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Energy harvester

Zhi Yan, Liying Jiang
Piezoelectric nanomaterials (PNs) are attractive for applications including sensing, actuating, energy harvesting, among others in nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) because of their excellent electromechanical coupling, mechanical and physical properties. However, the properties of PNs do not coincide with their bulk counterparts and depend on the particular size. A large amount of efforts have been devoted to studying the size-dependent properties of PNs by using experimental characterization, atomistic simulation and continuum mechanics modeling with the consideration of the scale features of the nanomaterials...
January 26, 2017: Nanomaterials
Pham Ngoc Son, Dongsoo Har, Nam Ik Cho, Hyung Yun Kong
A cooperative cognitive radio scheme exploiting primary signals for energy harvesting is proposed. The relay sensor node denoted as the secondary transmitter (ST) harvests energy from the primary signal transmitted from the primary transmitter, and then uses it to transmit power superposed codes of the secrecy signal of the secondary network (SN) and of the primary signal of the primary network (PN). The harvested energy is split into two parts according to a power splitting ratio, one for decoding the primary signal and the other for charging the battery...
March 21, 2017: Sensors
Cameron Olsen, Jacob Embley, Kameron Hansen, Andrew Henrichsen, J Peterson, John S Colton, Richard Watt
This study uses the formation of a mixed metal oxide inside ferritin to tune the band gap energy of the ferritin mineral. The mixed metal oxide is composed of both Co and Mn, and is formed by reacting aqueous Co2+ with MnO4- in the presence of apoferritin. Altering the ratio between the two reactants allowed for controlled tuning of the band gap energies. All minerals formed were indirect band gap materials, with indirect band gap energies ranging from 0.52 to 1.30 eV. The direct transitions were also measured, with energy values ranging from 2...
March 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yang Liu, Xin Gu, Wen Qi, Hong Zhu, Hao Shan, Wenlong Chen, Peng Tao, Chengyi Song, Wen Shang, Tao Deng, Jianbo Wu
Construction of a metal-semiconductor heterojunction is a promising method to improve heterogeneous photocatalysis for various reactions. Though the structure and photocatalytic performance of such catalyst system have been extensively studied, few report has been demonstrated the effect of interface orientation at metal-semiconductor junction on the junction barrier bending and the electronic transport properties. Here, we construct a Pt/PbS heterojunction, where Pt NPs are used as highly active catalysts and PbS nanocrystals (NCs) with well-controlled shapes are used as light-harvesting support...
March 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Benjamin P V Heiz, Zhiwen Pan, Gerhard Lautenschläger, Christin Sirtl, Matthias Kraus, Lothar Wondraczek
Buildings represent more than 40% of Europe's energy demands and about one third of its CO2 emissions. Energy efficient buildings and, in particular, building skins have therefore been among the key priorities of international research agendas. Here, glass-glass fluidic devices are presented for large-area integration with adaptive façades and smart windows. These devices enable harnessing and dedicated control of various liquids for added functionality in the building envelope. Combining a microstructured glass pane, a thin cover sheet with tailored mechanical performance, and a liquid for heat storage and transport, a flat-panel laminate is generated with thickness adapted to a single glass sheet in conventional windows...
