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Gadolinium Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341021/assessment-of-blood-brain-barrier-leakage-with-gadolinium-enhanced-mri
#1
Min-Chi Ku, Sonia Waiczies, Thoralf Niendorf, Andreas Pohlmann
The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be noninvasively monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conventional MR contrast agents (CAs) containing gadolinium are used in association with MRI in routine clinical practice to detect and quantify BBB leakage. Under normal circumstances CAs do not cross the intact BBB. However due to their small size they extravasate from the blood into the brain tissue even when the BBB is partially compromised. Here we describe an MR method based on T1-weighted images taken prior to and after CA injection...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329151/gadolinium-retention-brain-t1-hyperintensity-and-endogenous-metals-a-comparative-study-of-macrocyclic-versus-linear-gadolinium-chelates-in-renally-sensitized-rats
#2
Marlène Rasschaert, Andréa Emerit, Nathalie Fretellier, Cécile Factor, Philippe Robert, Jean-Marc Idée, Claire Corot
OBJECTIVES: This preclinical study was designed to compare gadolinium (Gd) brain uptake after repeated injections of a macrocyclic Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA) (gadoterate meglumine) or 2 linear GBCAs (L-GBCAs) (gadobenate dimeglumine or gadodiamide) on a translational model of moderate renal impairment in rats. METHODS: The study was carried out in subtotally nephrectomized rats. Animals received 4 intravenous injections per week of GBCA (gadoterate meglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, or gadodiamide) for 5 weeks, resulting in a cumulative dose of 12 mmol/kg, followed by a 1-month injection-free period...
January 12, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328539/early-detection-of-myocardial-involvement-by-t1-mapping-of-cardiac-mri-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy
#3
Liuyu Yu, Jianhong Sun, Jiayu Sun, Jiangbo Li, Yang Dong, Xiaoyue Zhou, Andreas Greiser, Yuchi Han, Qing Zhang, Qibing Xie, Yucheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are common types of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), wherein patients are prone to adverse cardiovascular events. PURPOSE: To explore the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting cardiac involvement in PM/DM patients using a T1 mapping technique. STUDY TYPE: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: In all, 25 PM/DM patients free of cardiovascular symptoms and preserved ventricular systolic function and 25 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex served as controls...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328521/the-central-vein-sign-differentiates-ms-from-cns-inflammatory-vasculopathies
#4
Pietro Maggi, Martina Absinta, Matteo Grammatico, Luisa Vuolo, Giacomo Emmi, Giovanna Carlucci, Gregorio Spagni, Alessandro Barilaro, Anna Maria Repice, Lorenzo Emmi, Domenico Prisco, Vittorio Martinelli, Roberta Scotti, Niloufar Sadeghi, Gaetano Perrotta, Pascal Sati, Bernard Dachy, Daniel S Reich, Massimo Filippi, Luca Massacesi
OBJECTIVES: In multiple sclerosis (MS), MRI is a sensitive tool for detecting white matter lesions, but its diagnostic specificity is still suboptimal; ambiguous cases are frequent in clinical practice. Detection of perivenular lesions in the brain (the "central vein sign") improves the pathological specificity of MS diagnosis, but comprehensive evaluation of this MRI biomarker in MS-mimicking inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases, such as CNS inflammatory vasculopathies, is missing...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319556/gadolinium-accumulation-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nuclei-and-globus-pallidus-after-exposure-to-linear-but-not-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-in-a-retrospective-pig-study-with-high-similarity-to-clinical-conditions
#5
Janina Boyken, Thomas Frenzel, Jessica Lohrke, Gregor Jost, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the gadolinium (Gd) concentration in different brain areas in a pig cohort that received repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) at standard doses over several years, comparable with a clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Brain tissue was collected from 13 Göttingen mini pigs that had received repeated intravenous injections of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist) and/or gadobutrol (Gadovist)...
