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Energy harvester

Stuart Archer, Theo Keane, Milan Delor, Elizabeth Bevon, Alexander Auty, Dimitri Chekulaev, Igor Sazanovich, Michael Towrie, Antony Meijer, Julia Weinstein
A series of [Donor-Acceptor-Anchor] Platinum(II) bipy (bis)acetylides has been developed in order to systematically compare the effect of conjugated vs. electronically decoupled modes of attachment of protected anchoring groups on the photophysical properties of these light-harvesting units. This first example of "decoupled" phosphonate-diimine Pt(II) complexes presented here are compared and contrasted to their carboxylate analogs. Ultrafast TRIR and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies revealed that all complexes possess a charge transfer lowest excited state, with lifetimes between 2 and 14 ns...
October 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anne M Benneker, Hans David Wendt, Rob G H Lammertink, Jeffery A Wood
Charge selective asymmetric nanochannels are used for a variety of applications, such as nanofluidic sensing devices and energy conversion applications. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of an applied temperature difference over tapered nanochannels on the resulting charge transport and flow behavior. Using a temperature-dependent formulation of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations, various nanochannel geometries are investigated. Temperature has a large influence on the total ion transport, as the diffusivity of ions and viscosity of the solution are strongly affected by temperature...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xin Chen
Open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) is among critical parameters for achieving an efficient light-to-charge conversion in existing solar photovoltaic devices. Natural photosynthesis exploits light-harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) protein complexes to transfer sunlight energy efficiently. We describe the exploitation of photosynthetic fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein (FCP) complexes for realizing photoelectrochemical cells with a high Voc. An antenna-dependent photocurrent response and a Voc up to 0.72V are observed and demonstrated in the bio-photovoltaic devices fabricated with photosynthetic FCP complexes and TiO2 nanostructures...
October 11, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Mingwei Zhu, Yiju Li, Guang Chen, Feng Jiang, Zhi Yang, Xiaoguang Luo, Yanbin Wang, Steven D Lacey, Jiaqi Dai, Chengwei Wang, Chao Jia, Jiayu Wan, Yonggang Yao, Amy Gong, Bao Yang, Zongfu Yu, Siddhartha Das, Liangbing Hu
The solar steam process, akin to the natural water cycle, is considered to be an attractive approach to address water scarcity issues globally. However, water extraction from groundwater, for example, has not been demonstrated using these existing technologies. Additionally, there are major unaddressed challenges in extracting potable water from seawater including salt accumulation and long-term evaporation stability, which warrant further investigation. Herein, a high-performance solar steam device composed entirely of natural wood is reported...
October 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hao Chen, Julia Shen
In a world where millions of people are dependent on batteries to provide them with convenient and portable energy, battery recycling is of the utmost importance. In this paper, we developed a new method to sort 18650 Lithium-ion batteries in large quantities and in real time for harvesting used cells with enough capacity for battery reuse. Internal resistance and capacity tests were conducted as a basis for comparison with a novel degradation-based method based on X-ray radiographic scanning and digital image contrast computation...