March 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Amrit Lal, Debabrata Das
Microalgae that can grow fast and convert solar energy into chemical energy efficiently are being considered as a promising feedstock of renewable biofuel. Mass production of microalgal oil faces a number of technical barriers that make the current production of biodiesel economically unfeasible. Small size (≈1-20 μm) and negatively charged surface of the microalgal cells pose difficulties in the process of harvesting. This leads to significant increase in the overall cost of biomass production. The present study explored different methods and conditions for harvesting of Chlorella sp...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
Yanbo Li, Xu Wang, David Butler, Junxin Liu, Jiuhui Qu
Energy neutrality and reduction of carbon emissions are significant challenges to the enhanced sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Harvesting energy from wastewater carbonaceous substrates can offset energy demands and enable net power generation; yet, there is limited research about how carbonaceous substrates influence energy and carbon implications of WWTPs with integrated energy recovery at systems-level. Consequently, this research uses biokinetics modelling and life cycle assessment philology to explore this notion, by tracing and assessing the quantitative flows of energy embodied or captured, and by exploring the carbon footprint throughout an energy-intensive activated sludge process with integrated energy recovery facilities...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Feng Liu, Zichun Zhou, Cheng Zhang, Jianyun Zhang, Qin Hu, Thomas Vergote, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Xiaozhang Zhu
Inspired by the remarkable promotion of power conversion efficiency (PCE), commercial applications of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) can be foreseen in near future. One of the most promising applications is semitransparent (ST) solar cells that can be utilized in value-added applications such as energy-harvesting windows. However, the single-junction STOPVs utilizing fullerene acceptors show relatively low PCEs of 4%-6% due to the limited sunlight absorption because it is a dilemma that more photons need to be harvested in UV-vis-near-infrared (NIR) region to generate high photocurrent, which leads to the significant reduction of device transparency...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Nicolas Jamond, Pascal Chrétien, Lina Gatilova, Elisabeth Galopin, Laurent Travers, Jean-Christophe Harmand, Frank Glas, Frédéric Houzé, Noëlle Gogneau
The performances of 1D-nanostructure based nanogenerators are governed by the ability of nanostructures to efficiently convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy, and by the efficiency with which this piezo-generated energy is harvested. In this paper, we highlight the crucial influence of the GaN nanowire-metal Schottky nanocontact on the energy harvesting efficiency. Three different metals, p-type doped diamond, PtSi and Pt/Ir, have been investigated. By using an atomic force microscope equipped with a Resiscope module, we demonstrate that the harvesting of piezo-generated energy is up to 2...
March 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Yurim Shin, Chang Eun Song, Woo-Hyung Lee, Sang Kyu Lee, Won Suk Shin, In-Nam Kang
A new acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) small molecule based on benzodithiophene (BDT) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) is synthesized via a Stille cross-coupling reaction. A highly conjugated selenophene-based side group is incorporated into each BDT unit to generate a 2D soluble small molecule (SeBDT-DPP). SeBDT-DPP thin films produce two distinct absorption peaks. The shorter wavelength absorption (400 nm) is attributed to the BDT units containing conjugated selenophene-based side groups, and the longer wavelength band is due to the intramolecular charge transfer between the BDT donor and the DPP acceptor...
March 21, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Ke Wang, Wenfeng Tu, Cheng Liu, Yan Rao, Zhimin Gao, Chunhong Yang
The light harvesting chlorophyll (Chl) a/b complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is able to switch to multiple functions under different light conditions, i.e. harvesting solar energy for photosynthesis and dissipating excess excitation energy for photoprotection. The role of the different carotenoids (Cars) bound to LHCII in regulating the structure and function of the complex is a long-lasting question in photosynthesis research. 9-cis-neoxanthin (Nx) is one of the important Cars, which can only be found in the light harvesting Chla/b complexes of photosystem II...
March 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
Prasanta Das, Dibyendu Mondal, Subarna Maiti
Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed belongs to the class of red alga (Rhodophyta). The granules obtained after recovery of "sap" (liquid plant stimulant) from freshly harvested alga is a promising biomass feedstock for energy application. Herein we report the kinetic behaviour of the granules using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at different heating rates in N2 atmosphere and thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis. Sawdust as lignocellulosic biomass is considered for comparative study. Four different kinetic models (i) multilinear regression technique, (ii) Friedman method, (iii) Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method and (iv) Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method are used to evaluate the apparent activation energy (Ea), the pre-exponential factor (Aα) and the overall reaction order (n)...
