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Energy harvester

Nobuo Kimizuka, Nobuhiro Yanai, Masa-Aki Morikawa
Self-assembly of functional molecules into ordered molecular assemblies and fulfillment of potentials unique to their nano-to-mesoscopic structures have been one of the central challenges in chemistry. This Feature Article provides an overview of recent progress in the field of molecular self-assembly with the focus on the triplet-triplet annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC) and supramolecular storage of photon energy. Based on the integration of molecular self-assembly and photon energy harvesting, triplet energy migration-based TTA-UC has been achieved in varied molecular systems...
October 19, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bhaskar Dudem, Yeong Hwan Ko, Jung Woo Leem, Joo Ho Lim, Jae Su Yu
We report the hierarchical nano/micro architectured (HNMA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film-based hybrid energy cells with multi-functionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micro pyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by a facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography (SIL) using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) film formed on the micro-pyramidal (MP) structured silicon substrate...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wenjin Yang, Baodan Liu, Tao Fang, Weimmerskirch-Aubatin Jennifer, Labbé Christophe, Zhaosheng Li, Xinglai Zhang, Xin Jiang
Two-dimensional semiconductors with layer thicknesses of a few nanometers to tens of nanometers have attracted tremendous research interest due to their fascinating electrical, optical, and optoelectronic properties and technologically important applications. In this work, two dimensional ternary ZnIn2S4 nanosheets which self-assemble into microflowers have been synthesized through a feasible chemical vapour deposition process. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis reveals that the ZnIn2S4 nanostructure exhibits an extremely high phase purity and a single crystal nature free of dislocations, stacking faults or twins...
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Tauheed A Farooqui, Marguerite A Renouf, Steven J Kenway
Urban areas will need to pursue new water servicing options to ensure local supply security. Decisions about how best to employ them are not straightforward due to multiple considerations and the potential for problem shifting among them. We hypothesise that urban water metabolism evaluation based a water mass balance can help address this, and explore the utility of this perspective and the new insights it provides about water servicing options. Using a water mass balance evaluation framework, which considers direct urban water flows (both 'natural' hydrological and 'anthropogenic' flows), as well as water-related energy, we evaluated how the use of alternative water sources (stormwater/rainwater harvesting, wastewater/greywater recycling) at different scales influences the 'local water metabolism' of a case study urban development...
October 6, 2016: Water Research
Kai Song, Shuming Bai, Qiang Shi
Recent experimental and theoretical studies have revealed that quantum coherence plays an important role in the excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light harvesting complexes. Inspired by the recent single molecule two-color double-pump experiment, we investigate theoretically the effect of pulse shaping on observing coherent energy transfer in the single bacterial light harvesting 2 (LH2) complex. It is found that, quantum coherent energy transfer can be observed when the time delay and phase difference between the two laser pulses are controlled independently...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Bernardo Duarte, Maria Teresa Cabrita, Carla Gameiro, Ana Rita Matos, Rita Godinho, João Carlos Marques, Isabel Caçador
A profound analysis of A. tripolium photochemical traits under salinity exposure is lacking in the literature, with very few references focusing on its fatty acid profile role in photophysiology. To address this, the deep photochemical processes were evaluated by Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) Fluorometry coupled with a discrimination of its leaf fatty acid profile. Plants exposed to 125-250 mM NaCl showed higher photochemical light harvesting efficiencies and lower energy dissipation rates. under higher NaCl exposure, there is evident damage of the oxygen evolving complexes (OECs)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Biology
Wenjun Hu, Lin Chen, Xiaoyun Qiu, Hongling Lu, Jia Wei, Yueqing Bai, Ningjia He, Rongbin Hu, Li Sun, Hong Zhang, Guoxin Shen
Ricinus communis displays a broad range of phenotypic diversity in size, with dwarf, common, and large-sized varieties. To better understand the differences in plant productivity between a high-stalk variety and a dwarf variety under normal growth conditions, we carried out a comparative proteomic study between Zhebi 100 (a high stalk variety) and Zhebi 26 (a dwarf variety) combined with agronomic and physiological analyses. Over 1000 proteins were detected, 38 of which differed significantly between the two varieties and were identified by mass spectrometry...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Hemmat Khattab, Zeinab El Marid
Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons...
October 14, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Laura Calió, Samrana Kazim, Michael Grätzel, Shahzada Ahmad
The pressure to move towards renewable energy has inspired researchers to look for ideas in photovoltaics that may lead to a major breakthrough. Recently the use of perovskites as a light harvester has lead to stunning progress. The power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells is now approaching parity (>22 %) with that of the established technology which took decades to reach this level of performance. The use of a hole transport material (HTM) remains indispensable in perovskite solar cells...
October 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Qunwei Tang, Yanyan Duan, Benlin He, Haiyan Chen
Solar cells that can harvest energy in all weathers are promising in solving the energy crisis and environmental problems. The power outputs are nearly zero under dark conditions for state-of-the-art solar cells. To address this issue, we present herein a class of platinum alloy (PtMx , M=Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo) tailored all-weather solar cells that can harvest energy from rain and realize photoelectric conversion under sun illumination. By tuning the stoichiometric Pt/M ratio and M species, the optimized solar cell yields a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10...
