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Yin Xiong, Sichuan Xi, Jigui Shan, Elvin Hekimoglu, Shih-Hsin Hsiao, Mary Zhang, Julie A Hong, Chris Tao, Haobin Chen, R Taylor Ripley, Chuong D Hoang, David S Schrump
RATIONALE: The effects of hookah smoke on respiratory epithelia have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVES: To characterize and compare the effects of hookah tobacco smoke and conventional cigarette smoke on the epigenome and transcriptome of human respiratory epithelia. METHODS: Normal human small airway epithelial cells and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured for 5 days in normal media in the presence or absence of water pipe condensates or cigarette smoke condensates under relevant exposure conditions...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Tunde O Etchie, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Ayotunde T Etchie, Gregory O Adewuyi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, K V George, Padma S Rao
Exposure to PM2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can elicit several types of cancer and non-cancer effects. Previous studies reported substantial burdens of PAH-induced lung cancer, but the burdens of other cancer types and non-cancer effects remain unknown. Thus, we estimate the cancer and non-cancer burden of disease, in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), attributable to ambient PM2.5 -bound PAHs exposure in Nagpur district, India, using risk-based approach. We measured thirteen PAHs in airborne PM2...
April 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Hanzhong Jia, Song Zhao, Yafang Shi, Lingyan Zhu, Chuanyi Wang, Virender K Sharma
This paper presents the transformation of PAHs (phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), pyrene (PYR), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)) on montmorillonite clays that are modified by transition-metal ions (Fe(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), or Zn(II)), at room temperature (~ 23 oC). Decay of these PAHs follows first-order kinetics, and the dependence of the observed rate constants (kobs, d-1) on the presence of metal ions follows the order Fe(III) > Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II)...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Marie Stiborová, Helena Dračínská, Lucie Bořek-Dohalská, Zuzana Klusoňová, Jana Holecová, Markéta Martínková, Heinz H Schmeiser, Volker M Arlt
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with the balance of the endocrine system by mimicking or antagonising the effects of endogenous hormones, by altering the synthesis and metabolism of natural hormones, or by modifying hormone receptor levels. The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are exogenous EDs whereas the estrogenic hormone 17β-estradiol is a natural endogenous ED. Although the biological effects of these individual EDs have partially been studied previously, their toxicity when acting in combination has not yet been investigated...
April 9, 2018: Toxicology
Yoko Fuyuno, Hiroshi Uchi, Mao Yasumatsu, Saori Morino-Koga, Yuka Tanaka, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue
The skin covers the outer surface of the body, so the epidermal keratinocytes within it are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by environmental pollutants such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a potent activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Antioxidant activity is generally mediated by the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) axis in human keratinocytes. Perillaldehyde is the main component of Perilla frutescens , which is a medicinal antioxidant herb traditionally consumed in East Asia...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Nan Jiang, Qiang Li, Fangcheng Su, Qun Wang, Xue Yu, Panru Kang, Ruiqin Zhang, Xiaoyan Tang
PM2.5 samples were collected in Zhengzhou during 3years of observation, and chemical characteristics and source contribution were analyzed. Approximately 96% of the daily PM2.5 concentrations and annual average values exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Daily and Annual Standards, indicating serious PM2.5 pollution. The average concentration of water-soluble inorganic ions was 2.4 times higher in heavily polluted days (daily PM2.5 concentrations>250μg/m3 and visibility <3km) than that in other days, with sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium as major ions...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Xinhang Jiang, Xiaoying Wu, Feiyu Chen, Wei He, Xintong Chen, Linhua Liu, Huanwen Tang
Our aim was to demonstrate the significance of miRNA, lncRNA, and circRNA in the transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and to investigate their regulatory networks. Hierarchical clustering, gene ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and network regulation analysis were used to analyze the high-throughput sequencing results of human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B and BaP-transformed BEAS-2B cells (BEAS-2B-T). 76,191,786 and 3,431differentially-expressed miRNA, lncRNA, mRNA and circRNA were detected, respectively; 43 miRNA, 48 lncRNA, 438 mRNA and 2,079 circRNA were up-regulated; 33 miRNA, 143 lncRNA, 348 mRNA and 1,352 circRNA were down-regulated...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Karina Lindner, Sina Webering, Michael Stroebele, Henning Bockhorn, Tanja Hansen, Peter König, Heinz Fehrenbach
Exposure to exogenous noxae, such as particulate matter, can trigger acute aggravations of allergic asthma-a chronic inflammatory airway disease. We tested whether Carbon Black nanoparticles (CBNP) with or without surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) aggravate an established allergic airway inflammation in mice. In an ovalbumin mouse model, Printex® 90 (P90), P90 coated with benzo[a]pyrene (P90-BaP) or 9-nitroanthracene (P90-9NA), or acetylene soot exhibiting a mixture of surface PAH (AS-PAH) was administered twice (70 µL, 100 µg/mL) during an established allergic airway inflammation...