March 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Cai-Rong Zhang, Xing-Yu Li, Yu-Lin Shen, Youzhi Wu, Zi-Jiang Liu, Hongshan Chen
Novel dye sensitizers are highly expected in the development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) since dye sensitizers can significantly affect the power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, the molecular docking strategy is applied to design panchromatic dye sensitizers for DSSCs in order to improve light-harvesting efficiency covering the full solar spectrum. Considering the broad absorption bands of tetraanthracenylporphyrins (TAnPs) and tetraazuleneporphyrins (TAzPs), based upon porphyrin dye sensitizer YD2-o-C8, the panchromatic dye sensitizers coded as H2(TAnP)-α, H2(TAzP)-γ, H2(TAzP)-ε, and H2(TAzP)-δ are designed by the substitution of the porphyrin-ring in YD2-o-C8 with TAnPs and TAzPs moieties at different positions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Stefano Santabarbara, Tania Tibiletti, William Remelli, Stefano Caffarri
State transitions are a phenomenon that maintains the excitation balance between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI-LHCI) by controlling their relative absorption cross-sections. Under light conditions exciting PSII preferentially, a trimeric LHCII antenna moves from PSII to PSI-LHCI to form the PSI-LHCI-LHCII supercomplex. In this work, the excited state dynamics in the PSI-LHCI and PSI-LHCI-LHCII supercomplexes isolated from Arabidopsis have been investigated by picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wanshun Xia, Liping Dai, Peng Yu, Xin Tong, Wenping Song, Guojun Zhang, Zhiming Wang
Following the development of many novel two-dimensional (2D) materials, investigations of van der Waals heterojunctions (vdWHs) have attracted significant attention due to their excellent properties such as smooth heterointerface, highly gate-tunable bandgap, and ultrafast carrier transport. Benefits from the atom-scale thickness, physical and chemical properties and ease of manipulation of the heterojunctions formulated by weak vdW forces were demonstrated to indicate their outstanding potential in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including photodetection and energy harvesting, and the possibility of integrating them with the existing semiconductor technology for the next-generation electronic and sensing devices...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
Lijie Li
Piezoelectric energy harvester scavenges mechanical vibrations and generates electricity. Researchers have strived to optimize the electromechanical structures and to design necessary external power management circuits, aiming to deliver high power and rectified outputs ready for serving as batteries. Complex deformation of the mechanical structure results in charges with opposite polarities appearing on same surface, leading to current loss in the attached metal electrode. External power management circuits such as rectifiers comprise diodes that consume power and have undesirable forward bias...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yifen Lin, Mengyin Chen, Hetong Lin, Yen-Con Hung, Yixiong Lin, Yihui Chen, Hui Wang, John Shi
As compared with P. longanae-inoculated longans, DNP treatment for P. longanae-inoculated longans exhibited higher fruit disease index and pericarp browning index, lower ATP amount and energy charge level, lower activities of SOD, CAT and APX, lower amounts of AsA and GSH, lower levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power, higher O2(-) generating rate and MDA amount. However, supply of ATP for P. longanae-inoculated longans showed the contrary effects. These results gave convincing evidence that DNP treatment for accelerating pericarp browning and disease development of harvested longans caused by P...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jum Suk Jang, Mahadeo A Mahadik, Arunprabaharan Subramanian, Min Cho, Hee-Suk Chung
CdS sensitized 1D Zr:Fe2O3 nanorod arrays have been synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates via a two-step hydrothermal method. The photoelectrochemical results demonstrate that the current density (4.2 at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) recorded under illumination for the CdS/1D Zr:Fe2O3 photoanodes is 2.8 time higher than the bare 1D Zr:Fe2O3. The extended absorbance spectrum, the reduced recombination, and the effective transport of photogenerated holes in CdS to the electrolyte facilitate enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance...
March 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
Stefan Ilic, Marija R Zoric, Usha Pandey Kadel, Yunjing Huang, Ksenija D Glusac
Metal-free motifs, such as graphitic carbon nitride, conjugated polymers, and doped nanostructures, are emerging as a new class of Earth-abundant materials for solar fuel devices. Although these metal-free structures show great potential, detailed mechanistic understanding of their performance remains limited. Here, we review important experimental and theoretical findings relevant to the role of metal-free motifs as either photoelectrodes or electrocatalysts. First, the light-harvesting characteristics of metal-free photoelectrodes (band energetics, exciton binding energies, charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes) are discussed and contrasted with those in traditional inorganic semiconductors (such as Si)...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
Andrew Hitchcock, C Neil Hunter, Melih Sener
Cell doubling times of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides during photosynthetic growth are determined experimentally and computationally as a function of illumination. For this purpose, energy conversion processes in an intracytoplasmic membrane vesicle, the chromatophore, are described based on an atomic detail structural model. The cell doubling time and its illumination dependence are computed in terms of the return-on-investment (ROI) time of the chromatophore, determined computationally from the ATP production rate, and the mass ratio of chromatophores in the cell, determined experimentally from whole cell absorbance spectra...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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