses-of-linear-and-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#1
Jessica Lohrke, Anna-Lena Frisk, Thomas Frenzel, Laura Schöckel, Martin Rosenbruch, Gregor Jost, Diana Constanze Lenhard, Martin A Sieber, Volker Nischwitz, Astrid Küppers, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: Retrospective studies in patients with primary brain tumors or other central nervous system pathologies as well as postmortem studies have suggested that gadolinium (Gd) deposition occurs in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) after multiple administrations of primarily linear Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). However, this deposition has not been associated with any adverse effects or histopathological alterations. The aim of this preclinical study was to systematically examine differences between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs in their potential to induce changes in brain and skin histology including Gd distribution in high spatial resolution...
March 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322975/a-polymeric-micelle-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-contrast-agent-reveals-blood-brain-barrier-bbb-permeability-for-macromolecules-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Kouichi Shiraishi, Zuojun Wang, Daisuke Kokuryo, Ichio Aoki, Masayuki Yokoyama
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening is a key phenomenon for understanding ischemia-reperfusion injuries that are directly linked to hemorrhagic transformation. The recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) increases the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhages. Recent imaging technologies have advanced our understanding of pathological BBB disorders; however, an ongoing challenge in the pre-"rtPA treatment" stage is the task of developing a rigorous method for hemorrhage-risk assessments...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306402/the-effect-of-radiation-dose-on-the-onset-and-progression-of-radiation-induced-brain-necrosis-in-the-rat-model
#3
Brad A Hartl, Htet S W Ma, Katherine S Hansen, Julian Perks, Michael S Kent, Ruben C Fragoso, Laura Marcu
PURPOSE: To provide a comprehensive understanding of how the selection of radiation dose affects the temporal and spatial progression of radiation-induced necrosis in the rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Necrosis was induced with a single fraction of radiation exposure, at doses ranging between 20 and 60 Gy, to the right hemisphere of 8-week-old Fischer rats from a linear accelerator. The development and progression of necrosis in the rats was monitored and quantified every other week with T1- and T2-weighted gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI studies...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301882/infantile-hemangioma-of-the-posterior-fossa-in-a-newborn-early-management-and-long-term-follow-up
#4
Elsa Haine, Annick Sevely, Sergio Boetto, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Claude Cances
A 21-day-old male infant was admitted with signs of intracranial hypertension. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a voluminous mass in the posterior fossa with an intense peripheral enhancement on T1 images with gadolinium. The child was treated secondarily by surgical decompression of the posterior fossa and the lesion was biopsied. The pathological findings indicated infantile hemangioma. Treatment with oral prednisolone was initiated at 3 months, given the lack of tumor involution. Six months after corticotherapy was stopped, repeated MRIs indicated a significant reduction in tumor size and then complete disappearance...
March 16, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289935/repeated-intravenous-administration-of-gadobutrol-does-not-lead-to-increased-signal-intensity-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-images-a-voxel-based-whole-brain-analysis
#5
Soenke Langner, Marie-Luise Kromrey, Jens-Peter Kuehn, Matthias Grothe, Martin Domin
OBJECTIVES: To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. METHODS: In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol...
March 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283728/survey-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-utilization-among-the-members-of-the-society-for-pediatric-radiology-a-quality-and-safety-committee-report
#6
Einat Blumfield, Michael M Moore, Mary K Drake, Thomas R Goodman, Kristopher N Lewis, Laura T Meyer, Thang D Ngo, Christina Sammet, Arta Luana Stanescu, David W Swenson, Thomas L Slovis, Ramesh S Iyer
BACKGROUND: Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging over the last three decades. Recent reports demonstrated gadolinium retention in patients' brains following intravenous administration. Since gadolinium is a highly toxic heavy metal, there is a potential for adverse effects from prolonged retention or deposition, particularly in children. For this reason, the Society (SPR) for Pediatric Radiology Quality and Safety committee conducted a survey to evaluate the current status of GBCAs usage among pediatric radiologists...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283727/use-of-gadolinium-based-magnetic-resonance-imaging-contrast-agents-and-awareness-of-brain-gadolinium-deposition-among-pediatric-providers-in-north-america
#7
Leena B Mithal, Payal S Patel, Divakar Mithal, Hannah L Palac, Michael N Rozenfeld
BACKGROUND: Numerous recent articles have reported brain gadolinium deposition when using linear but not macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the current landscape of gadolinium use among pediatric institutions and the knowledge base of radiologists and referring providers with regard to GBCAs and brain gadolinium deposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We e-mailed voluntary closed surveys to 5,390 physicians in various pediatric professional societies between January 2016 and March 2016...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283598/leptomeningeal-gadolinium-enhancement-across-the-spectrum-of-chronic-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#8
Martina Absinta, Irene C M Cortese, Luisa Vuolo, Govind Nair, Manori P de Alwis, Joan Ohayon, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Andrea Falini, Bryan R Smith, Avindra Nath, Steven Jacobson, Massimo Filippi, Daniel S Reich
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and the specificity of leptomeningeal enhancement (LME) on postcontrast T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to a variety of inflammatory and noninflammatory neurologic conditions assessed in 2 academic research hospitals. METHODS: On 3T postcontrast T2-FLAIR images, the presence of focal gadolinium enhancement was evaluated in the leptomeningeal compartment in 254 people with non-MS neurologic conditions or neurotropic viral infections...
