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Takahiro Matsumoto, Seikou Nakamura, Souichi Nakashima, Tomoe Ohta, Keiko Ogawa, Masashi Fukaya, Junko Tsukioka, Tomohiro Hasei, Tetsushi Watanabe, Hisashi Matsuda
Six neolignan glucosides, named isodonosides I-VI, and a megastigmane glucoside named isodonmegastigmane I, were isolated together with 15 known compounds from the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Isodon japonicus cultivated in Tokushima, Japan. The chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated based on their MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of the neolignan and megastigmane glucosides were determined by derivatizations, by ECD (electronic circular dicroism) Cotton effect approximation, and by the modified Mosher's method...
February 13, 2017: Phytochemistry
Ledicia Rey-Salgueiro, Elena Martínez-Carballo, Antonio Cid, Jesús Simal-Gándara
The kinetic bioconcentration of N-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) after short waterborne exposure was studied. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), its analogue azaarene 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene (AzaBaP), and their mixture (Mix), were selected to monitor the changes in water concentrations over three days. Decay of both PAHs concentrations in water after 24 h of waterborne exposure to mussels at levels of 10 and 100 μg/L follows a first order kinetic with half-lives of 4-5 h, with residual levels of PAHs below 7%...
January 2017: Heliyon
Ingrid Lenoir, Joël Fontaine, Benoît Tisserant, Frédéric Laruelle, Anissa Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are able to improve plant establishment in polluted soils but little is known about the genes involved in the plant protection against pollutant toxicity by mycorrhization, in particular in the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The present work aims at studying in both symbiotic partners, Medicago truncatula and Rhizophagus irregularis: (i) expression of genes putatively involved in PAH tolerance (MtSOD, MtPOX, MtAPX, MtGST, MtTFIIS, and MtTdp1α), (ii) activities of antioxidant (SOD, POX) and detoxification (GST) enzymes, and (iii) H2O2 and the heavy PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) accumulation...
February 15, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Lorena Perić, Vedrana Nerlović, Paula Žurga, Luka Žilić, Andreja Ramšak
The changes of acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), metallothioneins content (MTs), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed after 4 days exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to a wide range of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CHP, 0.03-100 μg/L), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 0.01-100 μg/L), cadmium (Cd, 0.2-200 μg/L) and copper (Cu, 0.2-100 μg/L). The activity of AChE in the gills decreased after exposure to CHP and Cu, whereas no change of activity was detected after exposure to B(a)P and Cd...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
Yevgen Nazarenko, Sébastien Fournier, Uday Kurien, Rodrigo Benjamin Rangel-Alvarado, Oleg Nepotchatykh, Patrice Seers, Parisa A Ariya
Little is known about pollution in urban snow and how aerosol and gaseous air pollutants interact with the urban snowpack. Here we investigate interactions of exhaust pollution with snow at low ambient temperature using fresh snow in a temperature-controlled chamber. A gasoline-powered engine from a modern light duty vehicle generated the exhaust and was operated in homogeneous and stratified engine regimes. We determined that, within a timescale of 30 min, snow takes up from the exhaust a large mass of organic pollutants and aerosol particles, which were observed by electron microscopy, mass spectrometry and aerosol sizers...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xin Jin, Weijun Tian, Qing Liu, Kaili Qiao, Jing Zhao, Xiaoxi Gong
To remove benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) that has accumulated in the Jiaozhou Bay wetland sediment, two strains (JB1 and JB2) were selected from the BaP-contaminated the wetland sediment and immobilized in coal cinder and chitosan beads using entrapping and surface adsorption methods. Biodegradation of BaP in sediment was carried out in pots. The results showed that, supported by the coal cinder and chitosan beads, 71.9, 65.5, 58.9 and 66.1% of the BaP in the immobilized cells was degraded after 40d. These percentages were clearly higher than the 47...
