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Clotting cascade

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906868/individual-clotting-factor-contributions-to-mortality-following-trauma
#1
Ryan C Kunitake, Benjamin M Howard, Lucy Z Kornblith, Sabrinah A Christie, Amanda S Conroy, Mitchell J Cohen, Rachael A Callcut
BACKGROUND: Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) afflicts 20-30% of trauma patients, but the extensive collinearity of the coagulation cascade complicates attempts to clarify global clotting factor dysfunction. This study aims to characterize phenotypes of clotting factor dysfunction and their contributions to mortality after major trauma. METHODS: This prospective cohort study examines all adult trauma patients of the highest activation level presenting to San Francisco General Hospital between 2/2005 and 2/2015...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885044/blood-clotting-behavior-is-innately-modulated-in-ursus-americanus-during-early-and-late-denning-relative-to-summer-months
#2
Tinen L Iles, Timothy G Laske, David L Garshelis, Paul A Iaizzo
Remarkably, American black bears (Ursus Americanus) are capable of varying their heart rates to coincide with their breathing, creating pauses of 30 seconds or more, yet they do not appear to suffer from embolic events. We evaluated some features of the clotting cascade of black bears, providing novel insights on the underlying mechanisms they evoke for embolic protection during hibernation.We measured activated clotting times, prothrombin times, and activated partial thromboplastin times during early-denning (December), late-denning (March), and summer (August)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824218/coagulopathy-in-sepsis-a-new-look-at-an-old-problem
#3
Małgorzata Lipinska-Gediga
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition characterized by a systemic response to microbial infection. Despite considerable progress in intensive care medicine, the incidence of sepsis and the number of sepsis-related deaths are increasing world-wide. There is a complex relationship between the coagulation, immune and inflammatory systems in sepsis. Activation of the coagulation cascade in sepsis is a result of a pathogen invasion and is a part of a immuno-inflammatory host response. In sepsis, the close cooperation of the immune and coagulation systems through cross signalling results in immunothrombosis...
November 8, 2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822142/non-enzymatic-upregulation-of-tissue-factor-expression-by-gamma-glutamyl-transferase-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#4
Valentina Scalise, Cristina Balia, Silvana Cianchetti, Tommaso Neri, Vittoria Carnicelli, Riccardo Zucchi, Maria Franzini, Alessandro Corti, Aldo Paolicchi, Alessandro Celi, Roberto Pedrinelli
BACKGROUND: Besides maintaining intracellular glutathione stores, gamma-glutamyltransferase(GGT) generates reactive oxygen species and activates NFkB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor key in the induction of Tissue Factor (TF) gene expression, the principal initiator of the clotting cascade. Thus, GGT might be involved in TF-mediated coagulation processes, an assumption untested insofar. METHODS: Experiments were run with either equine, enzymatically active GGT or human recombinant (hr) GGT, a wheat germ-derived protein enzymatically inert because of missing post-translational glycosylation...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818307/hemocompatibility-studies-on-a-degradable-polar-hydrophobic-ionic-polyurethane-d-phi
#5
Kathryne S Brockman, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, J Paul Santerre
Biomaterial blood compatibility is a complex process that involves four key pathways, including the coagulation cascade, the complement system, platelets, and leukocytes. While many studies have addressed the initial contact of blood with homopolymeric (e.g. Teflon) or simple copolymeric (e.g. Dacron) biomaterials, relatively less attention has been given to investigating blood coagulation with respect to complex copolymeric systems containing well defined and diverse function. The current study sought to assess the hemocompatibility of a complex polyurethane (PU) containing a unique combination of polar, hydrophobic, and ionic domains (D-PHI)...
November 3, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804204/assessing-the-contact-activation-of-coagulation-during-hemodialysis-with-three-different-polysulfone-filters-a-prospective-randomized-cross-over-trial
#6
Igor Salvadè, Rosaria Del Giorno, Donato Gaetano, Luca Gabutti
Introduction During hemodialysis (HD) the interaction of the blood with the dialyzer triggers both an inflammatory reaction and an activation of the coagulation cascade. An accepted parameter to quantify the extent of coagulation activation during HD is not available. This study aims to evaluate its amplitude, comparing dialyzers made of different polysulfone polymers, by measuring D-dimers in the filter-rinsing fluids (Frf) and to test whether Frf D-dimers are suitable candidate markers to assess contact coagulation activation during HD...