October 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Yu Chen, Xiaojing Mu, Tao Wang, Weiwei Ren, Ya Yang, Zhong Lin Wang, Chengliang Sun, Alex Yuandong Gu
Here, we report a stable and predictable aero-elastic motion in the flow-driven energy harvester, which is different from flapping and vortex-induced-vibration (VIV). A unified theoretical frame work that describes the flutter phenomenon observed in both "stiff" and "flexible" materials for flow driven energy harvester was presented in this work. We prove flutter in both types of materials is the results of the coupled effects of torsional and bending modes. Compared to "stiff" materials, which has a flow velocity-independent flutter frequency, flexible material presents a flutter frequency that almost linearly scales with the flow velocity...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wei-Chun Hsu, Jonathan K Tong, Bolin Liao, Yi Huang, Svetlana V Boriskina, Gang Chen
A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Furthermore, we predict that the near-field photon extraction by coupling photons generated from interband electronic transition to phonon polariton modes on the surface of a heat sink can increase the conversion efficiency as well as the power generation density, providing more opportunities to efficiently utilize terrestrial emission for clean energy...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew D Jones
BACKGROUND: On-farm crop species richness (CSR) may be important for maintaining the diversity and quality of diets of smallholder farming households. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the association of CSR with the diversity and quality of household diets in Malawi and 2) assess hypothesized mechanisms for this association via both subsistence- and market-oriented pathways. METHODS: Longitudinal data were assessed from nationally representative household surveys in Malawi between 2010 and 2013 (n = 3000 households)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Ming-Yen Lu, Hung-Yi Chen, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Yen-Ti Tseng, Yu-Ting Kuo, Hsiang-Chen Wang, Ming-Pei Lu
In this study p-type ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays were grown using a low-temperature hydrothermal method in the presence of various concentrations of Sb in the doping solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the atomic percentages and chemical states of the Sb dopant atoms in the p-type ZnO NR arrays. Photoluminescence and electrical measurements confirmed the p-type characteristics of the Sb-doped ZnO NR arrays. Sequential growth of n- and p-ZnO was then implemented to form p-n ZnO nanojunction arrays...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Dariusz M Niedzwiedzki, Christopher Neil Hunter, Robert E Blankenship
Carotenoids are a class of natural pigments present in all phototrophic organisms, mainly in their light-harvesting proteins in which they play roles of accessory light absorbers and photoprotectors. Extensive time-resolved spectroscopic studies of these pigments have revealed unexpectedly complex photophysical properties, particularly for carotenoids in light-harvesting LH2 complexes from purple bacteria. An ambiguous, optically forbidden electronic excited state designated as S* has been postulated to be involved in carotenoid excitation relaxation and in an alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway, as well as being a precursor of the carotenoid triplet state...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Changyeon Baek, Jong Hyuk Yun, Ji Eun Wang, Chang Kyu Jeong, Keon Jae Lee, Kwi-Il Park, Do Kyung Kim
Lead-free piezoelectric 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3-0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (BCTZ) nanoparticles (NPs) composed of earth-abundant elements were adopted for use in a flexible composite-based piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) that can convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy. The solid-state synthesized BCTZ NPs and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) chosen to reduce the toxicity of the filler materials were blended with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix to produce a piezoelectric nanocomposite (p-NC). The naturally flexible polymer-based p-NC layers were sandwiched between two conductive polyethylene terephthalate plastic substrates to achieve a flexible energy harvester...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
N Fiorentino, V Ventorino, C Rocco, V Cenvinzo, D Agrelli, L Gioia, I Di Mola, P Adamo, O Pepe, M Fagnano
Phytoremediation is a cost-effective "green technology" that uses plants to improve the soil properties of polluted sites, preventing the dispersion of pollutants and reducing the mobility of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) through their adsorption and accumulation by roots or precipitation within the root zone. Being highly tolerant to pollutants and other abiotic stresses, giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a suitable biomass crop for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. We report the results of a two-year open-air lysimeter study aimed at assessing the adaptability of giant reed to grow on industrial substrates polluted by Pb and Zn and at testing commercial humic acids from leonardite as improvers of plant performance...
October 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
J J Castro, A Gomez, B White, J R Loften, J K Drackley
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of age and gastrointestinal location (rumen vs. colon) on bacterial community diversity and composition, as well as short-chain fatty acid profiles of preruminant male Holstein calves on an intensive milk replacer feeding program. Thirty-two calves were fed at 2% of their body weight (dry matter basis) from d 10 until harvest. Sixteen calves were euthanized at 2 wk and another 16 at 4 wk of age to collect digesta samples from the rumen and colon. The rumen and colon bacterial communities of preruminant calves showed a similar degree of diversity (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
G Andres Contreras, Kyan Thelen, Sarah E Schmidt, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, Courtney L Preseault, William Raphael, Matti Kiupel, John Caron, Adam L Lock
Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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