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Zoltán Nyiri, Márton Novák, Zsolt Bodai, Bálint Sámuel Szabó, Zsuzsanna Eke, Gyula Záray, Tamás Szigeti
An analytical method has been developed for the quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and oxygenated derivatives (nitro- and oxy-PAHs respectively) in particulate matter (PM) samples. The sample preparation procedure included only a simple and quick sonication-assisted extraction step, clean-up based on addition of water and centrifugation as well as pre-concentration under N2 stream. The determination of 16 PAHs and 4 oxy-PAHs was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, while liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used in the case of the 11 investigated nitro-PAHs...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mehmet Emin Çorman, Canan Armutcu, Lokman Uzun, Adil Denizli
In this study, cryogel-based molecularly imprinted composite cartridges were designed for the rapid, efficient, and selective preconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) from water samples. First, a BaP-imprinted poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-(L)-phenylalanine) composite cartridge was synthesized under semi-frozen conditions and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and swelling tests. After the optimization of preconcentration parameters, i...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jing Xue, Qinglan Zhao, Vishal Sharma, Linh P Nguyen, Yvonne N Lee, Kim L Pham, Mouad Edderkaoui, Stephen J Pandol, Walter Park, Aida Habtezion
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cigarette smoke has been identified as an independent risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes development of CP. We assessed the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands found in cigarette smoke on immune cell activation in humans and pancreatic fibrosis in animal models of CP. METHODS: We obtained serum samples from patients with CP treated at Stanford University hospital and healthy individuals (controls) and isolated CD4+ T cells; levels of interleukin-22 (IL22) were measured by ELISA and smoking histories were collected...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Carlos Neira, Jennifer Cossaboon, Guillermo Mendoza, Eunha Hoh, Lisa A Levin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have garnered much attention due to their bioaccumulation, carcinogenic properties, and persistence in the environment. Investigation of the spatial distribution, composition, and sources of PAHs in sediments of three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California revealed significant differences among marinas, with concentrations in one site exceeding 16,000ngg(-1). 'Hotspots' of PAH concentration suggest an association with stormwater outfalls draining into the basins...
October 14, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Flora Clément, Xinyi Xu, Caterina F Donini, Alice Clément, Soleilmane Omarjee, Emmanuel Delay, Isabelle Treilleux, Béatrice Fervers, Muriel Le Romancer, Pascale A Cohen, Véronique Maguer-Satta
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 are key regulators of the fate and differentiation of human mammary epithelial stem cells (SCs), as well as of their niches, and are involved in breast cancer development. We established that MCF10A immature mammary epithelial cells reliably reproduce the BMP response that we previously identified in human primary epithelial SCs. In this model, we observed that BMP2 promotes luminal progenitor commitment and expansion, whereas BMP4 prevents lineage differentiation...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Weijun Tian, Jing Zhao, Yuhang Zhou, Kaili Qiao, Xin Jin, Qing Liu
Changes in root exudates, including low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), amino acids and sugars, in rhizosphere soils during the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) and the degree of the effects on HMW-PAH biodegradation were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the gel-beads/reeds combination remediation notably increased the removal rates of pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (65.0-68.9%, 60.0-68.5% and 85...