November 1, 2016: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782339/the-complement-and-contact-activation-systems-partnership-in-pathogenesis-beyond-angioedema
#7
REVIEW
Berhane Ghebrehiwet, Allen P Kaplan, Kusumam Joseph, Ellinor I B Peerschke
The blood plasma contains four biologically important proteolytic cascades, which probably evolved from the same ancestral gene. This in part may explain why each cascade has very similar "initiating trigger" followed by sequential and cascade-like downstream enzymatic activation pattern. The four cascades are: the complement system, the blood clotting cascade, the fibrinolytic system, and the kallikrein-kinin system. Although much has been written about the interplay between all these enzymatic cascades, the cross-talk between the complement and the kinin generating systems has become particularly relevant as this interaction results in the generation of nascent molecules that have significant impact in various inflammatory diseases including angioedema and cancer...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746688/vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein-phosphorylation-by-ginsenoside-ro-inhibits-fibrinogen-binding-to-%C3%AE-iib-%C3%AE-3-in-thrombin-induced-human-platelets
#8
Jung-Hae Shin, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Hyun-Jeong Cho, Man Hee Rhee, Hwa-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) is involved in platelet adhesion, and triggers a series of intracellular signaling cascades, leading to platelet shape change, granule secretion, and clot retraction. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro) on the binding of fibrinogen to αIIb/β3. METHODS: We investigated the effect of G-Ro on regulation of signaling molecules affecting the binding of fibrinogen to αIIb/β3, and its final reaction, clot retraction...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689569/hemostyptic-property-of-chitosan-opportunities-and-pitfalls
#9
Markus Denzinger, Helena Hinkel, Julia Kurz, Teresa Hierlemann, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Stefanie Krajewski
BACKGROUND: Chitosan is used in a wide field of applications and therapies and has been reported to be an effective hemostyptic. The objective of this study was to provide further information about the use of chitosan as a hemostyptic agent also taking into focus its hemocompatible effects. METHODS: Human whole blood (n=5) was anticoagulated with heparin, treated with different chitosan concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 25 mg/mL) and incubated at 37°C for 30 minutes...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659071/nonvitamin-k-antagonist-oral-anticoagulant-activity-challenges-in-measurement-and-reversal
#10
Karen S Brown, Hamim Zahir, Michael A Grosso, Hans J Lanz, Michele F Mercuri, Jerrold H Levy
BACKGROUND: Four nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are approved for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Bleeding is a complication for all anticoagulants and concerns regarding bleeding risk and the suitability of effective reversal strategies may be a barrier to their prescription...
September 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635271/medical-and-surgical-management-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-in-a-woman-with-factor-xiii-deficiency
#11
Michael Cheng, Janelle Nassim, Ario Angha, Krisna Srey, Alexander Canales, Chauniqua Kiffin, Yessin Ashmawy, Andrew A Rosenthal
Factor XIII deficiency is a rare inherited coagulopathy. Factor XIII is the last clotting factor in the coagulation cascade to insure strength and stability to fibrin clots. Without this enzyme, the fibrous clot is unstable and nonresistant to fibrinolysis. Gravid women with this congenital disease are especially at risk for complications including miscarriages and hemorrhage without appropriate interventions. We present a case of a woman in her 20s with Factor XIII deficiency who was treated with cryoprecipitate and had a successful normal spontaneous vaginal delivery; subsequently, patient suffered from postpartum hemorrhage and consumptive coagulopathy due to consumption of Factor XIII, requiring emergency surgical intervention...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624125/thrombin-cleavage-of-plasmodium-falciparum-erythrocyte-membrane-protein-1-inhibits-cytoadherence
#12
Mark R Gillrie, Bernard Renaux, Eleanor Russell-Goldman, Marion Avril, Andrew J Brazier, Koichiro Mihara, Enrico Di Cera, Danny A Milner, Morley D Hollenberg, Joseph D Smith, May Ho
UNLABELLED: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most deadly infections worldwide. The pathogenesis of the infection results from the sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IRBC) in vital organs, including the brain, with resulting impairment of blood flow, hypoxia, and lactic acidosis. Sequestration occurs through the adhesion of IRBC to host receptors on microvascular endothelium by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large family of variant surface antigens, each with up to seven extracellular domains that can bind to multiple host receptors...
September 13, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610454/polyphosphate-delays-fibrin-polymerisation-and-alters-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-fibrin-network
#13
Claire S Whyte, Irina N Chernysh, Marco M Domingues, Simon Connell, John W Weisel, Robert A S Ariëns, Nicola J Mutch
Polyphosphate (polyP) binds to fibrin(ogen) and alters fibrin structure, generating a heterogeneous network composed of 'knots' interspersed by large pores. Here we show platelet-derived polyP elicits similar structural changes in fibrin and examine the mechanism by which polyP alters fibrin structure. Polymerisation of fibrinogen with thrombin and CaCl2 was studied using spinning disk confocal (SDC) microscopy. PolyP delayed fibrin polymerisation generating shorter protofibrils emanating from a nucleus-type structure...