March 31, 2018: Nanomaterials
Christiana Demetriou, Davide Degli Esposti, Kristi Pullen Fedinick, Federica Russo, Oliver Robinson, Paolo Vineis
Cancer is believed to arise through the perturbation of pathways and the order of pathway perturbation events can enhance understanding and evaluation of carcinogenicity. This order has not been examined so far and this paper aims to fill this gap by attempting to gather evidence on the potential temporal sequence of events in carcinogenesis. The methodology followed was to discuss first the temporal sequence of hallmarks of cancer from the point of view of pathological specimens of cancer (essentially branched mutations), and then to consider the hallmarks of cancer that one well-known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene, can modify...
March 31, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Jun-Ping Wang, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Guo, Peng Wang, Tao Zhao, Junying Wang
A method is described for the matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)-based determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by using the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Fe) as a matrix. Following optimization of the experimental parameters, the method has a detection limit as low as 0.1 μg·L-1 , which makes it more sensitive than previous methods for BaP analysis, and its analysis time is only 1 min. Its applicability was evaluated by analyzing sesame oil, linseed oil, camellia seed oil, and olive oil spiked with BaP at three levels (10, 1, and 0...
February 14, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Uzochukwu Cornelius Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor
Diesel pollution of groundwater poses great threat to public health, mainly as a result of the constituent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the human health risk exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel contaminated groundwater used by several families at Ring Road, Jos, Nigeria (as caused by diesel spill from a telecom base station) was assessed. Prior to the groundwater being treated, the residents were using the water after scooping off the visible diesel sheen for purposes of cooking, washing, and bathing...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Margherita Ferrante, Antonio Cristaldi, Chiara Copat, Alfina Grasso, Maria Fiore, Santo Salvatore Signorelli, Pietro Zuccarello, Gea Oliveri Conti
Seafood represent an important food source for human, and seafood quality is associated with marine environment quality. PAHs are one of the main organic environmental contaminants and they can be introduced into the body through different way (ingestion, inhalation, dermal absorption). We present data on bioaccumulation of the sixteen PAHs, defined priority by the U.S.- EPA, in Sardina pilchardus, Solea solea and Donax trunculus, three species caught in the Catania Gulf and highly consumed by the local population...
March 23, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xiaoli Ji, Xin Chou, Zehe Ge, Fan Ding, Hui Gao, Qing Wu
The mechanism of male reproductive toxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is poorly understood. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is known to play a critical role in maintaining spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the toxic effects of BaP in Sertoli cells, and to explore the possibility and potential mechanisms of BaP-induced changes in the level of GJIC, and the relationship between GJIC and BaP-induced apoptosis. We treated mouse Sertoli cell lines (TM4) with different concentrations (0...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Hao Chen, Xiaoping Diao, Haihua Wang, Hailong Zhou
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the most important polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are widely present in the marine environment. Because of its teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects on various organisms, the toxicity of BaP is of great concern. In this study, we focused on the toxic effects of BaP (1 µg/L and 10 µg/L) on gills of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii using combined metabolomic and proteomic approaches. At the metabolome level, the high concentration of BaP mainly caused abnormal energy metabolism, osmotic regulation and immune response marked by significantly altered metabolites in gills...
