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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165814/reverse-effect-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-l-juice-and-seeds-aqueous-extract-on-gastric-emptying-and-small-bowel-motility-in-rat
#1
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Khouloud Saidani, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165099/recent-patents-and-formulation-of-nanopharmaceuticals-using-ultrasonication-technique
#2
Nidhi Saiwal, Mandeep Dahiya, Harish Dureja
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound (US) has the ever-rising role in the delivery of therapeutic agents that includes chemotherapeutic agents, proteins, and genetic material. The microbubbles are the cavitating gas bodies that act as the mediators through which the energy of relatively non-interactive pressure waves is accumulated to produce forces that can permeabilize cell membranes and disrupt the vesicles that carry the therapeutic agent. This shows that the microbubbles greatly enhance the delivery of smaller chemical agents, proteins and genetic material...
November 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164820/dual-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonist-saroglitazar-improves-liver-histopathology-and-biochemistry-in-experimental-nash-models
#3
Mukul R Jain, Suresh R Giri, Bibhuti Bhoi, Chitrang Trivedi, Akshyaya Rath, Rohan Rathod, Ramchandra Ranvir, Shekhar Kadam, Hiren Patel, Prabodha Swain, Sib Sankar Roy, Nabanita Das, Eshani Karmakar, Walter Wahli, Pankaj R Patel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are common clinico-pathological conditions that affect millions of patients worldwide. In this study, the efficacy of saroglitazar, a novel PPARα/γ agonist, was assessed in models of NAFLD/NASH. METHODS & RESULTS: HepG2 cells treated with palmitic acid (PA;0.75 mM) showed decreased expression of various antioxidant biomarkers (SOD1, SOD2, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and increased expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα,IL1β and IL6)...
November 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164668/ameliorative-effects-of-riboflavin-on-acetic-acid-induced-colonic-injury-in-rats
#4
Berna Karakoyun, Büşra Ertaş, Meral Yüksel, Dilek Akakın, Özge Çevik, Göksel Şener
Riboflavin (RF) has been found to be a promising antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory agent in several studies. However, the effect of RF against acetic acid (AA)-induced colonic injury is currently unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential antioxidant and protective effects of RF in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. Starting immediately after the colitis induction (AA+RF group) or 1 week before the colitis induction (RF+AA+RF group), the rats were treated with RF (25 mg/kg/d;p.o.) for 3 days...
November 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164341/mathematical-models-of-hiv-latency
#5
Alison L Hill
Viral latency is a major barrier to curing HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and consequently, for eliminating the disease globally. The establishment, maintenance, and potential clearance of latent infection are complex dynamic processes and can be best understood and described with the help of mathematical models. Here we review the use of viral dynamics models for HIV, with a focus on applications to the latent reservoir. Such models have been used to explain the multiphasic decay of viral load during antiretroviral therapy, the early seeding of the latent reservoir during acute infection and the limited inflow during treatment, the dynamics of viral blips, and the phenomenon of posttreatment control...
November 22, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163524/t-helper-17-promotes-induction-of-antigen-specific-gut-mucosal-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-following-adenovirus-vector-vaccination
#6
Masahisa Hemmi, Masashi Tachibana, Natsuki Fujimoto, Masaki Shoji, Fuminori Sakurai, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Few current vaccines can establish antigen (Ag)-specific immune responses in both mucosal and systemic compartments. Therefore, development of vaccines providing defense against diverse infectious agents in both compartments is of high priority in global health. Intramuscular vaccination of an adenovirus vector (Adv) has been shown to induce Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in both systemic and gut-mucosal compartments. We previously found that type I interferon (IFN) signaling is required for induction of gut-mucosal, but not systemic, CTLs following vaccination; however, the molecular mechanism involving type I IFN signaling remains unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163435/evolutionary-analysis-of-hiv-1-pol-proteins-reveals-representative-residues-for-viral-subtype-differentiation
#7
Shohei Nagata, Junnosuke Imai, Gakuto Makino, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai
RNA viruses have been used as model systems to understand the patterns and processes of molecular evolution because they have high mutation rates and are genetically diverse. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), the etiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is highly genetically diverse, and is classified into several groups and subtypes. However, it has been difficult to use its diverse sequences to establish the overall phylogenetic relationships of different strains or the trends in sequence conservation with the construction of phylogenetic trees...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162448/intracellular-cholesterol-level-regulates-sensitivity-of-glioblastoma-cells-against-temozolomide-induced-cell-death-by-modulation-of-caspase-8-activation-via-death-receptor-5-accumulation-and-activation-in-the-plasma-membrane-lipid-raft
