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Nikolina J Novakov, Željko A Mihaljev, Brankica D Kartalović, Bojan J Blagojević, Jelana M Petrović, Miroslav A Ćirković, Dragan R Rogan
The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals and PAHs in 57 samples of canned tuna, 25 samples of canned sardines and 16 samples of canned smoked sprouts, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. Heavy metal levels (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, iron, copper and zinc) were determined using an ICP-MS method. Sixteen analyzed PAHs were determined using a GC-MS method. The trace elements in canned fish were in the range (mg kg(-1)) of 0.01-0.28 for lead, 0.003-0.08 for cadmium, 0.007-0.64 for mercury, 0...
April 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Małgorzata Wroniak, Agnieszka Rękas
The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene], polychlorinated biphenyls (6 marker and 12 dioxin-like), pesticides (74 compounds) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Fe, Cu), in the cold-pressed rapeseed oils from conventional (RC) and ecological cultivations (RE). Similar level of PAHs, PCBs and heavy metals was found in the investigated cold-pressed oils; moreover, no effect of rapeseeds cultivation practice on the level of pesticide residues was found...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Renata França Cassimiro Belo, Júlia Pereira Figueiredo, Carolina Mariana Nunes, Rafael Pissinatti, Scheilla Vitorino Carvalho de Souza, Roberto Gonçalves Junqueira
An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure for use with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was optimized for the determination of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cocoa beans. Plackett-Burman and rotatable central composite design (RCCD) indicated that three variables affected the recoveries of PAHs during the extraction and purification steps: agitation time in the second liquid-liquid partition, weight of silica gel in the column, and volume of hexane for PAH elution from the column...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Kai Yang, Xuejun Jiang, Qiuping Su, Jing Wang, Chunlin Li, Yinyin Xia, Shuqun Cheng, Qizhong Qin, Xianqing Cao, Chengzhi Chen, Baijie Tu
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a ubiquitous chemical contaminant in the environment, is a well-established neurotoxicant to human. However, the molecular mechanisms for B[a]P neurotoxicity are still unclear. In the present study, after treating Sprague-Dawley rats with 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0mg/kg/day B[a]P for 7 weeks [from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND54], our results showed that B[a]P exposure caused a significant deficits in learning and memory function. By using U87 cells as in vitro model, the significant cytotoxicity and the induction of apoptosis caused by B[a]P were further verified...
April 18, 2017: Toxicology
Lihao Zhang, Xiaochen Duan, Nannan He, Xu Chen, Jinli Shi, Weiming Li, Li Xu, Huixin Li
Different pollutants induce distinct toxic responses in earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Here, we used proteomics techniques to compare the responses of E. fetida to exposure to the 10% lethal concentration (14d-LC10) of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or cadmium (Cd) in natural red soil (China). BaP exposure markedly induced the expression of oxidation-reduction proteins, whereas Cd exposure mainly induced the expression of proteins involved in transcription- and translation-related processes. Furthermore, calmodulin-binding proteins were differentially expressed upon exposure to different pollutants...
April 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Masanobu Kawanishi, Takashi Yagi
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a well-studied pro-carcinogen that is metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) has been considered to play a central role in the activation step, which is essential for the formation of DNA adducts. This enzyme is strongly induced by many different chemical agents, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Therefore, AhR activators are suspected to have the potential to aggravate the toxicity of BaP through the induction of CYP1A1...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
A S Prakasha Gowda, Jacek Krzeminski, Shantu Amin, Zucai Suo, Thomas E Spratt
Benzo[a]pyrene, a potent human carcinogen, is metabolized in vivo to a diol epoxide that reacts with the N(2)-position of guanine to produce N(2)-BP-dG adducts. These adducts are mutagenic causing G to T transversions. These adducts block replicative polymerases but can be bypassed by the Y-family translesion synthesis polymerases. The mechanisms by which mutagenic bypass occurs is not well-known. We have evaluated base pairing structures using atomic substitution of the dNTP with two stereoisomers, 2'-deoxy-N-[(7R,8S,9R,10S)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,8,9-trihydroxybenzo[a]pyren-10-yl]guanosine and 2'-deoxy-N-[(7S,8R,9S,10R)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,8,9-trihydroxybenzo[a]pyren-10-yl]guanosine...
April 19, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Alexandra John, Michael Bolte, Hans-Wolfram Lerner, Matthias Wagner
Ten examples of unsymmetrically benzannulated, boron-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (B-PAHs) were prepared by a one-pot protocol using 4,5-dichloro-1,2-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene (1), BBr3 , and selected PAHs-among them anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, biphenylene, and fluoranthene. After mesitylation at the boron centers, the resulting air- and water-stable products were investigated by (1) H/(11) B{(1) H}/(13) C{(1) H} NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, and UV/Vis absorption/emission spectroscopy...
April 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Matthew H Secrest, James J Schauer, Ellison Carter, Jill Baumgartner
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution derives from combustion and non-combustion sources and consists of various chemical species that may differentially impact human health and climate. Previous reviews of PM chemical component concentrations and sources focus on high-income urban settings, which likely differ from the low- and middle-income settings where solid fuel (i.e., coal, biomass) is commonly burned for cooking and heating. We aimed to summarize the concentrations of PM chemical components and their contributing sources in settings where solid fuel is burned...
April 12, 2017: Indoor Air
Evangelia Terzopoulou, Dimitra Voutsa
This study presents a complementary approach for the evaluation of water quality in a river basin by employing active and passive sampling. Persistent toxic pollutants representing three classes: organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were studied in grab water samples, in passive samplers/SemiPermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) and in fish tissues collected along the Strymonas River, northern Greece at three sampling campaigns during the year 2013...