March 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sanjay Awasthi, Joshua Tompkins, Jyotsana Singhal, Arthur D Riggs, Sushma Yadav, Xiwei Wu, Sharda Singh, Charles Warden, Zheng Liu, Jinhui Wang, Thomas P Slavin, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Yate-Ching Yuan, Meenakshi Awasthi, Satish K Srivastava, Yogesh C Awasthi, Sharad S Singhal
TP53 (p53) is a tumor suppressor whose functions are lost or altered in most malignancies. p53 homozygous knockout (p53-/- ) mice uniformly die of spontaneous malignancy, typically T-cell lymphoma. RALBP1 (RLIP76, Rlip) is a stress-protective, mercapturic acid pathway transporter protein that also functions as a Ral effector involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. In stark contrast to p53-/- mice, Rlip-/- mice are highly resistant to carcinogenesis. We report here that partial Rlip deficiency induced by weekly administration of an Rlip-specific phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide, R508, strongly inhibited spontaneous as well as benzo( a )pyrene-induced carcinogenesis in p53-/- mice...
March 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xionghu Gong, Liping Xiao, Zhonghua Zhao, Qianyu Li, Fan Feng, Lu Zhang, Zhiyi Deng
Seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments from 13 rivers in hilly regions of southern China were studied. Concentrations of PAHs analyzed in the wet season were higher than those analyzed in the dry season, with residues ranging from 74.3 to 1930.9 ng g-1 dw in the wet season and from 96.9 to 1388.9 ng g-1 dw in the dry season. The primary contributors were 3- and 4-ringed congeners accounting for 59.8% ± 10.1% and 58.3% ± 9.3% of the identified PAHs in the wet and the dry seasons, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rawa El Fallah, Régis Rouillon, Florence Vouvé
The fate of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous contaminant reported to be persistent in the environment, is largely controlled by its interactions with the soil organic matter. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of fluorophores present in the physical fractions of the soil organic matter were investigated in the presence of pure BaP solution. After extraction of humic substances (HSs), and their fractionation into fluvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), two fluorescent compounds (C1 and C2 ) were identified and characterized in each physical soil fraction, by means of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC)...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Karl A Wagner, Jason W Flora, Matt S Melvin, Karen C Avery, Regina M Ballentine, Anthony P Brown, Willie J McKinney
U.S. FDA draft guidance recommends reporting quantities of designated harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in e-cigarette e-liquids and aerosols. The HPHC list comprises potential matrix-related compounds, flavors, nicotine, tobacco-related impurities, leachables, thermal degradation products, and combustion-related compounds. E-cigarettes contain trace levels of many of these constituents due to tobacco-derived nicotine and thermal degradation. However, combustion-related HPHCs are not likely to be found due to the relatively low operating temperatures of most e-cigarettes...
March 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Kylie Wheelock, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Rob McConnell, Deliang Tang, Heather E Volk, Ya Wang, Julie B Herbstman, Shuang Wang, David H Phillips, David Camann, Jicheng Gong, Frederica Perera
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous air pollutants associated with negative impacts on growth, development and behavior in children. Source-specific biological markers of PAH exposure are needed for targeting interventions to protect children. Nitro-derivatives of PAH can act as markers of exposure to diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, or general combustion sources. Using a novel HPLC-APCI-MS/MS detection method, we examined four hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of nitro-PAH metabolites and the Hb adduct of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolite in 22 umbilical cord blood samples...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Zhen Ma, Huisheng Zhuang
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is widely distributed in the environment. In this study, BaP immunogen and coating antigen were respectively prepared by different methods, and the specific antibody targeting the BaP analyte was obtained. Moreover, gold nanoparticles modified with the specific polyclonal antibody and thiol-capped DNA were prepared as biological probes. Based on the work above, an ultrasensitive biological probe enhanced real-time immuno-polymerase chain reaction (BP-rt-iPCR) assay was developed to detect BaP in several environmental samples...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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