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Qiaoping Kong, Haizhen Wu, Lei Liu, Fengzhen Zhang, Sergei Preis, Shuang Zhu, Chaohai Wei
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are accumulated in the sludge collected from the coking wastewater treatment. Phenol with its efficient degradation observed in biological treatment promotes the solubility of PAHs in aqueous phase. The interaction mechanism of phenol and PAHs in aqueous and sludge phases was systematically studied in two full-scale engineering projects composed of anaerobic-oxic-oxic (A-O 1 -O 2 ) and anaerobic-oxic-hydrolytic-oxic (A-O 1 -H-O 2 ) sequences. The results showed that reasonable use of phenol facilitates solubilization of PAHs alleviating their emission problems...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lulu Cui, Bu Duo, Fei Zhang, Chunlin Li, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen
This paper presents a detailed study on the indoor air pollution in the Jokahng Temple at Tibet Plateau, and its implication to human health. The mean concentrations of PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 were 435.0 ± 309.5 and 483.0 ± 284.9 μg/m 3 , respectively. The PM 2.5 concentration exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (75 μg/m 3 ) by 6.4 times. The size-segregated aerosols displayed a bimodal distribution. One peak was observed in the fine mode (0.4-2.1 μm) and the other peak appeared in the coarse mode (2...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wenjuan Wei, Nathalie Bonvallot, Åsa Gustafsson, Gaëlle Raffy, Philippe Glorennec, Annette Krais, Olivier Ramalho, Barbara Le Bot, Corinne Mandin
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) present in indoor environments are known to cause adverse health effects through multiple routes of exposure. To assess the aggregate exposure, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs need to be determined. In this review, we discussed measurements of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs after inhalation. Published literature related to this issue is available for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene...
February 12, 2018: Environment International
Imen Gdara, Ines Zrafi, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Ahmed Ghrabi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. The occurrence, source and ecological risk assessment of 26 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and agricultural effluents affecting the Wadi El Bey watershed were investigated by means of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (GC/MS). Total PAHs (∑ 26 PAH) ranged from 1.21 to 91.7 µg/L. The 4- and 5-ring compounds were the principal PAHs detected in most of 5 sites examined...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Oriol Baltrons, Montserrat López-Mesas, Mercè Vilaseca, Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Franck Le Derf, Florence Portet-Koltalo, Cristina Palet
In order to assess the effect of mixed pollutants, the influence of different concentration levels of a mixture of metals (Cr, Co, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) on the biodegradation of some PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) in soil samples was evaluated. To do so, groups of microcosms of a natural soil from the region of Sabadell (Barcelona, Spain) were prepared as a reproduction of the native environment at laboratory scale, under controlled conditions. Mixtures of PAHs and metals were carefully selected, according to soil characterization and microbiological growth preliminary assays, and were added to microcosms...
February 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paulo R Dores-Silva, Jussara A O Cotta, Maria D Landgraf, Maria O O Rezende
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of stabilized organic matter (vermicompost) and tropical soils in the sorption of naphthalene, anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. The results obtained for the three compounds were extrapolated for the priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollutants according to Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). To evaluate the sorption process, high performance liquid chromatography was employed and the data was fitted by Freundlich isotherms. The results suggest that the sorption effect generally increases with the number of benzene rings of the PAHs, and that the persistence of PAHs in the environment is possibly related to the number of benzene rings in the PAH molecule...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Alessandra Allione, Barbara Pardini, Clara Viberti, Marco Oderda, Marco Allasia, Paolo Gontero, Paolo Vineis, Carlotta Sacerdote, Giuseppe Matullo
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies of the urinary tract, with the highest lifetime treatment costs per patient of all cancers, due to the high rate of recurrences requiring continuous surveillance. An early diagnosis is essential to improve survival of patients with BC. Noninvasive and sensitive molecular biomarkers are needed to improve current strategies for the detection and monitoring of BC. Previous studies suggested that elevated DNA damage levels and suboptimal nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) may be associated with BC...