February 8, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ying Chen, Xinghua Li, Tianle Zhu, Yingjie Han, Dong Lv
Three indoor (residential home, dormitory, and office) and one outdoor concentrations of PM2.5-bound Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in Beijing across four seasons. The highest and lowest concentration of total PAHs for outdoor appeared in winter and in summer with averages of 200.1 and 9.1ng/m(3) respectively. The seasonal variations of total PAHs in three indoor sites were the same as outdoor. The correlation analysis between the indoor and outdoor samples showed that the annual mean I/O ratios of total PAHs in the three sites were lower than 1...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lauy Al-Anati, Sandeep Kadekar, Johan Högberg, Ulla Stenius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Radim J Šrám, Pavel Rössner, Andrea Rössnerová, Miroslav Dostál, Alena Milcová, Vlasta Švecová, Jana Pulkrabová, Jana Hajšlová, Miloš Velemínský
The Northern Moravia Region is the most polluted region in the Czech Republic by particulate matter (PM2.5) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) by heavy industry and local heating. This specific situation was used to study the impact of air pollution on newborns in the exposed Karviná district and control district of České Budějovice. Biological material from newborns and mothers was collected in summer and winter seasons. This project is highly detailed, analyzing the concentrations of PAHs in ambient air and diet, in human breast milk, in the urine of mothers and newborns, using biomarkers of genetic damage as DNA adducts and gene expression analysis, biomarkers of oxidative stress as 8-oxodG adducts and lipid peroxidation (15-F2t-isoprostane immunoassay)...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Vítězslav Jiřík, Ondřej Machaczka, Hana Miturová, Ivan Tomášek, Hana Šlachtová, Jana Janoutová, Helena Velická, Vladimír Janout
AIM: The aim of this review was to collect all available data about air pollution in Ostrava, which is one of the most polluted area in central Europe and to make a concise assessment of health risks resulting from historical exposures of air pollutants since the beginning of the monitoring, i.e. since 1970 to the present time. METHODS: All available information sources (the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, the Institute of Public Health in Ostrava or publications) were used...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Fiona Hewitt, Antonis Christou, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Anna A Stec
Qualitative results are presented from analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) obtained through sampling of gaseous effluent and condensed particulates during a series of experimental house fires conducted in a real house. Particular emphasis is given to the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the Environmental Protection Agency due to their potentially carcinogenic effects. The initial fuel packages were either cooking oil or a single sofa; these were burned both alone, and in furnished surroundings...
December 27, 2016: Chemosphere
Boluwatife Awonaike, Chen Wang, Kai-Uwe Goss, Frank Wania
Functional groups attached to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can significantly modify the environmental fate of the parent compound. Equilibrium partition coefficients, which are essential for describing the environmental phase distribution of a compound, are largely unavailable for substituted PAHs (SPAHs). Here, COSMOtherm, a software based on quantum-chemical calculations is used to estimate the atmospherically relevant partition coefficients between the gas phase, the aqueous bulk phase, the water surface and the water insoluble organic matter phase, as well as the salting-out coefficients, for naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene and 62 of their substituted counterparts...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Jérémie Soeur, Jean-Philippe Belaïdi, Christel Chollet, Laurence Denat, Ariane Dimitrov, Christophe Jones, Philippe Perez, Martine Zanini, Olivia Zobiri, Sakina Mezzache, Dominique Erdmann, Guillaume Lereaux, Joan Eilstein, Laurent Marrot
BACKGROUND: It is likely that skin is exposed to low concentrations of pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) either through topical penetration by ultrafine particles or by systemic distribution. No precise estimation of pollutants in living skin is available, but literature has reported contamination of blood by PAH at concentrations in the nanomolar range. Some pollutants (PAH for example) are photo-reactive and phototoxic: sunlight and pollution might thus synergistically compromise skin health...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
Shaojie Zhuo, Guofeng Shen, Ying Zhu, Wei Du, Xuelian Pan, Tongchao Li, Yang Han, Bengang Li, Junfeng Liu, Hefa Cheng, Baoshan Xing, Shu Tao
Sixteen U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eleven non-priority isomers including some dibenzopyrenes were analyzed to evaluate health risk attributable to inhalation exposure to ambient PAHs and contributions of the non-priority PAHs in a megacity Nanjing, east China. The annual average mass concentration of the total 16 EPA priority PAHs in air was 51.1 ± 29.8 ng/m(3), comprising up to 93% of the mass concentration of all 27 PAHs, however, the estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) due to inhalation exposure would be underestimated by 63% on average if only accounting the 16 EPA priority PAHs...