January 9, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313473/1-5-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-investigate-potential-etiologies-of-brain-swelling-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#6
Michael J Potchen, Samuel D Kampondeni, Karl B Seydel, E Mark Haacke, Sylvester S Sinyangwe, Musaku Mwenechanya, Simon J Glover, Danny A Milner, Eric Zeli, Colleen A Hammond, David Utriainen, Kennedy Lishimpi, Terrie E Taylor, Gretchen L Birbeck
The hallmark of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature. Malawi-based research using 0.35 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established that severe brain swelling is associated with fatal CM, but swelling etiology remains unclear. Autopsy and clinical studies suggest several potential etiologies, but limitations of 0.35 T MRI precluded optimal investigations into swelling pathophysiology. A 1.5 T MRI in Zambia allowed for further investigations including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312473/central-nervous-system-gadolinium-accumulation-in-patients-undergoing-periodical-contrast-mri-screening-for-hereditary-tumor-syndromes
#7
Evelynn Vergauwen, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Carola Brussaard, Peter Janssens, Dieter De Clerck, Michel Van Lint, Anne C Houtman, Olaf Michel, Kathelijn Keymolen, Bieke Lefevere, Susanne Bohler, Dirk Michielsen, Anna C Jansen, Vera Van Velthoven, Sven Gläsker
Background: Patients with hereditary tumor syndromes undergo periodical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening with Gadolinium contrast. Gadolinium accumulation has recently been described in the central nervous system after repeated administrations. The prevalence and rate of accumulation in different subgroups of patients are unknown. Neither are the mechanism nor clinical impact. This may cause uncertainty about the screening. To explore the prevalence and rate of Gadolinium accumulation in different subgroups, we retrospectively analyzed MRIs of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305683/the-use-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-to-assist-gross-total-resection-of-pediatric-astroblastoma
#8
Yuji Agawa, Takafumi Wataya
PURPOSE: Astroblastoma is an uncommon pediatric neuroepithelial tumor. The prognosis and appropriate treatment of astroblastoma were not well understood. Previous reports suggested the best treatment for astroblastoma is surgical total resection. The authors report a case of pediatric astroblastoma that underwent gross total resection with the use of fluorescent guidance by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old girl presented with the tumor that was well-circumscribed cystic and solid mass with marked gadolinium enhancement in the right occipital lobe...
January 5, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301780/multiparametric-analysis-of-permeability-and-adc-histogram-metrics-for-classification-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-by-tumor-grade
#9
S Vajapeyam, D Brown, P R Johnston, K I Ricci, M W Kieran, H G W Lidov, T Y Poussaint
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accurate tumor grading is essential for treatment planning of pediatric brain tumors. We hypothesized that multiparametric analyses of a combination of permeability metrics and ADC histogram metrics would differentiate high- and low-grade tumors with high accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging using T1-mapping with flip angles of 2°, 5°, 10°, and 15°, followed by a 0.1-mmol/kg body weight gadolinium-based bolus was performed on all patients in addition to standard MR imaging...
January 4, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300210/pediatric-brain-gadolinium-deposition-in-dentate-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-images-is-dependent-on-the-type-of-contrast-agent
#10
Young Jin Ryu, Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, Woo-Jin Lee, Subin Park, Ji Eun Park, Woo Sun Kim, In-One Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the signal intensity (SI) changes in the dentate nucleus (DN) and the globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images after multiple administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in children and compare those changes between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and the requirement for informed consent was waived...
January 2, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280026/management-of-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-surgery
#11
REVIEW
David L Penn, William T Burke, Edward R Laws
Non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign tumors of the pituitary gland that do not over-secrete hormonal products, therefore, they are generally detected through symptoms of mass effect, including headache, vision loss, or hypopituitarism. There are multiple pathological subtypes of NFPAs, such as null cell adenomas, silent gonadotrophs, silent somatotrophs, silent corticotrophs, and silent subtype 3, all of which can be classified based on immunohistochemical studies and electron microscopy. Despite these numerous pathological subtypes, surgical resection remains the first-line treatment for NFPAs...
December 26, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278694/non-clinical-assessment-of-safety-and-gadolinium-deposition-after-cumulative-administration-of-gadobenate-dimeglumine-multihance%C3%A2-to-neonatal-and-juvenile-rats
#12
Simona Bussi, Laure Penard, Roberta Bonafè, Catherine Botteron, Roberto Celeste, Alessandra Coppo, Roberta Queliti, Miles A Kirchin, Fabio Tedoldi, Federico Maisano
To determine the impact of single and cumulative doses of MultiHance on toxicity, pharmacokinetics, tissue gadolinium presence, behavior and neurological function in juvenile rats. Juvenile male and female rats received either physiological saline or MultiHance at 0.6, 1.25 or 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight. Animals received either single or six consecutive MultiHance administrations and were sacrificed the day after the last administration or after a 60-day treatment-free period. Animals were assessed for behavior, cognitive function, grip strength, gait, pupillary reflex, and auditory reflex, as well as for physical development, sexual maturation and histopathology...
December 23, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277593/oculoleptomeningeal-amyloidosis-secondary-to-the-rare-transthyretin-c-381t-g-p-ile127met-mutation
#13
Francois Mathieu, Erin Morgan, Joyce So, David G Munoz, Warren Mason, Paul Kongkham
BACKGROUND: Oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis (OLMA) represents a rare subtype of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, characterized by deposition of amyloid in cranial and spinal leptomeninges along with ocular involvement. Of more than 100 TTR mutations identified, few have been associated with OLMA. Herein we describe the first report of leptomeningeal amyloidosis associated with the c.381T>G (p.Ile127Met) TTR mutation, linking this variant in the OLMA phenotype. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53 year-old male presented with a 2-year history of progressive symptoms including upper and lower limb weakness, ataxia, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy...