February 6, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Mohammad W Kadi, Nadeem Ali, Hussain Mohammed Salem Ali Albar
A number of studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor settled dust from different occupational and residential settings around the world but limited studies are available from public and religious places. In recent decades Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has experienced tremendous industrial growth especially in the petroleum industries, and as result environmental issues related with such industries have also increased but scientific data is still scarce to understand the impact on public health...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Laura M Langan, Silvia Arossa, Stewart F Owen, Awadhesh N Jha
In vitro models are emerging tools for reducing reliance on traditional toxicity tests, especially in areas where information is sparse. For studies of fish, this is especially important for extrahepatic organs, such as the intestine, which, until recently, have been largely overlooked in favour of the liver or gill. Considering the importance of dietary uptake of contaminants, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine-derived cell line RTgutGC was cultured, to test its suitability as a high-throughput in vitro model...
February 2018: Mutation Research
Maryam Zahin, Mohammad Shavez Khan, Faizan Abul Qais, Hussein Hasan Abulreesh, Iqbal Ahmad
Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases and aging. Piper cubeba is one among them and known for its medicinal properties for decades. Various biological activities are associated with its extract and phytocompounds. However, the anti-mutagenic activity of antioxidant rich extract is less explored. In this study, we performed the fraction-based antioxidant activity of P. cubeba using four different assays and evaluated the anti-mutagenic activity of most potent antioxidant fraction using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains against four mutagens (methyl methanesulfonate [MMS], sodium azide [SA], benzo(a)pyrene, and 2-aminoflourene) respectively...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Anna A Stec, Kathryn E Dickens, Marielle Salden, Fiona E Hewitt, Damian P Watts, Philip E Houldsworth, Francis L Martin
Cancer incidence appears to be higher amongst firefighters compared to the general population. Given that many cancers have an environmental component, their occupational exposure to products of carbon combustion such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of concern. This is the first UK study identifying firefighters exposure to PAH carcinogens. Wipe samples were collected from skin (jaw, neck, hands), personal protective equipment of firefighters, and work environment (offices, fire stations and engines) in two UK Fire and Rescue Service Stations...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nancy B Hopf, Philipp Spring, Nathalie Hirt-Burri, Silvia Jimenez, Benjamin Sutter, David Vernez, Aurelie Berthet
Road construction workers are simultaneously exposed to two carcinogens; solar ultraviolet (UV-S) radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen emissions. The combined exposure may lead to photogenotoxicity and enhanced PAH skin permeation rates. Skin permeation rates (J) for selected PAHs in a mixture (PAH-mix) or in bitumen fume condensate (BFC) with and without UV-S co-exposures were measured with in vitro flow-through diffusion cells mounted with human viable skin and results compared...
February 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Kamila Widziewicz, Wioletta Rogula-Kozlowska, Krzysztof Loska, Karolina Kociszewska, Grzegorz Majewski
OBJECTIVE: To check whether health risk impacts of exposure to airborne metals and Benzo(a) Pyrene during episodes of high PM10 concentrations lead to an increased number of lung cancer cases in Poland. METHODS: In this work, we gathered data from 2002 to 2014 concerning the ambient concentrations of PM10 and PM10-bound carcinogenic Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] and As, Cd, Pb, and Ni. With the use of the criterion of the exceedance in the daily PM10 mass concentration on at least 50% of all the analyzed stations, the PM10 maxima's were selected...