January 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Maira D Carabajal, Juan A Arancibia, Graciela M Escandar
For the first time, a simple and environmentally friendly third-order/four-way calibration was applied for the simultaneous determination of five heavy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in interfering environments. The kinetic evolution of the Fenton degradation of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benz[a]anthracene was followed by recording full excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEFMs) of the samples at different reaction times, obtaining third-order EEFM-kinetic (EEFM-K) data...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
Smita Kumari, Raj Kumar Regar, Abhay Bajaj, Ratnasekhar Ch, Gubbala Naga Venkata Satyanarayana, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Natesan Manickam
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacterium was isolated from a petroleum contaminated site and designated as Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87. It was found to utilize pyrene, phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene as sole carbon source, but not anthracene, chrysene and fluoranthene. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis resulted in identification of pyrene metabolites namely monohydroxypyrene, 4-oxa-pyrene-5-one, dimethoxypyrene and monohydroxyphenanthrene. Southern hybridization using naphthalene dioxygenase gene (nidA) as probe against the DNA of strain IITR87 revealed the presence of nidA gene...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
J Zhang, Y Liu, S-Z Wei
The effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on Wistar rat lymphocyte activity, lymphocyle membrane integrity and erythrocytes hemolysis were examined using the MTT assay, the release of the lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and the hemoglobin release respectively in vitro. The results showed that lymphocyte activity had no remarkable response to BaP after a low dose of exposure. But the membrane change was found after higher dose of BaP exposure, and the significant release of LD was observed. The release of LD increased with exposure time prolonging and exposure dose increasing...
December 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Hokyun Kim, Bora Yim, Jisoo Kim, Haeyeon Kim, Young-Mi Lee
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in transporting various substances, including xenobiotics, in or out of cells. However, their genetic information and function in ciliates remain still unclear. In this study, we sequenced and characterized two ABC transporter genes (EcABCB and EcABCC), and investigated the effect of cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on their function and gene expression, using efflux assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, in the marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus...
January 27, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Shun Xiao, Jingshu Guo, Byeong Hwa Yun, Peter W Villalta, Suprita Krishna, Resha Tejpaul, Paari Murugan, Christopher J Weight, Robert J Turesky
Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between frequent consumption of well-done cooked meats and prostate cancer risk. However, unambiguous physiochemical markers of DNA damage from carcinogens derived from cooked meats, such as DNA adducts, have not been identified in human samples to support this paradigm. We have developed a highly sensitive nano-LC-Orbitrap MS (n) method to measure DNA adducts of several carcinogens originating from well-done cooked meats, tobacco smoke, and environmental pollution, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP)...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Simone A M Badal, Malyn M Asuncion Valenzuela, Dain Zylstra, George Huang, Pallavi Vendantam, Sheena Francis, Ashley Quitugua, Louisa H Amis, Willie Davis, Tzuen-Rong J Tzeng, Helen Jacobs, David J Gangemi, Greg Raner, Leah Rowland, Jonathan Wooten, Petreena Campbell, Eileen Brantley, Rupika Delgoda
Quassinoids often exhibit antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. Emerging evidence suggests that these natural metabolites also display chemopreventive actions. In this study, we investigated the potential for the quassinoid glaucarubulone glucoside (Gg), isolated from the endemic Jamaican plant Castela macrophylla (Simaroubaceae), to display potent cytotoxicity and inhibit human cytochrome P450s (CYPs), particularly CYP1A enzymes, known to convert polyaromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic metabolites...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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