October 10, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kenji Takeshita, Hiroaki I Ogawa, Toshinari Maeda
BACKGROUND: Carcinogens are known to cause swelling of the mammalian cell nucleus. However, the mechanism of the swelling and its toxicological significance have not been fully elucidated. Since nuclear swelling (NS hereafter) has been frequently observed in chromosomal aberration (CA hereafter) tests (in vitro), the relationship between NS and CAs was investigated in this study. RESULTS: In a short-term CA test using the fibroblast CHL cell line, the appearance of NS increased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to six types of clastogens (mitomycin C, methyl methane sulfonate, 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine, benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide monohydrate, and 9,10-dimethyl-2-benzanthracene), and a strong correlation was found between NS (%) and CAs (%) at each dosage...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
S Levent Kuzu
Conventional air pollutants (PM10, CO, NOx) gradually increased from fall to winter during 2015 in Istanbul. Several air pollution episodes were observed during this period. This study was made in order to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels, identify the sources of air pollution, and make toxicity assessment based on Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations. The sampling took 14 sequential days during winter. High-pressure weather conditions prevailed at the start of the sampling. The conditions were then changed to low-pressure condition towards the end of the sampling...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hiroshi Uchi, Mao Yasumatsu, Saori Morino-Koga, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue
BACKGROUND: Dioxins and other environmental pollutants are toxic and remain in biological tissues for a long time leading to various levels of oxidative stress. Although the toxicity of these agents has been linked to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), no effective treatment has been developed. OBJECTIVE: To explore novel phytochemicals that inhibit AHR activation in keratinocytes. METHODS: Keratinocytes were used in this study because the skin is one of the organs most affected by dioxin and other environmental pollutants...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Olga Monago-Maraña, Rocío L Pérez, Graciela Mónica Escandar, Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña, Teresa Galeano-Díaz
This work presents a strategy for quantifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked paprika samples. For this, a liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) has been optimized. In order to resolve some interferences co-eluting with the target analytes, the second order multivariate curve resolution - alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm has been employed combined with this liquid chromatographic method. Among the eight PAHs quantified (fluorene, phenantrene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluorantene and benzo(a)pyrene) by HPLC-FLD, only in the case of fluorene, pyrene and benzo(b)fluorantene was necessary to apply the second-order algorithm for their resolution...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Akiko Honda, Takahiro Sawahara, Tomohiro Hayashi, Kenshi Tsuji, Wataru Fukushima, Mizuki Oishi, Gaku Kitamura, Hitomi Kudo, Sho Ito, Seiichi Yoshida, Takamichi Ichinose, Kayo Ueda, Hirohisa Takano
Epidemiologic studies have revealed that Asian sand dust particles (ASDs) can affect respiratory and immune health represented by asthma. Factors responsible for the exacerbation of asthma remain unclear. The fungus Bjerkandera adusta ( and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) have been identified in ASDs collected from the atmosphere when an ASD event occurred. We investigated the effects of and BaP related to ASDs on respiratory and immune systems. Bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and splenocytes from atopic prone NC/Nga mice and human airway epithelial cells were exposed to the B...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Wenfen Zhang, Yanhao Zhang, Qiong Jiang, Wenjie Zhao, Ajuan Yu, Hong Chang, Ximei Lu, Fuwei Xie, Baoxian Ye, Shusheng Zhang
To satisfy the requirement of simultaneous extraction and characterization of diverse kinds of multi-target analytes, the preparation, characterization and application of a novel tetraazacalix[2]arene[2]triazine (TCT) coated magnetic nanoparticular (TCT MNP) adsorbent are presented in this paper. TCT assembles two benzene rings and two triazines with nitrogen cross-bridging links, which exhibits a unique structural framework and versatile recognition features based on the multiple recognition sites. These include π electron stacking, charge transfer, hydrogen bonding and ion-exchange...
October 7, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Laura Pereira Garcia, Fernanda M L Gomes, Silvia Tfouni, Eduardo Vicente, Geovana D Savi, Karolina Santos, Vildes M Scussel
A total of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were surveyed in dry whole soybeans (Glycine max L.) sold for human consumption. The analysed samples were commercialised in vegetarian shops and food stores in Southern Brazil regions. The determination of PAHs levels was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)with fluorescence detection. PAHs were present in 89.7% of the samples. Chrysene (Chy) and 5 methyl chrysene (5MeChy) were the main PAHs detected (76.9% and 71.8%, respectively) followed by dibenzo(ai)pyrene (DaiP), however in a much less percentage of samples (23...