August 25, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509235/thrombotic-microangiopathy-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-differential-diagnosis-and-therapy
#14
Karim R Saab, Sonia Elhadad, Dennis Copertino, Jeffrey Laurence
Before the modern era of HIV/AIDS therapeutics, which enabled a cascade of early recognition of infection, prompt initiation of effective antiretroviral therapies, and close follow-up, severe forms of microvascular clotting disorders known as thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) were frequent in the setting of advanced HIV disease. Their incidence was as high as 7% in the period 1984-1999, but fell dramatically, to <0.5%, by 2002. This profound change was predicated on one critical development: availability of new classes of anti-HIV drugs, enabling reduction and maintenance of HIV viral loads to undetectable levels...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508491/anti-staphylococcal-activity-of-injectable-nano-tigecycline-chitosan-prp-composite-hydrogel-using-drosophila-melanogaster-model-for-infectious-wounds
#15
T R Nimal, Gaurav Baranwal, M C Bavya, Raja Biswas, R Jayakumar
Compared to the current treatment modalities, the use of an injectable hydrogel system, loaded with antibiotic encapsulated nanoparticles for the purpose of treating Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) chronic wound infections have several advantages. These include adhesiveness to infection site, reduced frequency of dressings, sustained drug release, inhibition of bacterial growth, and increased healing. In the present work tigecycline nanoparticles were loaded into chitosan-platelet-rich plasma (PRP) hydrogel...
August 31, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490907/use-of-thrombin-based-haemostatic-matrix-in-head-and-neck-reconstructions-a-potential-risk-factor-for-pulmonary-embolism
#16
Brian Y T Yue, Richard Zinn, Rachael Roberts, Jeremy Wilson
BACKGROUND: Haemostatic agents including thrombin-based haemostatic matrix are widely used in patients undergoing cardiac, vascular and spinal surgery. These agents promote local haemostasis through activation of the clotting cascade. To our knowledge, this case series is the first report of pulmonary embolization associated with FloSeal following head and neck oncology resection and free flap reconstruction. METHODS: We present five patients who were diagnosed with symptomatic pulmonary embolism after oncologic head and neck free flap reconstructions in 2014 and 2015...
August 3, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488172/vascular-type-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-is-associated-with-platelet-dysfunction-and-low-vitamin-d-serum-concentration
#17
Albert Busch, Sabine Hoffjan, Frauke Bergmann, Birgit Hartung, Helena Jung, Daniela Hanel, Andeas Tzschach, Janos Kadar, Yskert von Kodolitsch, Christoph-Thomas Germer, Heiner Trobisch, Erwin Strasser, René Wildenauer
BACKGROUND: The vascular type represents a very rare, yet the clinically most fatal entity of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Patients are often admitted due to arterial bleedings and the friable tissue and the altered coagulation contribute to the challenge in treatment strategies. Until now there is little information about clotting characteristics that might influence hemostasis decisively and eventually worsen emergency situations. RESULTS: 22 vascular type EDS patients were studied for hemoglobin, platelet volume and count, Quick and activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, factor XIII, von Willebrand disease, vitamin D and platelet aggregation by modern standard laboratory methods...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471310/autologous-neohep-derived-from-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-patients-blood-monocytes-by-upregulation-of-cmet-signaling
#18
Jashdeep Bhattacharjee, Barun Das, Disha Sharma, Preeti Sahay, Kshama Jain, Alaknanda Mishra, Srikanth Iyer, Puja Nagpal, Vinod Scaria, Perumal Nagarajan, Prakash Khanduri, Asok Mukhopadhyay, Pramod Upadhyay
: : In view of the escalating need for autologous cell-based therapy for treatment of liver diseases, a novel candidate has been explored in the present study. The monocytes isolated from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) nucleic acid test (NAT)-positive (HNP) blood were differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells (NeoHep) in vitro by a two-step culture procedure. The excess neutrophils present in HNP blood were removed before setting up the culture. In the first step of culture, apoptotic cells were depleted and genes involved in hypoxia were induced, which was followed by the upregulation of genes involved in the c-MET signaling pathway in the second step...
July 28, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468257/extensive-deep-vein-thrombosis-treatment-using-fondaparinux-and-edoxaban-a-case-report
#19
Kazuhiro Shimizu, Takeshi Sasaki, Takanobu Tomaru, Hirofumi Noike
BACKGROUND: Factor Xa inhibitor is a key drug in the coagulation cascade. Parenteral anticoagulation using low molecular weight heparin or fondaparinux is the recommended form of treatment for most patients presenting with venous thrombosis. Following the acute phase, edoxaban is recommended. We present a case of extensive deep vein thrombosis treated using fondaparinux and edoxaban. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old man with redness, pain, and swelling of the left leg lasting for more than 1 month was referred to our hospital...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443996/central-nervous-system-complications-of-hemorrhagic-and-coagulation-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Irina Filatova, Lindsay L Stratchko, Sangam Kanekar
Hematologic disorders affect the central nervous system in a variety of ways, producing a wide range of neurologic disturbances. Early identification of these complications allows for early intervention and better outcome. Cross-sectional imaging plays an important role in identifying brain abnormalities and helps the clinician in deciding appropriate course of action and treatment. This article discuss in short the basics of hemostasis including the coagulation cascade and the application of basic laboratory tests in evaluation of hematologic function...
August 2016: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
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