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Pramodha S Liyanage, Alice R Walker, Alfonso Brenlla, G Andrés Cisneros, Louis J Romano, David Rueda
Translesion DNA synthesis is an essential process that helps resume DNA replication at forks stalled near bulky adducts on the DNA. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that can be metabolically activated to benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), which then can react with DNA to form carcinogenic DNA adducts. Here, we have used single-molecule florescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments, classical molecular dynamics simulations, and nucleotide incorporation assays to investigate the mechanism by which the model Y-family polymerase, Dpo4, bypasses a (+)-cis-B[a]P-N 2-dG adduct in DNA...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hyunju Woo, JungA Lee, Deokhoon Park, Eunsun Jung
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is present in the atmosphere surrounding our environment. Although B[a]P is a procarcinogen, enzymatically metabolized benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) could intercalate into DNA to form bulky BPDE-DNA adducts as an ultimate carcinogenic product in human keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of mulberry extract, purified from the fruit of Morus Alba L., on B[a]P-induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and its mechanisms of action...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Diego Luis Ribeiro, Heloísa Lizotti Cilião, Ana Flávia Leal Specian, Juliana Mara Serpeloni, Marcelo Tempesta De Oliveira, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Wagner Vilegas, Luiz Leonardo Saldanha, Wilner Martínez-López, Anne Lígia Dokkedal, Ilce Mara Syllos Cólus
Bauhinia holophylla (Bong.) Steud. (Fabaceae) is a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diabetes and inflammation. This study evaluated the phytochemical properties, cytotoxic, apoptotic, mutagenic/antimutagenic effects and alterations in gene expression (RNAm) in HepG2 cells treated with the B. holophylla extract. The phytochemical profile highlight the presence of flavonoids isorhamentin and quercetin derivates. The MTT assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of different concentrations for different treatment times...
December 11, 2017: Cytotechnology
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Slobodan P Rendic, F Peter Guengerich
The paper presents development and use of offline and Web-searchable human and other species metabolism databases. A search of the databases presented will produce basic information on metabolic reactions or transporter systems published on specific drug or other chemical, kinetic values, as well as structure of the metabolites. In addition, searching enables comparison of the data between different species models. The data cover time the period until 2008, and the current Web-searchable database [19] is updated quarterly each year and over the period until October 2017...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Rhitu Kotoky, L Paikhomba Singha, Piyush Pandey
Bacillus subtilis SR1 is a heavy metal-resistant, polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from rhizospheric soil of contaminated sites. It has the ability to promote plant growth and utilize benzo[a]pyrene as a carbon source. This study reports the characteristics of the genome of B. subtilis SR1, which contains one circular chromosome (4,093,698 bp).
December 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
Tingting Xu, Anna Young, Enolia Marr, Gary Sayler, Steven Ripp, Dan Close
An autonomously bioluminescent Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYAhS bioreporter was developed in this study for the simple and rapid detection of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. This recombinant yeast reporter was based on a synthetic bacterial luciferase reporter gene cassette (lux) that can produce the luciferase as well as the enzymes capable of self-synthesizing the requisite substrates for bioluminescent production from endogenous cellular metabolites. As a result, bioluminescent signal production is generated continuously and autonomously without cell lysis or exogenous reagent addition...
December 6, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Isabella Annesi-Maesano
Air pollution constitutes one of the main threats to public health in Europe. Significant impacts on the health of Europeans in terms of morbidity and mortality have been observed, even in cases of low exposure and where pollutant levels are within limits set by the European Union (EU). The respiratory system is a primary target of the harmful effects of key air pollutants. Emissions of many air pollutants have decreased substantially over the past decades in Europe, resulting in diminished concentrations and improved air quality...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Chase S Brewster, Virender K Sharma, Leslie Cizmas, Thomas J McDonald
The Lower Fox River is a 39 mile section which supports approximately 270,000 rural inhabitants across 18 counties, 303,000 metropolitan residents in Green Bay and Appleton, Wisconsin, and several large industrial complexes such as paper mills and power plants. This paper presents the distribution and concentrations of aliphatic (n-alkanes) and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) in the Lower Fox River to identify the sources of hydrocarbon contamination...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Christopher Kuc, Daniel J Richard, Samantha Johnson, Leslie Bragg, Mark R Servos, Andrew C Doxey, Paul M Craig
The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of DNA methylation following acute (24 h) and prolonged (14 d) exposure to low (1 ng/L) and high (10 ng/L) benzo[a]pyrene. However, with the recent release of the rainbow trout genome, we were able to conduct a more detailed analysis regarding the regulation of the enzymes involved in DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Bioinformatic approaches were used to identify candidate microRNA (miRNA) that potentially bind to the DNMT1 and DNMT3a 3'UTR...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Svenja Boehler, Ann-Kathrin Lörracher, Janine Schubert, Thomas Braunbeck