January 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Julita Stadnicka-Michalak, Frederik T Weiss, Melanie Fischer, Katrin Tanneberger, Kristin Schirmer
Permanent fish cell lines constitute a promising complement or substitute for fish in the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We demonstrate the potential of a set of cell lines originating from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to aid in the prediction of chemical bioaccumulation in fish, using benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as model chemical. We selected three cell lines from different tissues to more fully account for whole body biotransformation in vivo: the RTL-W1 cell line representing the liver as major site of biotransformation; and the RTgill-W1 (gill) and RTgutGC (intestine) cell lines as important environment-organism interfaces, which likely influence chemical uptake...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Isabelle Delsarte, Catherine Rafin, Fida Mrad, Etienne Veignie
In a search for indigenous soil saprotrophic fungi for bioremediation purposes, Fusarium solani, a saprotrophic fungus belonging to the phylum Ascomycota, was isolated from a fossil carbon contaminated soil. The effect of the carbon source, glucose or olive oil, was investigated in vitro on the biomass produced by F. solani and on the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in mineral medium. After only 12 days of incubation, BaP degradation by F. solani was higher (37.4%) with olive oil used as the carbon source than the one obtained with glucose (4...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anne Maitre, Pascal Petit, Marie Marques, Claire Hervé, Sarah Montlevier, Renaud Persoons, Dominique J Bicout
BACKGROUND: Millions of workers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a well-known family of carcinogens, but occupational exposure data about PAH mixture compositions are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To provide a detailed picture of airborne PAH exposures encountered in the French industrial landscape over the previous 20 years and to identify determinants driving exposures. METHODS: Results from 1643 airborne samples of 16 gaseous and particulate PAHs implemented into the Exporisq HAP database from 1995 to 2014 were used to describe exposure levels and aerosol chemical composition in many industries and activities...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Ian W H Jarvis, Zachary Enlo-Scott, Eszter Nagy, Ian S Mudway, Teresa D Tetley, Volker M Arlt, David H Phillips
Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, including lung cancer. Ambient PM represents a heterogeneous mixture of chemical classes including transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives such as nitro-PAHs, many of which are classified as putative carcinogens. As the primary site of human exposure to PM is the lungs, we investigated the response of two alveolar epithelial cell lines, the tumour-derived A549 and newly described TT1 cells, to fine and coarse PM collected from background and roadside locations...
January 25, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Lindsay Reed, Iveta Mrizova, Frantisek Barta, Radek Indra, Michaela Moserova, Klaus Kopka, Heinz H Schmeiser, C Roland Wolf, Colin J Henderson, Marie Stiborova, David H Phillips, Volker M Arlt
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental pollutant that, based on evidence largely from in vitro studies, exerts its genotoxic effects after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450s. In the present study, Hepatic Reductase Null (HRN) and Hepatic Cytochrome b 5 /P450 Reductase Null (HBRN) mice have been used to study the role of P450s in the metabolic activation of BaP in vivo. In HRN mice, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), the electron donor to P450, is deleted specifically in hepatocytes. In HBRN mice the microsomal haemoprotein cytochrome b 5 , which can also act as an electron donor from cytochrome b 5 reductase to P450s, is also deleted in the liver...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Shigeyuki Uno, Daniel W Nebert, Makoto Makishima
The Western diet contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical environmental pollutant produced by combustion processes, is present in charcoal-grilled meat. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes BaP, resulting in either detoxication or metabolic activation in a context-dependent manner. To elucidate a role of CYP1A1-BaP in NAFLD pathogenesis, we compared the effects of a Western diet, with or without oral BaP treatment, on the development of NAFLD in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice versus wild-type mice...
January 20, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xi Ling, Wang Yang, Peng Zou, Guowei Zhang, Zhi Wang, Xi Zhang, Hongqiang Chen, Kaige Peng, Fei Han, Jinyi Liu, Jia Cao, Lin Ao
Increasing evidence shows that impaired telomere function is associated with male infertility, and various environmental factors are believed to play a pivotal role in telomerase deficiency and telomere shortening. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a ubiquitous pollutant of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can act as a reproductive toxicant; however, the adverse effect of B[a]P on telomeres in male reproductive cells has never been studied, and the related mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), the active metabolite of B[a]P, on telomere dysfunction in mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) and also the potential role of telomerase in BPDE-induced spermatogenic cell damage...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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