March 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277457/advanced-mri-measures-of-cerebral-perfusion-and-their-clinical-applications
#9
Bryan Lanzman, Jeremy J Heit
Cerebral blood flow measurement by magnetic resonance imaging perfusion (MRP) techniques is broadly applied to patients with acute ischemic stroke, vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic arterial steno-occlusive disease, cervical atherosclerotic disease, and primary brain neoplasms. MRP may be performed using an exogenous tracer, most commonly gadolinium-based intravenous contrast, or an endogenous tracer, such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) or intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Here, we review the technical basis of commonly performed MRP techniques, the interpretation of MRP imaging maps, and how MRP provides valuable clinical information in the triage of patients with cerebral disease...
March 8, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275197/relationship-between-changes-in-the-temporal-dynamics-of-the-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signal-and-hypoperfusion-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#10
Ahmed A Khalil, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Till Nierhaus, Ramanan Ganeshan, Heinrich J Audebert, Kersten Villringer, Arno Villringer, Jochen B Fiebach
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Changes in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal provide a noninvasive measure of blood flow, but a detailed comparison with established perfusion parameters in acute stroke is lacking. We investigated the relationship between BOLD signal temporal delay and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in stroke patients. METHODS: In 30 patients with acute (<24 hours) ischemic stroke, we performed Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression between DSC-MRI parameters (time to maximum [Tmax], mean transit time, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume) and BOLD-based parameters (BOLD delay and coefficient of BOLD variation)...
March 8, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273007/pediatric-brain-no-increased-signal-intensity-in-the-dentate-nucleus-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-mr-images-after-consecutive-exposure-to-a-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent
#11
Alexander Radbruch, Robert Haase, Philipp Kickingereder, Philipp Bäumer, Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Daniel Paech, Wolfgang Wick, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Angelika Seitz, Martin Bendszus
Purpose To determine the effect of at least five serial injections of the macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) gadoterate meglumine on the signal intensity (SI) of the dentate nucleus (DN) of the pediatric brain on nonenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 41 pediatric patients (age range, 3-17 years) who were imaged in at least five consecutive 1.5-T MR examinations with the exclusive use of gadoterate meglumine (plus a final additional nonenhanced MR imaging examination) were evaluated...
March 8, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272724/-magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-gadolinium-in-the-acute-phase-of-relapses-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
P Ortiz, J Bareno, L Cabrera, K Rueda, A Rovira
AIM: To describe the factors that are associated with gadolinium enhancement on MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and symptoms of relapse. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients over 18 years diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive and primary progressive from 2009 to 2014, who had a clinical relapse and underwent brain and spinal resonance with gadolinium during the acute phase of the symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 93 patients enrolled, 70% were women, the average age was 37 ± 9...
March 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264905/perforin-expression-by-cd8-t-cells-is-sufficient-to-cause-fatal-brain-edema-during-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#13
Matthew Huggins, Holly L Johnson, Fang Jin, Aurelie N'Songo, Lisa M Hanson, Stephanie J LaFrance, Noah S Butler, John T Harty, Aaron J Johnson
Human cerebral malaria (HCM) is a serious complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. The most severe outcomes for patients include coma, permanent neurological deficits, and death. Recently, a large-scale magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in humans identified brain swelling as the most prominent predictor of fatal HCM. Therefore, in this study we sought to define the mechanism controlling brain edema through the use of the murine experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) model. Specifically, we investigated the ability of CD8 T cells to initiate brain edema during ECM...
