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Gadolinium Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774180/survival-prediction-based-on-qualitative-mri-diffusion-signature-in-patients-with-recurrent-high-grade-glioma-treated-with-bevacizumab
#1
Pradeep Goyal, Mary Tenenbaum, Sonali Gupta, Puneet S Kochar, Alok A Bhatt, Manisha Mangla, Yogesh Kumar, Rajiv Mangla
Background: Bevacizumab was approved by the FDA for the treatment of recurrent or progressive glioblastoma (GBM). Imaging responses are typically assessed by gadolinium-enhanced MRI. We sought to determine the significance of qualitative diffusion signature (manifest as variable degree of dark signal) on ADC maps in recurrent gliomas after treatment with bevacizumab. Methods: We performed an institutional review board (IRB) approved retrospective study on patients who underwent MRI of the brain after 8 weeks of receiving bevacizumab for recurrent glioma...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770929/two-cases-of-sarcoidosis-presenting-as-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis
#2
REVIEW
Amanda Mary Scott, Janeth Yinh, Timothy McAlindon, Robert Kalish
Neurosarcoidosis is uncommon with an incidence of approximately 5 to 15%. Central nervous system involvement can be divided into brain and spinal cord neurosarcoidosis. Spinal cord sarcoidosis is extremely rare, occurring in less than 1% of all sarcoidosis cases. Its manifestations may include cauda equina syndrome, radiculopathy, syringomyelia, cord atrophy, arachnoiditis, and myelopathy or transverse myelitis. We highlight two cases of spinal cord sarcoidosis, each presenting with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, that demonstrate the dilemmas that physicians face with regard to diagnosis and treatment...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769642/high-resolution-imaging-of-myeloperoxidase-activity-sensors-in-human-cerebrovascular-disease
#3
Youssef Z Wadghiri, Dung Minh Hoang, Anita Leporati, Matthew J Gounis, Aurora Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mary L Mazzanti, John P Weaver, Ajay K Wakhloo, Peter Caravan, Alexei A Bogdanov
Progress in clinical development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substrate-sensors of enzymatic activity has been slow partly due to the lack of human efficacy data. We report here a strategy that may serve as a shortcut from bench to bedside. We tested ultra high-resolution 7T MRI (µMRI) of human surgical histology sections in a 3-year IRB approved, HIPAA compliant study of surgically clipped brain aneurysms. µMRI was used for assessing the efficacy of MRI substrate-sensors that detect myeloperoxidase activity in inflammation...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765818/targeted-epidural-blood-patch-treatment-for-refractory-spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-in-china
#4
Fei-Fang He, Li Li, Min-Jun Liu, Tai-Di Zhong, Qiao-Wei Zhang, Xiang-Ming Fang
Objective  An epidural blood patch (EBP) is the mainstay of treatment for refractory spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). We evaluated the treatment efficacy of targeted EBP in refractory SIH. Methods  All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast and heavily T2-weighted spine MRI. Whole spine computed tomography (CT) myelography with non-ionic contrast was performed in 46 patients, and whole spine MR myelography with intrathecal gadolinium was performed in 119 patients...
June 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754996/dce-mri-in-human-gliomas-a-surrogate-for-assessment-of-invasive-hypoxia-marker-hif-1%C3%AE-based-on-mri-neuronavigation-stereotactic-biopsies
#5
Qian Xie, Juan Wu, Zunguo Du, Ningning Di, Ren Yan, Haopeng Pang, Teng Jin, Hua Zhang, Yue Wu, Yong Zhang, Zhenwei Yao, Xiaoyuan Feng
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to correlate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters with data from a specific marker of hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), in human gliomas on a point-to-point basis by using coregistered magnetic resonance imaging and frameless stereotactic biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with treatment-naive gliomas underwent DCE, axial T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2-weighted fluid acquisition of inversion recovery, and three-dimensional T1-weighted brain volume with gadolinium contrast enhancement sequences on a 3...
May 10, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749661/fingolimod-s-impact-on-mri-brain-volume-measures-in-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-ms-mrius
#6
Robert Zivadinov, Jennie Medin, Nasreen Khan, Jonathan R Korn, Niels Bergsland, Michael G Dwyer, Tanuja Chitnis, Robert T Naismith, Enrique Alvarez, Peter Kinkel, Stanley Cohan, Samuel F Hunter, Diego Silva, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence is needed to understand the effect of fingolimod on slowing down brain atrophy progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in clinical practice. We investigated the effect of fingolimod on brain atrophy in MS patients with active disease (clinically and/or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) versus no evidence of active disease (NEAD). METHODS: MS and clinical outcome and MRI in the United States (MS-MRIUS) is a multicenter, retrospective study that included 590 relapsing-remitting MS patients, who initiated fingolimod, and were followed for a median of 16 months...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748901/gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-induce-gadolinium-deposits-in-cerebral-vessel-walls-while-the-neuropil-is-not-affected-an-autopsy-study
#7
Stefanie Fingerhut, Michael Sperling, Markus Holling, Thomas Niederstadt, Thomas Allkemper, Alexander Radbruch, Walter Heindel, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann, Uwe Karst
Recent studies showed gadolinium depositions following serial administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging examinations in various parts of the brain with the dentate nucleus (DN) being most affected. Even though no clinical correlates of the deposits are known yet, an intensive debate developed if this might be harmful. The aim of the current study was to specify the gadolinium distribution in brain tissue of patients who received serial injections of GBCAs in the low-µm range and to explore any potential pathological tissue changes caused by gadolinium deposits...