April 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology
John F Obrycki, Nicholas T Basta, Steven W Culman
Soil management in urban areas faces dual challenges of reducing public exposure to soil contaminants, such as lead (Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and maintaining soil function. This study evaluated three management options for an urban lot in Cleveland, OH, containing 185 to 5197 mg Pb kg and 0.28 to 5.50 mg benzo(a)pyrene kg. Treatment options included: (i) cap the site with a soil blend containing compost and beneficially reused dredged sediments, (ii) mix compost with the soil, and (iii) mix compost and sediments with the soil...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Juliane Sowada, Lisa Lemoine, Karsten Schön, Christoph Hutzler, Andreas Luch, Tewes Tralau
The ubiquitous occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) leads to constant human exposure at low levels. Toxicologically relevant are especially the high-molecular weight substances due to their (pro-)carcinogenic potential. Following ingestion or uptake, the eukaryotic phase I metabolism often activates these substances to become potent DNA binders, and unsurprisingly metabolism and DNA-adduct formation of model substances such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are well studied. However, apart from being subjected to eukaryotic transformations PAHs are also carbon and energy sources for the myriads of commensal microbes inhabiting man's every surface...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
M Kalim A Khan, Salman Akhtar, Jamal M Arif
In the proposed work, we have explicated the mechanism of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) modulated cell proliferation by assessing the plausible binding with CASPASES, BAX, Bcl-2, MDM2, p53, p21, p16, CylinD1-CDK4 complex, CylinE1-CDK2 complex, H-Ras, K-Ras, BRCA1, and BRCA2 through exploiting the inherent potential of AutoDock Tools 4.0. In silico findings revealed that potent carcinogenic metabolites of DBP (e.g., (-)-anti-DBPDE and (+)-syn-DBPDE) and BP (e.g., (+)-anti-BPDE) exhibited better binding interactions to Caspase-9 than Caspase-8 and Caspase-3...
April 3, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Yasunobu Aoki
Various kind of chemical substances, including man-made chemical products and unintended products, are emitted to ambient air. Some of these substances have been shown to be mutagenic and therefore to act as a carcinogen in humans. National pollutant inventories (e.g., Pollutant Release and Transfer Registration in Japan) have estimated release amounts of man-made chemical products, but a major concern is the release of suspended particulate matter containing potent mutagens, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds generated by the combustion of fossil fuel, which are not estimated by PRTR system...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Lane G Tidwell, L Blair Paulik, Kim A Anderson
Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before...
March 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kai Yang, Chengzhi Chen, Shuqun Cheng, Xianqing Cao, Baijie Tu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether postnatal benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) exposure caused the impairments on the process of neurodevelopment and the alteration in the calcium medium in the neonatal rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (untreated control group, vehicle group, 0.02 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg B(a)P-exposed group). Rats were treated with B(a)P by the intragastric administration from postnatal day (PND) 4 to 25...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Maxime Demazeau, Nicolas Quesnot, Nicolas Ripoche, Claudine Rauch, Jelena Jeftić, Fabrice Morel, Fabienne Gauffre, Thierry Benvegnu, Pascal Loyer
In this study, we evaluated cationic liposomes prepared from diether-NH2 and egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) for in vitro gene delivery. The impact of the lipid composition, i.e. the EPC and Diether-NH2 molar ratio, on in vitro transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity was investigated using the human HEK293T and hepatoma HepaRG cells known to be permissive and poorly permissive cells for liposome-mediated gene transfer, respectively. Here, we report that EPC/Diether-NH2-based liposomes enabled a very efficient transfection with low cytotoxicity compared to commercial transfection reagents in both HEK293T and proliferating progenitor HepaRG cells...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Manoj Kumar, Gurpreet Singh, Preeti Bhardwaj, Sunil Kumar Dhatwalia, D K Dhawan
The present study was planned to see whether 3-O-Acetyl-11- keto-β-boswellic acid has any protective effects against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced toxicity or not. In vitro studies show concentration dependent linear association of radical scavenging activity of AK which is comparable to ascorbic acid taken as reference compound. For in vivo studies, the animals were divided randomly into five groups which included a) normal control, b) vehicle treated (olive oil), c) BaP treated, d) AK treated and e) AK + BaP (combined treated)...
March 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Zhini He, Daochuan Li, Junxiang Ma, Liping Chen, Huawei Duan, Bo Zhang, Chen Gao, Jie Li, Xiumei Xing, Jian Zhao, Shan Wang, Fangping Wang, Haiyan Zhang, Huiyao Li, Shen Chen, Xiaowen Zeng, Qing Wang, Yongmei Xiao, Yuxin Zheng, Wen Chen
Long term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with the increasing risk of lung cancer. To identify differentially hypermethylated genes associated with PAHs-induced carcinogenicity, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 20 μM benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells at different stages of cell transformation. Several methylated genes (CNGA4, FLT1, GAREM1, SFMBT2, TRIM36) were differentially hypermethylated and their mRNA was suppressed in cells at both pre-transformed and transformed stages...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Haihua Jiao, Gaopeng Bian, Xi Chen, Suiliang Wang, Xuliang Zhuang, Zhihui Bai
Concentration, composition profile, orientation distribution, sources, and potential risks of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 76 surface (0-25 cm) soil samples collected from the Changzhi industrial district in July 2014 using a gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS QP2010 Ultra) system. The composition patterns of the PAHs were dominated by the presence of four-ring PAHs (average 42.9%), followed by three-ring (average 25.9%), five-ring PAHs (average 25.6%), two-ring PAHs (average 5...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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