October 6, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Hongbin Cao, Sihong Chao, Li Qiao, Yanxue Jiang, Xiancai Zeng, Xiaoting Fan
Urbanization, which is characterized by population aggregation, industrial development, and increased traffic load, may change local polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions and their associated health risks. To investigate these changes, we collected soil samples in 2009 and 2014 in a rapidly developing small town in Southern Jiangsu (China) and measured the concentrations of 16 PAHs via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Although the total PAHs decreased from 4586.6 to 640.6ng/g, the concentrations of the high-molecular-weight PAHs benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene increased due to changes in the PAH sources...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Markus Christmann, Catherine Boisseau, Rebekka Kitzinger, Christian Berac, Sebastian Allmann, Tina Sommer, Dorthe Aasland, Bernd Kaina, Maja T Tomicic
A coordinated and faithful DNA damage response is of central importance for maintaining genomic integrity and survival. Here, we show that exposure of human cells to benzo(a)pyrene 9,10-diol-7,8-epoxide (BPDE), the active metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), which represents a most important carcinogen formed during food preparation at high temperature, smoking and by incomplete combustion processes, causes a prompt and sustained upregulation of the DNA repair genes DDB2, XPC, XPF, XPG and POLH. Induction of these repair factors on RNA and protein level enhanced the removal of BPDE adducts from DNA and protected cells against subsequent BPDE exposure...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Rajko Martinović, Stoimir Kolarević, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Sandra Jokanović, Zoran Gačić, Danijela Joksimović, Mirko Đurović, Zoran Kljajić, Branka Vuković-Gačić
This study gives an insight in sensitivity of heart rate (Hr) of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a physiological biomarker. Impact of tributyltin chloride (TBT-Cl) on Hr was studied in parallel with evaluation of mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of TBT-Cl (10, 100 and 1000μg/L) within 96h treatment in static conditions. Mutagenic potential was assessed by SOS/umuC assay while genotoxicity was assessed in haemocytes of M. galloprovincialis by using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was used as a positive control...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Noelia Domínguez-Morueco, Miriam L Diamond, Jordi Sierra, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo, Martí Nadal
The Multimedia Urban Model (MUM-Fate) was used to estimate the emissions, fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain, where the largest chemical/petrochemical industrial complex of Southern Europe is located. MUM-Fate is a Level III steady-state fugacity model consisting of seven bulk media compartments (lower and upper air, surface water, sediment, soil, vegetation, and an organic film that coats impervious surfaces). The model was parameterized according to environmental conditions in Tarragona County, and used to back-calculate emissions from measured air concentrations of naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene...
September 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
X L Li, Q F Deng, X Zhang, T Wang, Z W Chen, Y S Bai, S H Wang, T C Wu, H Guo
Objective: To investigate the association and interaction of heat shock proteins B1(HSPB1)gene rs2868371 and tumor-suppressor protein p53(TP53)gene rs1042522 polymorphisms with chromosome damage levels among coke oven workers. Methods: We recruited 1 333 male workers from a state-run coke oven plant in Wuhan in September-October 2010. Among them, 949 who had worked in coke oven workplaces, including auxiliary facilities and bottom, side, and top ovens, were nominated as coke oven workers(i.e., exposed), and 384 administrative or medical staff whose workplaces were offices were used as controls...
October 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Sabina Ranjit, Narasimha M Midde, Namita Sinha, Benjamin J Patters, Mohammad A Rahman, Theodore J Cory, P S S Rao, Santosh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), naphthalene (NPh), phenanthrene (Phe), benzo(a)antharacene (BeA), and benzo(b)fluoranthene (BeF) are known carcinogenic polyaryl hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in cigarette smoke. This study was designed to examine the relative effect of these constituents on the cytotoxicity of monocytic cells and the possible mechanism of PAH-mediated cytotoxicity. METHODS: We examined the acute (6-24 hours) and chronic (7 days) effects of these PAHs on the expression of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity...
2016: PloS One
Jyotilima Saikia, Puja Khare, Prasenjit Saikia, Binoy K Saikia
In the present investigation, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5, PM10 and dust particles emitted from two tea processing industrial units were studied that uses high-sulfur coal as their energy source. A total of 16 PAHs (viz. naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthene (Ace), acenaphthylene (Acen), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Fluo), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were measured...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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