May 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744935/fast-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting-for-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-studies-in-mice
#8
Yuning Gu, Charlie Y Wang, Christian E Anderson, Yuchi Liu, He Hu, Mette L Johansen, Dan Ma, Yun Jiang, Ciro Ramos-Estebanez, Susann Brady-Kalnay, Mark A Griswold, Chris A Flask, Xin Yu
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to develop a fast MR fingerprinting (MRF) method for simultaneous T1 and T2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies in mice. METHODS: The MRF sequences based on balanced SSFP and fast imaging with steady-state precession were implemented and evaluated on a 7T preclinical scanner. The readout used a zeroth-moment-compensated variable-density spiral trajectory that fully sampled the entire k-space and the inner 10 × 10 k-space with 48 and 4 interleaves, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744642/gadolinium-deposition-within-the-paediatric-brain-no-increased-intrinsic-t1-weighted-signal-intensity-within-the-dentate-nucleus-following-the-administration-of-a-minimum-of-four-doses-of-the-macrocyclic-agent-gadobutrol
#9
Jonathan R Young, Joe Qiao, Iren Orosz, Noriko Salamon, Mark A Franke, Hyun J Kim, Whitney B Pope
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether repeated administration of the macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) gadobutrol in children is associated with T1-weighted hyperintensity within the dentate nucleus, an imaging surrogate for gadolinium deposition. METHODS: With institutional review board approval, we identified a cohort of eight patients aged 18 years or younger who underwent at least four gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the brain from 2013 to 2017...
May 9, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737947/accumulation-of-gadolinium-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-after-gadobutrol-enhanced-mr-imaging-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#10
Avinash K Nehra, Robert J McDonald, Amy M Bluhm, Tina M Gunderson, David L Murray, Paul J Jannetto, David F Kallmes, Laurence J Eckel, Jennifer S McDonald
Purpose To determine whether gadolinium accumulates within cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients recently exposed to the macrocyclic agent gadobutrol and identify factors that may affect this accumulation. Materials and Methods In this prospective observational cohort study, gadolinium was quantified by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of CSF samples from patients who underwent gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging followed by lumbar puncture within 30 days (gadobutrol group) or patients who underwent lumbar puncture without history of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging (control group)...
May 8, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727401/signal-changes-in-the-dentate-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-after-intrathecal-administration-of-macrocyclic-gadolinium-contrast-agent
#11
Kerem Ozturk, Omer Fatih Nas, Esra Soylu, Bahattin Hakyemez
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate signal changes in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images (T1 WI) in a cohort of patients who have received intrathecal macrocyclic ionic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) gadoterate meglumine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 20 patients (male/female ratio, 8:12; mean age, 39.5 ± 15.5 years) who had not received intravenous GBCA but had received an intrathecal macrocyclic ionic GBCA (plus baseline and an additional final magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] for reference) from 2012 to 2017 were retrospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study...
April 30, 2018: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725913/is-mri-imaging-in-pediatric-age-totally-safe-a-critical-reprisal
#12
REVIEW
Sergio Salerno, Claudio Granata, Marco Trapenese, Vittorio Cannata, Davide Curione, Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Andrea Magistrelli, Paolo Tomà
Current radiological literature is strongly focussed on radiation imaging risks. Indeed, given there is a small but actual augment in cancer risk from exposure to ionizing radiation in children, it is important to understand what the risk of alternative techniques could be. We retrospectively review literature data concerning possible MR imaging risks, focussing on the biological effects of MR, sedation and gadolinium compound risks when dealing with infant patients. The main concerns can be summarized in: (1) Biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) employed-whose mechanisms of interaction with human tissues are polarization, induced current, and thermal heating, respectively...
