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Edmund Azah, Hwidong Kim, Timothy Townsend
Wastes generated from municipal cleaning activities such as street sweeping, ditch cleaning, stormwater pond maintenance, and catch basin sediment removal require appropriate management. Beneficial use of these types of waste is a good alternative to landfilling; however, there are genuine concerns about possible soil and groundwater contamination by pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study assessed the potential risks associated with beneficial use of roadway and stormwater system residuals collected from 14 cities across the state of Florida, USA...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Kimitaka Kawamura, Ayako Yanase, Leonard Barrie
The distributions, correlations and source apportionment of aromatic acids, aromatic ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals were studied in Canadian high Arctic aerosols. 19 PAHs including minor sulphur-containing heterocyclic PAH (dibenzothiophene) and major 6 carcinogenic PAHs were detected with a high proportion of fluoranthene followed by benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene. However, in the sunlit period of spring, their concentrations significantly declined likely due to photochemical decomposition...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mauro Esposito, Monia Perugini, Sara Lambiase, Annamaria Conte, Loredana Baldi, Michele Amorena
This paper reports on the results about the chemical pollution pressure in the Gulf of Naples and nearby coastal areas. Farmed mussels were analysed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results documented a decreasing trend in the PAHs levels respect to the past years. The Bay of Pozzuoli remains as the most contaminated site within the Lucrino area with the highest reported number of samples exceeding the benzo(a)pyrene and PAHs sum limits. All the samples with concentrations above the European regulatory limit were collected in the winter period illustrating a seasonal trend of PAHs distribution in mussels during the 4 years investigated...
July 19, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jong K Woo, Hyun J Jung, Ji-Youn Park, Ju-Hee Kang, Byung I Lee, DongYun Shin, Chu W Nho, Soo-Young Cho, Je K Seong, Seung H Oh
FAK overexpression has been reported in diverse primary and metastatic tumor tissues, supporting its pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic roles. Therefore, we have developed a neo-treatment strategy using daurinol to effectively treat cancer metastasis. Daurinol blocked cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and exhibited anti-metastatic activity in an experimental metastasis model of breast and lung cancer. Daurinol selectively inhibited phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr925, Tyr576/577, and Tyr397 sites in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
Wen Liu, Long Ma, Jilili Abuduwaili, Yaoming Li
The concentration, distribution, compositional characteristics, and pollution sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil of Issyk-Kul Lake Basin were studied, and their ecological risks were evaluated in this paper. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs was 68.58-475.95 ng g(-1), with an average of 134.45 ng g(-1). Four-ring PAHs accounted for 43.2% of the total PAHs, two- and three-ring PAHs accounted for 39.4%, and five- and six-ring PAHs accounted for 15.8%. The total concentration of the seven carcinogenic PAHs was 7...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Song-Yang Zhang, Danqing Shao, Huiying Liu, Juan Feng, Baihuan Feng, Xiaoming Song, Qian Zhao, Ming Chu, Changtao Jiang, Wei Huang, Xian Wang
Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5μM (PM2.5) is one of the major environmental pollutants in China. In this study, we carried out a metabolomics profile study on PM2.5-induced inflammation. PM2.5 from Beijing, China, was collected and given to rats through intra-tracheal instillation in vivo. Acute pulmonary injury were observed by pulmonary function assessment and H.E. staining. The lipid metabolic profile was also altered with increased phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolites in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after PM2...
July 4, 2017: Redox Biology
Trevor J Fish, Abby D Benninghoff
Data in this article depict patterns of methylation in lung tissues obtained from the offspring of B6129SF1/J dams and 129S1/SvImJ sires exposed in utero to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) as compared to non-exposed offspring. Genome-wide methylation of lung tumors in adult offspring was determined using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) with the NimbleGen mouse DNA methylation CpG island array. This data article refers to the research article "DNA methylation in lung tissues of mouse offspring exposed in utero to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," [1] in which comprehensive data interpretation and analysis are provided...
August 2017: Data in Brief
Orapin Insuan, Arpamas Chariyakornkul, Yuwada Rungrote, Rawiwan Wongpoomchai
BACKGROUND: Rice bran is the outer layer of the rice grain, and contains high amounts of bioactive phytochemicals. Here, we investigated and compared chemopreventive properties of purple and white rice bran extracts. METHODS: Rice bran was extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. Chemical constituents in the extracts were analyzed by colorimetric assay and high performance liquid chromatography. The mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of the extracts were determined via the Salmonella mutation assay...
June 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Andrew Loh, Un Hyuk Yim, Sung Yong Ha, Joon Geon An, Moonkoo Kim
After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m(3) of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Pei Zhang, Yinguang Chen
This paper reviews the concentration, distribution, source, and potential risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soils of China through analysis of data from >6000 surface soil samples in nearly 100 references. The mean value of total 16 PAHs was 730ng·g(-1) in surface soil in China, a relatively lower or moderate level than other countries. Based on the Maliszewska-Kordybach classification criteria, the proportions of heavily contaminated, contaminated, weakly contaminated, and non-contaminated soil samples were 21...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Song Zhao, Hanzhong Jia, Gulimire Nulaji, Hongwei Gao, Fu Wang, Chuanyi Wang
Photochemical behavior of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe(3+)-modified montmorillonite was explored to determine their potential kinetics, pathways, and mechanism under visible light. Depending on the type of PAH molecules, the transformation rate follows the order of benzo[a]pyrene ≈ anthracene > benzo[a]anthracene > phenanthrene. Quantum simulation results confirm the crucial role of "cation-π" interaction between Fe(3+) and PAHs on their transformation kinetics. Primary intermediates, including quinones, ring-opening products and benzene derivatives, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and the possible photodegradation pathway of benzo[a]pyrene was proposed...