2017: PloS One
Anthony P Straub, Menachem Elimelech
Low-grade heat energy from sources below 100 C is available in massive quantities around the world, but cannot be converted to electricity effectively using existing technologies due to variability in the heat output and the small temperature difference between the source and environment. The recently developed thermo-osmotic energy conversion (TOEC) process has the potential to harvest energy from low-grade heat sources by using a temperature difference to create a pressurized liquid flux across a membrane, which can be converted to mechanical work via a turbine...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ghislaine Vantomme, Anne Helene Gelebart, Dirk J Broer, E W Meijer
A strategy based on doped liquid crystalline networks is described to create mechanical self-sustained oscillations of plastic films under continuous light irradiation. The photo-excitation of dopants that can quickly dissipate light into heat, coupled with anisotropic thermal expansion and self-shadowing of the film, gives rise to the self-sustained deformation. The oscillations observed are influenced by the dimensions and the modulus of the film, and by the directionality and intensity of the light. The system developed offers applications in energy conversion and harvesting for soft-robotics and automated systems...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Joshua S Alwood, Luan H Tran, Ann-Sofie Schreurs, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Akhilesh Kumar, Diane Hilton, Candice G T Tahimic, Ruth K Globus
Space radiation may pose a risk to skeletal health during subsequent aging. Irradiation acutely stimulates bone remodeling in mice, although the long-term influence of space radiation on bone-forming potential (osteoblastogenesis) and possible adaptive mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation impairs osteoblastogenesis in an ion-type specific manner, with low doses capable of modulating expression of redox-related genes. 16-weeks old, male, C57BL6/J mice were exposed to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) protons (150 MeV/n) or high-LET (56)Fe ions (600 MeV/n) using either low (5 or 10 cGy) or high (50 or 200 cGy) doses at NASA's Space Radiation Lab...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sirimuvva Tadepalli, Zheyu Wang, Joseph Slocik, Rajesh R Naik, Srikanth Singamaneni
Biotic-abiotic hybrids comprised of globular proteins and functional nanostructures with complementary and synergistic properties are central to a number of bionanotechnological applications. A comprehensive understanding of the effect of physicochemical properties of abiotic nanostructures on the biological activity of the bionanoconjugates is critical in the design of these bio-nano hybrids. In this study, using size and curvature-controlled gold nanoparticles as a model abiotic system, we investigated the effect of hydrodynamic diameter and surface curvature on the activity of a model enzyme, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), adsorbed on the surface of the nanostructures...
October 10, 2017: Nanoscale
S Z Song, J P Wu, S G Zhao, D P Casper, B He, T Liu, X Lang, X Y Gong, L S Liu
Sheep production systems in northwest China depend mostly on natural grasslands. Seasonal growth and maturity fluctuations can cause periodical restrictions in food quality and quantity. These fluctuations, in turn, result in variability in fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in different fat depots. Consequently, the study objective was to compare fat deposition, intramuscular fat (IMF) percentage and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus dorsi (LD), kidney fat (KF), tail fat (TF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) in lambs under ME restrictions similar to seasonal changes observed in the natural grasslands of northwest China...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Alexander P Demchenko, Vladimir I Tomin, Pi-Tai Chou
This paper provides a systematic review and analysis of different phenomena that violate a basic principle, Kasha's rule, when applied to photochemical reactions. In contrast to the classical route of ultrafast transition to the lowest energy excited state and photochemical reaction starting therein, in some cases, these reactions proceed directly from high-energy excited states. Nowadays, this phenomenon can be observed for a number of major types of excited-state reactions: harvesting product via intersystem crossing; photoisomerizations; bond-breaking; and electron, proton, and energy transfers...
October 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Yaqing Liu, Ke He, Geng Chen, Wan Ru Leow, Xiaodong Chen
Exciting advancements have been made in the field of flexible electronic devices in the last two decades and will certainly lead to a revolution in peoples' lives in the future. However, because of the poor sustainability of the active materials in complex stress environments, new requirements have been adopted for the construction of flexible devices. Thus, hierarchical architectures in natural materials, which have developed various environment-adapted structures and materials through natural selection, can serve as guides to solve the limitations of materials and engineering techniques...
October 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Jin Kyu Han, Do Hyun Jeon, Sam Yeon Cho, Sin Wook Kang, Jongsun Lim, Sang Don Bu
Recently, composite-type nanogenerators (NGs) formed from piezoelectric nanostructures and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have become one of the excellent candidates for future energy harvesting because of their ability to apply the excellent electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the synthesis of NG devices with a high proportion of piezoelectric materials and a low polymer content, such as of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), continues to be problematic. In this work, high-piezoelectric-material-content flexible films produced from Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃ (PZT)-atomically-interconnected CNTs and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are presented...