May 3, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725611/fingolimod-associated-pml-with-mild-iris-in-ms-a-clinicopathologic-study
#13
Shuhei Nishiyama, Tatsuro Misu, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Yoshiki Takai, Kentarou Takei, Naoki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ryuta Saito, Mika Watanabe, Teiji Tominaga, Ichiro Nakashima, Kazuo Fujihara, Masashi Aoki
Objective: To clarify the clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic characteristics of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and its immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with fingolimod-treated MS. Methods: A case study. Results: A 34-year-old patient with MS using fingolimod for 4 years had a gradual progression of right hemiparesis and aphasia with a new subcortical white matter lesion in the precentral gyrus by initial MRI...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710027/-two-patients-with-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-with-immune-response-against-jc-virus-showing-good-long-term-outcome-by-combination-therapy-of-mefloquine-mirtazapine-and-risperidone
#14
Yumi Akagawa, Akihiro Ueno, Junji Ikeda, Wataru Ishii, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Yoshiki Sekijima
Patient 1 was a 59-year-old woman receiving prednisolone for idiopathic hypereosinophilia. Brain MRI of patient 1 disclosed slight gadolinium enhancement at lesions, indicating inflammation. Patient 2 was a 32-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus under immunosuppressive therapy. Brain biopsy of patient 2 showed balanced infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes at the sites of lesions. Both subjects were diagnosed as having progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) shortly after the onset of neurological symptoms and were treated with a combination of mefloquine, mirtazapine, and risperidone...
April 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709947/a-punctate-magnetic-resonance-imaging-pattern-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-is-an-early-sign-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-a-clinicopathological-study
#15
Junko Ishii, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Michi Kawamoto, Satoru Fujiwara, Yukihiro Imai, Kazuo Nakamichi, Nobuo Kohara
A 37-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with gait disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed small, punctate, T2-/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense and T1-hypointense lesions without gadolinium enhancement, which is atypical for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). On a pathological examination of biopsied brain tissues, JC virus-infected cells were hardly detected via immunohistochemistry but were certainly detected via in situ hybridization, conclusively verifying the PML diagnosis...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709941/a-case-of-miller-fisher-syndrome-mimicking-tolosa-hunt-syndrome
#16
Masahiro Oomura, Yuto Uchida, Keita Sakurai, Takanari Toyoda, Kenji Okita, Noriyuki Matsukawa
We herein report a patient with Miller Fisher syndrome mimicking Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. A 47-year-old man presented with right orbital pain and diplopia. On a neurological examination, he had right oculomotor nerve palsy and diminished deep tendon reflexes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging failed to show any parenchymal lesions; however, the bilateral oculomotor nerves were gadolinium-enhanced. The presence of a triad of orbital pain, ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy, and a rapid response to steroid therapy met the diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700836/the-effect-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-on-rat-testis
#17
F Beyazal Celiker, L Tumkaya, T Mercantepe, G Turan, A Yılmaz, M Beyazal, A Turan, M F Inecikli, M Kösem
Previous studies have reported that repeated administrations of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents lead to their accumulation in the brain and other tissues in individuals with normal renal functions. The purpose of this prospective animal study was to investigate the effect of multiple administrations of macrocyclic ionic (gadoteric acid) and linear nonionic (gadodiamide) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on rat testis tissue and to compare these molecules in terms of tissue damage. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were kept without drugs for 5 weeks after administration of 0...
April 26, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695594/subcutaneous-ofatumumab-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-the-mirror-study
#18
Amit Bar-Or, Richard A Grove, Daren J Austin, Jerry M Tolson, Susan A VanMeter, Eric W Lewis, Frederick J Derosier, Monica C Lopez, Sarah T Kavanagh, Aaron E Miller, Per S Sorensen
OBJECTIVE: To assess dose-response effects of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody ofatumumab on efficacy and safety outcomes in a phase 2b double-blind study of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). METHODS: Patients (n = 232) were randomized to ofatumumab 3, 30, or 60 mg every 12 weeks, ofatumumab 60 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo for a 24-week treatment period, with a primary endpoint of cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions (per brain MRI) at week 12...
April 25, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694345/diffusivity-in-the-core-of-chronic-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#19
Alexander Klistorner, Chenyu Wang, Con Yiannikas, John Parratt, Joshua Barton, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham, Michael H Barnett
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been suggested as a potential biomarker of disease progression, neurodegeneration and de/remyelination in MS. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. We propose that in highly cohesive fiber tracts: 1) a relative increase in parallel (axial) diffusivity (AD) may serve as a measure of increased extra-cellular space (ESC) within the core of chronic MS lesions and, as a result, may provide an estimate of the degree of tissue destruction, and 2) the contribution of the increased extra-cellular water to perpendicular (radial) diffusivity (RD) can be eliminated to provide a more accurate assessment of membranal (myelin) loss...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688408/spatiotemporal-distribution-of-fibrinogen-in-marmoset-and-human-inflammatory-demyelination
#20
Nathanael J Lee, Seung-Kwon Ha, Pascal Sati, Martina Absinta, Nicholas J Luciano, Jennifer A Lefeuvre, Matthew K Schindler, Emily C Leibovitch, Jae Kyu Ryu, Mark A Petersen, Afonso C Silva, Steven Jacobson, Katerina Akassoglou, Daniel S Reich
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although it has been extensively studied, the proximate trigger of the immune response remains uncertain. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset recapitulates many radiological and pathological features of focal multiple sclerosis lesions in the cerebral white matter, unlike traditional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents. This provides an opportunity to investigate how lesions form as well as the relative timing of factors involved in lesion pathogenesis, especially during early stages of the disease...
April 20, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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