#8
Yutaro Yamamoto, Arata Tomiyama, Nobuyoshi Sasaki, Hideki Yamaguchi, Takuya Shirakihara, Katsuhiko Nakashima, Kosuke Kumagai, Satoru Takeuchi, Terushige Toyooka, Kojiro Wada, Yoshitaka Narita, Koichi Ichimura, Ryuichi Sakai, Hiroki Namba, Kentaro Mori
Development of resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM) after continuous treatment with TMZ is one of the critical problems in clinical GBM therapy. Intracellular cholesterol regulates cancer cell biology, but whether intracellular cholesterol is involved in TMZ resistance of GBM cells remains unclear. The involvement of intracellular cholesterol in acquired resistance against TMZ in GBM cells was investigated. Intracellular cholesterol levels were measured in human U251 MG cells with acquired TMZ resistance (U251-R cells) and TMZ-sensitive control U251 MG cells (U251-Con cells), and found that the intracellular cholesterol level was significantly lower in U251-R cells than in U251-Con cells...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161989/comparison-of-toxicity-and-recovery-in-the-duodenum-of-b6c3f1-mice-following-treatment-with-intestinal-carcinogens-captan-folpet-and-hexavalent-chromium
#9
Chad M Thompson, Jeffrey C Wolf, Alene McCoy, Mina Suh, Deborah M Proctor, Christopher R Kirman, Laurie C Haws, Mark A Harris
High concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), captan, and folpet induce duodenal tumors in mice. Using standardized tissue collection procedures and diagnostic criteria, we compared the duodenal histopathology in B6C3F1 mice following exposure to these 3 carcinogens to determine whether they share similar histopathological characteristics. B6C3F1 mice ( n = 20 per group) were exposed to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water, 12,000 ppm captan in feed, or 16,000 ppm folpet in feed for 28 days. After 28 days of exposure, villous enterocyte hypertrophy and mild crypt epithelial hyperplasia were observed in all exposed mice...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161387/reversal-of-residual-neuromuscular-block-complications-associated-with-perioperative-management-of-muscle-relaxation
#10
J M Hunter
The use of anticholinesterases to reverse residual neuromuscular block at the end of surgery became routine practice in the 1950s. These drugs could only be used when recovery from block was established [two twitches of the train-of-four (TOF) count detectable] and concern was expressed about their cholinergic side-effects. By the 1990s, it was recognized that failure to reverse residual block adequately to a TOF ratio (TOFR) >0.7 was associated with increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (POPCs) following the long-acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NDNMBD) pancuronium...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161309/dronedarone-produces-early-regression-of-myocardial-remodelling-in-structural-heart-disease
#11
Begoña Quintana-Villamandos, Jose Juan Gomez de Diego, María Jesús Delgado-Martos, David Muñoz-Valverde, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Manuel Desco, Emilio Delgado-Baeza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is associated with a greater risk of sustained supraventricular/atrial arrhythmias. Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent that was recently approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, its effect on early regression of LVH has not been reported. We tested the hypothesis that short-term administration of dronedarone induces early regression of LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS: Ten-month-old male SHRs were randomly assigned to an intervention group (SHR-D), where animals received dronedarone treatment (100 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days, or to a control group (SHR) where rats were given vehicle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160508/detection-and-genotyping-of-human-adenovirus-and-sapovirus-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-between-1990-and-1992-first-detection-of-gi-7-and-gv-2-sapoviruses-in-brazil
#12
Larissa Cristina Prado das Neves Costa, Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Thayara Morais Portal, Edivaldo Costa Sousa, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay, Hugo Reis Resque
INTRODUCTION: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children from developing countries. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and sapovirus (SaV) are among the agents that cause AGE. The present study aimed to detect and genotype HAdV and SaV in 172 fecal samples from children with AGE, collected during a surveillance study carried out in a low-income community in Belém, Pará, between 1990 and 1992. METHODS: HAdV was detected by nested PCR, using primers Hex1deg/Hex2deg and NeHex3deg/NeHex4deg...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159432/comparison-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-brimonidine-tartrate-and-melatonin-on-retinal-ganglion-cells
#13
Deniz Marangoz, Elif Guzel, Signem Eyuboglu, Asli Gumusel, Ismail Seckin, Ferda Ciftci, Bayram Yilmaz, Ilgaz Yalvac
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the neuroprotective effects of brimonidine tartrate (BRT) and melatonin (MEL) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat glaucoma model. METHODS: Thirty-six adult Wistar albino rats were allocated into six groups: control (C), glaucoma (G), BRT, MEL, G + BRT and G + MEL. After establishing the glaucoma model, intraocular pressure (IOP) of all animals measured at day 4 and day 30 was compared statistically with day 0 and day 4, respectively...