The measurement of EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) activity to determine the induction of CYP1A after exposure to dioxin-like substances is a well-established biomarker in fish. For reasons of animal welfare and implementations of new chemicals regulations (REACh), in vivo methods using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos have recently been developed to quantify CYP1A induction, which is visualized as mean intensity of the autofluorescent resorufin formed in living anaesthetized embryos...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pinar Erkekoglu, Didem Oral, Ming-Wei Chao, Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC-for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins)...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Yun-Chun Li, Jia-Qian Qiu, Man Shu, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Jun-Ji Cao, Ge-Hui Wang, Xian-Xiang Wang, Xiao-Qing Zhao
Nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 emitted from five different cooking activities were characterized, and their influencing factors were determined. The total quantified particle-bounded PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) in the airs from the cooking activities were 4.2-36.5-fold higher than those in corresponding backgrounds. The highest ΣPAHs were seen in cafeteria frying (783 ± 499 ng/m3), followed by meat roasting (420 ± 191 ng/m3), fish roasting (210 ± 105 ng/m3), snack-street boiling (202 ± 230 ng/m3), and cafeteria boiling (150 ± 65 ng/m3)...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jia-Ching Wu, Mei-Ling Tsai, Ching-Shu Lai, Chih-Yu Lo, Chi-Tang Ho, Ying-Jan Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental carcinogenic pollutants and they have become an important issue in food contamination. Dietary intake of PAHs has been recognized as a major route of human exposure. However, the mechanisms behind dietary PAH-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Several studies have shown that polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are effective in preventing carcinogen-induced CRC or colitis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of PMFs on benzo[a]pyrene/dextran sulfate sodium (BaP/DSS)-induced colorectal tumorigenesis in ICR mice...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Chunlin Li, Jing Wang, Qiuping Su, Kai Yang, Chengzhi Chen, XueJun Jiang, Tingli Han, Shuqun Cheng, Tingting Mo, Ruiyuan Zhang, Bin Peng, Yuming Guo, Philip N Baker, Baijie Tu, Yinyin Xia
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been associated with neurotoxicity in mammals. It has strong toxic effects on the developing central nervous system. Cerebellum is associated with locomotor activity and anxiety behavior, but there is very little research about the toxic effects of BaP in cerebellum. The present study aims to investigate the global influence of BaP subacute exposure on the metabolome of rat cerebellum. Male neonatal rats (postnatal day 5) were divided into two groups: control group and BaP-treated group (2 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks)...
December 1, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Jan M F Fischer, Tabea Zubel, Kirsten Jander, Jelena Fix, Irmela R E A Trussina, Daniel Gebhard, Jörg Bergemann, Alexander Bürkle, Aswin Mangerich
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a complex and reversible posttranslational modification catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs), which orchestrates protein function and subcellular localization. The function of PARP1 in genotoxic stress response upon induction of oxidative DNA lesions and strand breaks is firmly established, but its role in the response to chemical-induced, bulky DNA adducts is understood incompletely. To address the role of PARP1 in the response to bulky DNA adducts, we treated human cancer cells with benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), which represents the active metabolite of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P], in nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Chen Gao, Xiumei Xing, Zhini He, Shen Chen, Shan Wang, Qingye Li, Ping Guo, Haiyan Zhang, Huiyao Li, Liping Chen, Qing Wang, Jian Zhao, Yongmei Xiao, Wen Chen, Daochuan Li
Cell immortalization is the initial step for cancer development. To identify the differentially expressed genes regulated by DNA methylation over the course of human primary bronchial epithelial cell (HPBECs) immortalization, an immortalized HBE cell line (HBETT) was generated via introduction of an SV40 LT and a catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) into the HPBECs. Microarrays of mRNA and DNA methylation were performed to compare the transcriptomes and DNA methylomes between these two types of cells...
November 28, 2017: Gene
Yan Chen, Kezhou Cai, Zehui Tu, Wen Nie, Tuo Ji, Bing Hu, Conggui Chen, Shaotong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determining the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, we used an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage. RESULTS: The results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sergio Manzetti
Parabens, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds are pollutant compounds used in cosmetics, plastics, and fire-fighting foams. All three compounds have been studied over several years for toxicity mechanism; however, a clear view of their ability to bind to DNA has not been supplied empirically. In this work, a simulation study is done to reveal the interaction of three of these pollutants, bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), butylparaben (BPRB), and the protonated form of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS(H)), with DNA...
November 29, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Ifeoluwa Idowu, Olga Francisco, Philippe J Thomas, Wesley Johnson, Chris Marvin, Jörg Stetefeld, Gregg T Tomy
RATIONALE: There is a need for a validated method to improve detection limits and simultaneously quantify polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs, both parent and alkylated homologues) in biota by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry because of their environmental significance. The validation of the method was performed in accordance to the Eurachem Guide to Quality in Analytical Chemistry. METHODS: Gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer used in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was used for detection and quantification...
November 24, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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