March 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261936/characterizing-clinical-and-mri-dissociation-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Brian C Healy, Guy J Buckle, Eman N Ali, Svetlana Egorova, Fariha Khalid, Shahamat Tauhid, Bonnie I Glanz, Tanuja Chitnis, Charles R G Guttmann, Howard L Weiner, Rohit Bakshi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two common approaches for measuring disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS) are the clinical exam and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Although most patients show similar disease severity on both measures, some patients have clinical/MRI dissociation. METHODS: Subjects from a comprehensive care MS center who had a concurrent brain MRI, spinal cord MRI, clinical examination, and patient reported outcomes were classified into three groups based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and cerebral T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260625/cavernous-sinus-syndrome-a-prospective-study-of-73-cases-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-northern-india
#15
S Bhatkar, M K Goyal, A Takkar, K K Mukherjee, P Singh, R Singh, V Lal
OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical and etiological profile of patients with cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) and identify factors which could determine the etiology and influence the outcome of these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study included 73 consecutive patients satisfying the criteria of CSS (i.e. involvement of any 2 of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th cranial nerves or any one of them with radiological evidence of cavernous sinus involvement)...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255973/chondromyxoid-fibroma-of-the-skull-base-our-experience-with-an-elusive-disease
#16
Giancarlo D'Andrea, Alessandro Pesce, Guido Trasimeni, Venceslao Wierzbicki, Veronica Picotti, Alessandra Serraino, Riccardo Caruso
Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is an extremely rare lesion of the skull base. This histologic type typically predilects metaphysis of the long bones. It is locally invasive/infiltrative, and this tendency is more concerning in the skull base, where a radical resection is often technically impossible because of the presence of vital neurovascular structures. We present a case of a 19-year-old woman who presented with a sudden onset of right facial weakness, progressively worsening to a severe disfiguring motor weakness...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254591/a-small-leak-will-sink-the-brain-targeted-c1-c2-patching
#17
Thomas Decramer, Pieter Jan Van Dyck-Lippens, Tom P Franken, Philippe Demaerel, Johannes van Loon, Tom Theys
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) syndrome results from spontaneous spinal CSF leaks. The first treatment of choice consists of lumbar epidural blood patching. If this fails further imaging is mandatory to explore the possibility of targeted therapy. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a case of a 50-year old woman who developed spontaneous intracranial hypotension after minor blunt cervical trauma, complicated with bilateral subdural hematomas. Two lumbar epidural blood patches were unsuccessful...
February 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253929/reducing-radiation-dose-to-normal-brain-through-a-risk-adapted-dose-reduction-protocol-for-patients-with-favourable-subtype-anaplastic-glioma
#18
M Back, M LeMottee, C Crasta, D Bailey, H Wheeler, L Guo, T Eade
AIM: In patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutated anaplastic glioma determine the dosimetric benefits of delivering radiation therapy using a PET guided integrated boost IMRT technique (ib-IMRT) compared with standard IMRT (s-IMRT) in reducing dose to normal brain. METHODS: Ten patients with anaplastic glioma, identified as a favourable molecular subgroup through presence of IDH mutation, and managed with radiation therapy using an ib-IMRT were enrolled into a dosimetric study comparing two RT techniques: s-IMRT to 59...
March 2, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253602/-a-clinical-report-of-five-cases-of-central-nervous-system-miliary-tuberculomas-first-diagnosed-by-neurologists
#19
X Huang, X Y Wang, Z H Zhu, X K Qi, Y X Yu
To explore the clinical characteristics and imaging features of miliary tuberculomas in central nervous system(CNS). A total of 5 cases diagnosed with tuberculosis in CNS first diagnosed by neurologists in Navy General Hospital of PLA were enrolled in the study. All clinical and imaging data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The main initial symptoms were fever and headache (4/5). Multiple diffused miliary lesions were shown by brain MRI, with maximum diameter ranged from 1-4 mm and ring-shape or nodular enhancement after gadolinium injection...
March 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251685/primal-dual-and-forward-gradient-implementation-for-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#20
Youngwook Kee, Kofi Deh, Alexey Dimov, Pascal Spincemaille, Yi Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the computational aspects of the prior term in quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) by (i) comparing the Gauss-Newton conjugate gradient (GNCG) algorithm that uses numerical conditioning (ie, modifies the prior term) with a primal-dual (PD) formulation that avoids this, and (ii) carrying out a comparison between a central and forward difference scheme for the discretization of the prior term. THEORY AND METHODS: A spatially continuous formulation of the regularized QSM inversion problem and its PD formulation were derived...
March 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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