June 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Jun Zeng, Qinghe Zhu, Yucheng Wu, Hong Chen, Xiangui Lin
Ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHDs) play a critical role in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, genes pdoAB encoding a dioxygenase capable of oxidizing various PAHs with up to five-ring benzo[a]pyrene were cloned from Mycobacterium sp. NJS-P. The α-subunit of the PdoAB showed 99% and 93% identity to that from Mycobacterium sp. S65 and Mycobacterium sp. py136, respectively. An Escherichia coli expression experiment revealed that the enzyme is able to oxidize anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, but not to fluoranthene and benzo[a]anthracene...
July 2, 2017: Chemosphere
Vitezslav Jirik, Barbara Brezna, Ondrej Machaczka, Sabina Honkysova, Hana Miturova, Vladimir Janout
Selecting the locations and numbers of air quality monitoring stations is challenging as these are expensive to operate. Representative concentrations of pollutants in certain areas are usually determined by measuring. If there are significant correlations with concentrations of other pollutants or with other monitoring sites, however, concentrations could also be computed, partly reducing the costs. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such possible relationships using data on concentrations of ambient air pollutants obtained in different areas of a larger city...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chang Dong Yeo, Young Ae Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Jin Woo Kim, Seung Joon Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Young Kyoon Kim
Roflumilast, a potent and selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), has been used in treatment of COPD. PDE4 inhibitor is associated with inhibition of chronic airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and mesenchymal markers in B(a)P-induced lung tumors. The aim of this study was to assess whether roflumilast alone or added to inhaled budesonide might have dose-dependent inhibition on lung carcinogenesis induced by carcinogen B(a)P in mice. Female A/J mice were given a single dose of benzo(a)pyrene. Administration of roflumilast (1mg/kg or 5mg/kg) via oral gavage and aerosolized budesonide (2...
July 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
P Zhang, Xy Zhang
Lung cancer is responsible for increase in mortality due to cancer-related deaths, and new approaches are being explored for the betterment of the situation. In the present study, chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and quercetin was investigated against benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced lung carcinogenesis. The mice were segregated into five groups, which included normal control, BP-treated, BP + curcumin-treated, BP + quercetin-treated, and BP + curcumin + quercetin-treated groups. The morphological and histological analyses of tumor nodules confirmed lung carcinogenesis22 weeks after weeks single intraperitoneal injection of BP at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight to mice...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Artur J Badyda, Kamila Widziewicz, Wioletta Rogula-Kozłowska, Grzegorz Majewski, Izabela Jureczko
The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM2.5 and PM2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography...
July 6, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zaisheng Yan, Yuhong He, Haiyuan Cai, Joy D Van Nostrand, Zhili He, Jizhong Zhou, Lee R Krumholz, He-Long Jiang
Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) can stimulate the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, but the mechanism of this process is poorly understood at the microbial functional gene level. Here, the use of SMFC resulted in 92% benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) removal over 970 days relative to 54% in the controls. Sediment functions, microbial community structure, and network interactions were dramatically altered by the SMFC employment. Functional gene analysis showed that c-type cytochrome genes for electron transfer, aromatic degradation genes, and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes involved in lignin degradation were significantly enriched in bulk sediments during SMFC operation...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Soo-Min Kim, Hae-Miru Lee, Kyung-A Hwang, Kyung-Chul Choi
Cigarette smoke (CS) contains over 60 well established carcinogens. In this study, we examined the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a main CS component, on the viability and apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cancer cell lines. An MTT assay confirmed that B(a)P decreased the cell viability of JEG-3 and BeWo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blot (WB) assay revealed that protein expression of cyclin D and cyclin E decreased, while protein expression of p21 and p27 was increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h...
July 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Daniela Baldantoni, Raffaella Morelli, Alessandro Bellino, Maria Vittoria Prati, Anna Alfani, Flavia De Nicola
In order to validate the use of compost in soil PAH bioremediation, the degradation of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene was monitored in soils artificially contaminated and incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions. The dynamics observed in compost amended soil were compared to those observed in soil added with a fungal consortium and untreated soil. At the same time, three microbial enzyme activities usually involved in PAH degradation (laccase, o-diphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities) were monitored...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Laura J Phalen, Bernd Köllner, Natacha S Hogan, Michael R van den Heuvel
Immune toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fishes has been frequently reported but the reasons for differential cell toxicity remains unclear. Rainbow trout were exposed in vivo with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or 100mg/kg of the immunotoxic PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in corn oil. Leukocytes were harvested from head kidney, spleen and blood after 14days, the optimal time for B cell depletion found in a previous study. The mRNA expression of five cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and an intrinsic pathway apoptosis checkpoint (p53) in B cells and thrombocytes were examined...
July 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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