November 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158566/graphene-quantum-dots-for-cell-proliferation-nucleus-imaging-and-photoluminescent-sensing-applications
#14
Mukesh Kumar Kumawat, Mukeshchand Thakur, Raju B Gurung, Rohit Srivastava
We report a simple one-pot microwave assisted "green synthesis" of Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs) using grape seed extract as a green therapeutic carbon source. These GQDs readily self-assemble, hereafter referred to as "self-assembled" GQDs (sGQDs) in the aqueous medium. The sGQDs enter via caveolae and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and target themselves into cell nucleus within 6-8 h without additional assistance of external capping/targeting agent. The tendency to self-localize themselves into cell nucleus also remains consistent in different cell lines such as L929, HT-1080, MIA PaCa-2, HeLa, and MG-63 cells, thereby serving as a nucleus labelling agent...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158265/topical-mevastatin-promotes-wound-healing-by-inhibiting-the-transcription-factor-c-myc-via-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-the-long-noncoding-rna-gas5
#15
Andrew P Sawaya, Irena Pastar, Olivera Stojadinovic, Sonja Lazovic, Stephen C Davis, Joel Gil, Robert S Kirsner, Marjana Tomic-Canic
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU), a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, have limited treatment options, often resulting in amputations. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors such as statins are cholesterol-reducing agents that may provide a new therapeutic option. Statins target the cholesterol pathway and block the synthesis of the wound-healing inhibitors farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and cortisol, ligands for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here we demonstrate that the naturally occurring statin, mevastatin, reverses FPP's effects and promotes healing by using in vitro wound healing assays, human ex vivo and porcine in vivo wound models, and DFU tissue...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157831/vitis-labruscana-leaf-extract-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-impairments-with-activation-of-akt-erk-and-creb-in-mice
#16
Ramesh Pariyar, Chi-Su Yoon, Thida Svay, Dae-Sung Kim, Hyoung-Kwon Cho, Sung Yeon Kim, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim, Jaehyo Kim, Ho-Sub Lee, Jungwon Seo
BACKGROUND: Grapes are among the most widely consumed plants and are used as a folk medicine. Vitis species have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and memory-enhancing agents, but, their biological activities of discarded grape leaves are not completely understood. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of alcoholic aqueous leaf extract of Vitis labruscana (LEVL) in a mouse model of memory impairment and tried to ascertain its mechanism. We also evaluated its effects in SH-SY5Y cells...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157826/modulation-of-pregnane-x-receptor-pxr-and-constitutive-androstane-receptor-car-activation-by-ursolic-acid-ua-attenuates-rifampin-isoniazid-cytotoxicity
#17
Hsiao-Yun Chang, Chao-Jung Chen, Wei-Chih Ma, Wai-Kok Cheng, Yen-Ning Lin, Ying-Ray Lee, Jih-Jung Chen, Yun-Ping Lim
BACKGROUND: Interactions between transcriptional inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes and therapeutic drugs may be prevented by antagonizing the activation of a nuclear receptor (NR), pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), thus improving therapeutic efficacy. PURPOSE: In the present study, we aim to identify that ursolic acid (UA), a widely distributed pentacyclic triterpene, may act as an effective antagonist of PXR and its sister NR receptor, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3)...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157330/easy-and-fast-method-for-the-determination-of-biogenic-amines-in-fish-and-fish-products-with-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-orbitrap-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Anton Kaufmann, Kathryn Maden
A quantitative method for the determination of biogenic amines was developed. The method is characterized by the virtual absence of sample cleanup and does not require a derivatization reaction. Diluted extracts are centrifuged, filtrated, and directly injected into an ultra-HPLC column, which is coupled to a single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (Orbitrap). The chromatography is based on a reversed-phase column and an eluent containing an ion-pairing agent (heptafluorobutyric acid). The high sensitivity of the instrument permits the injection of very diluted extracts, which ensures stable retention times and the virtual absence of signal suppression effects...
November 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157079/zeb1-inhibition-sensitizes-cells-to-the-atr-inhibitor-ve-821-by-abrogating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-enhancing-dna-damage
#19
Na Song, Wei Jing, Ce Li, Ming Bai, Yu Cheng, Heming Li, Kezuo Hou, Yanrong Li, Kai Wang, Zhi Li, Yunpeng Liu, Xiujuan Qu, Xiaofang Che
The ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and rad3-related (ATR) checkpoint pathway plays an essential role in modulating cellular responses to replication stress and DNA damage to maintain genomic stability. In various tumors, cancer cells have increased dependence on ATR signaling for survival, making ATR a promising target for cancer therapy. ATR inhibitors sensitize multiple tumor cell types to radiation and DNA-damaging agents, but application of an ATR inhibitor alone shows limited efficacy. In the present study, we investigated the role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the EMT transcription factor ZEB1 in regulating cell sensitivity to the ATR inhibitor VE-821...
November 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156550/can-youthful-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-wharton-s-jelly-bring-a-breath-of-fresh-air-for-copd
#20
REVIEW
Andrzej M Janczewski, Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Ewa Malinowska, Anna Doboszyńska
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality, projected to become the 3rd cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. COPD is characterized by persistent and not fully reversible airflow limitation that is usually progressive and is associated with an abnormal chronic inflammatory response of the lung to noxious agents including cigarette smoke. Currently available therapeutic strategies aim to ease COPD symptoms but cannot prevent its progress or regenerate physiological lung structure or function...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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