December 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276498/role-of-hyperintense-acute-reperfusion-marker-for-classifying-the-stroke-etiology
#14
Hee Young Choi, Kyung Mi Lee, Hyug-Gi Kim, Eui Jong Kim, Woo Suk Choi, Bum Joon Kim, Sung Hyuk Heo, Dae-Il Chang
Purpose: The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) is a delayed enhancement of the subarachnoid or subpial space observed on post-contrast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images and is associated with permeability changes to the blood-brain barrier in acute stroke. We investigated the relationship between HARM and stroke etiology based on the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between HARM and stroke locations with respect to vascular territories and anatomic compartments...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275519/investigation-of-the-usefulness-of-fluorescein-sodium-fluorescence-in-stereotactic-brain-biopsy
#15
Ady Thien, Julian Xinguang Han, Krishan Kumar, Yew Poh Ng, Jai Prashanth Rao, Wai Hoe Ng, Nicolas Kon Kam King
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative frozen section assessment, to confirm acquisition of pathological tissues, is used in stereotactic brain biopsy to minimise sampling errors. Limitations include the dependence on dedicated neuro-oncology pathologists and an increase in operative duration. We investigated the use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium, and compared it to frozen section assessment, for confirming pathological tissue samples in the stereotactic biopsy of gadolinium-contrast-enhancing brain lesions...
December 23, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249763/intravascular-lymphoma-with-an-acute-course-of-cerebellar-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#16
Takeo Uzuka, Fumi Higuchi, Hadzuki Matsuda, Ryohei Otani, Phyo Kim, Keisuke Ueki
Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) has been characterized in many case reports by multiple white matter lesions reflecting ischemic changes. In contrast, there are very few case reports of cerebral or cerebellar hemorrhage resulting from IVL. A 56-year-old woman was referred to our department with two-week history of headache, nausea, and poor appetite. Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed dilated veins on the cerebellar surface. No ischemic lesions were detected on diffusion-weighted images...
December 15, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248833/endoscopic-management-of-atypical-sellar-cavernous-hemangioma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
A M Al-Sharydah, S S Al-Suhibani, S A Al-Jubran, A H Al-Abdulwahhab, M Al-Bar, H M Al-Jehani, W M Al-Issawi
INTRODUCTION: supratentorial cavernous hemangiomas, particularly those found in the sellar region, are extremely rare. We present a case of sellar cavernous hemangioma with radiological characteristics that have never been reported. Due to the difficulty diagnosing these lesions, misdiagnosis might occur. Thus, briefing surgeons about the clinico-radiological features of such rare lesions is crucial for better understanding the enigmatic features of such rare lesions and to develop early management approaches that could result in better surgical excision with a lower tendency for complications...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247539/fluorescein-sodium-guided-resection-of-intracranial-lesions-in-22-dogs
#18
Yukiko Nakano, Kohei Nakata, Sanae Shibata, Yasuhiro Heishima, Hidetaka Nishida, Hiroki Sakai, Hirohito Yano, Hiroaki Kamishina
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of an intraoperative fluorescein sodium (FS) injection and elucidate the relationships between the MRI findings, pathological diagnoses, and intraoperative staining characteristics of intracranial lesions in 22 dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. ANIMALS: Twenty-two dogs with intracranial lesions. METHODS: FS was intravenously administered to 22 dogs undergoing craniotomy for suspected intracranial tumors to evaluate perioperative and postoperative adverse effects...
December 16, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243005/efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-in-vitamin-d-supplement-users-in-the-fingolimod-phase-3-trials
#19
Kira Hongell, Diego G Silva, Shannon Ritter, Daniela Piani Meier, Merja Soilu-Hänninen
BACKGROUND: Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with worse outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta. Association of vitamin D nutrition on the outcomes of other MS therapies has been studied less. OBJECTIVE: Whether patients in the phase 3 fingolimod trials using vitamin D supplements have better clinical, MRI and safety outcomes than non-users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pooled data from phase 3 FREEDOMS trials was analyzed post hoc...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241141/plasma-exchange-in-severe-acute-relapses-of-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-a-portuguese-cohort
#20
Inês Correia, Joana Jesus Ribeiro, Luís Isidoro, Sónia Batista, Carla Nunes, Carmo Macário, Catarina Borges, Jorge Tomaz, Lívia Sousa
BACKGROUND: Relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are often associated with significant disability impairment which is resultant from poor response to corticosteroids. In such severe cases, plasma exchange (PLEX) may be used, although only a few studies with MS patients have been reported. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of PLEX in severe relapses of MS. METHODS: Retrospective study of MS patients treated with PLEX in acute relapses. Data regarding EDSS, annualized relapse rate (ARR), treatment with corticosteroids, number of PLEX sessions, adverse events, and gadolinium enhancement in brain MRI were analysed...
December 7, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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