October 7, 2017: Nanomaterials
Ahmed Barhoum, Pieter Samyn, Thomas Öhlund, Alain Dufresne
Traditional paper and papermaking have struggled with a declining market during the last few decades. However, the incorporation of nanotechnology into papermaking has brought possibilities to develop low-cost, biocompatible and flexible products with sophisticated functionalities. The functionality of nanopapers emerges from the intrinsic properties of the nanofibrous network, the additional loading of specific nanomaterials (NMs), or the additional deposition and patterning of thin films of nanomaterials on the paper surface...
October 9, 2017: Nanoscale
Li Li, Yi Zeng, Tianjun Yu, Jinping Chen, Guoqiang Yang, Yi Li
Harvesting and converting low energy photons to higher ones through upconversion have great potential in solar energy conversion. Herein, we demonstrate a light-harvesting nanocrystal assembled by 9,10-distyrylanthracene and palladium(II) meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin as the acceptor and the sensitizer, respectively, in which red-to-green upconversion is achieved under incoherent excitation of low power density and the upconversion quantum yield of 0.29 ± 0.02% is obtained upon excitation with 640 nm laser of 120 mW cm¯²...
October 9, 2017: ChemSusChem
Ajay Kumar Baranwal, Hideaki Masutani, Hidetaka Sugita, Hiroyuki Kanda, Shusaku Kanaya, Naoyuki Shibayama, Yoshitaka Sanehira, Masashi Ikegami, Youhei Numata, Kouji Yamada, Tsutomu Miyasaka, Tomokazu Umeyama, Hiroshi Imahori, Seigo Ito
Research of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells had significant attention as the candidate of new future energy. Due to the toxicity, however, lead (Pb) free photon harvesting layer should be discovered to replace the present CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. In place of lead, we have tried antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi) with organic and metal monovalent cations (CH3NH3(+), Ag(+) and Cu(+)). Therefore, in this work, lead-free photo-absorber layers of (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9, (CH3NH3)3Sb2I9, (CH3NH3)3SbBiI9, Ag3BiI6, Ag3BiI3(SCN)3 and Cu3BiI6 were processed by solution deposition way to be solar cells...
2017: Nano Convergence
Chang Liu, Elena Jakubikova
Interfacial electron transfer (IET) is one of the crucial steps in the light-harvesting process that occurs in various assemblies for solar energy conversion, such as dye-sensitized solar cells or dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells. Computational studies of IET in dye-semiconductor assemblies employ a variety of approaches, ranging from phenomenological models such as Fermi's golden rule to more complex methods relying on explicit solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This work investigates IET in a model pyridine-TiO2 assembly, with the goals of assessing the validity of Fermi's golden rule for calculation of the IET rates, understanding the importance of conformational sampling in modeling the IET process, and establishing an approach to rapid computational screening of dye-sensitizers that undergo fast IET into the semiconductor...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Wenhao Chen, Nicholas M Holden
The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production...
October 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Yan
Biomass is an attractive natural energy resource for mitigating climate change. However, the loss of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service due to biomass harvest has not been considered in previous studies. To assess the impact of biomass harvest on carbon sequestration, carbon dynamics in the forests and the atmosphere were integrated. The impact of forest biomass harvests on carbon sequestration was assessed based on the difference between carbon sequestration after harvest and carbon sequestration without harvest...
October 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sara H Sohail, Peter D Dahlberg, Marco A Allodi, Sara C Massey, Po-Chieh Ting, Elizabeth C Martin, C Neil Hunter, Gregory S Engel
In photosynthetic organisms, the pigment-protein complexes that comprise the light-harvesting antenna exhibit complex electronic structures and ultrafast dynamics due to the coupling among the chromophores. Here, we present absorptive two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra from living cultures of the purple bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, acquired using gradient assisted photon echo spectroscopy. Diagonal slices through the 2D lineshape of the LH1 stimulated emission/ground state bleach feature reveal a resolvable higher energy population within the B875 manifold...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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