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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330211/olanzapine-based-triple-regimens-versus-neurokinin-1-receptor-antagonist-based-triple-regimens-in-preventing-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-associated-with-highly-emetogenic-chemotherapy-a-network-meta-analysis
#1
Zhonghan Zhang, Yaxiong Zhang, Gang Chen, Shaodong Hong, Yunpeng Yang, Wenfeng Fang, Fan Luo, Xi Chen, Yuxiang Ma, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jianhua Zhan, Cong Xue, Xue Hou, Ting Zhou, Shuxiang Ma, Fangfang Gao, Yan Huang, Likun Chen, Ningning Zhou, Hongyun Zhao, Li Zhang
BACKGROUND: The current antiemetic prophylaxis for patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) included the olanzapine-based triplet and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs)-based triplet. However, which one shows better antiemetic effect remained unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically reviewed 43 trials, involving 16,609 patients with HEC, which compared the following antiemetics at therapeutic dose range for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: olanzapine, aprepitant, casopitant, fosaprepitant, netupitant, and rolapitant...
January 12, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329482/pharmacokinetics-of-rolapitant-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-hepatic-impairment
#2
Jing Wang, Xiaodong Wang, Zhi-Yi Zhang, Sujata Arora, Sharon Lu, Vikram Kansra
Rolapitant is a selective and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved in an oral formulation in combination with other antiemetic agents for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. This was a phase 1 open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety study of a single oral dose of 180 mg of rolapitant and its major active metabolite, M19, in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetics were assessed by a mixed-model analysis of variance of log-transformed values for maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax ), observed time at Cmax (tmax ), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-t ), and AUC from time 0 to 120 hours (AUC0-120 ), with hepatic group as a fixed effect...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326405/-the-relationships-among-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-cinv-non-pharmacological-coping-methods-and-nutritional-status-in-patients-with-gynecologic-cancer
#3
Haerim Lee, Smi Choi-Kwon
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can cause severe malnutrition. However, relationships between CINV levels, non-pharmacological coping methods, and nutritional status of female cancer patients have rarely been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze their relationships in gynecologic cancer patients. METHODS: Participants receiving a highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy were recruited. The level of CINV was assessed using a numeric rating scale...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319257/bottle-gourd-lagenaria-siceraria-juice-poisoning
#4
Pravin M Rathi, Pinakin S Patel
We present the case of a young woman who presented to us with multiple episodes of vomiting, followed by hematemesis and abdominal pain after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics and discharged in stable condition. As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, bottle gourd contains toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and toxicity. There is no known antidote for this toxicity, and clinicians treat such patients symptomatically only...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318929/the-pharmacogenetics-of-medications-used-in-general-anesthesia
#5
Shangchen Xie, Wenjuan Ma, Qulian Guo, Jie Liu, Wei Li, Howard L McLeod, Yijing He
General anesthesia is a state of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia and akinesia induced by drugs including opioids, hypnotic-sedative agents, muscle relaxants and antiemetics. Clinical and genetic factors are reported to influence the efficacy and side effects of these agents. Based on the evidence, clinical action is needed to improve clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the latest knowledge with regards to the pharmacogenetics of anesthetics and general anesthesia related complications.
January 10, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315462/aprepitant-as-a-fourth-antiemetic-prophylactic-strategy-in-high-risk-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#6
L C de Morais, A M Sousa, G F Flora, T R Grigio, G M N Guimarães, H A Ashmawi
BACKGROUND: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most important causes of patient discomfort after laparoscopic surgeries despite the use of a multimodal pharmacological approach. This study assessed whether the addition of aprepitant to a multimodal regimen would further decrease the incidence of PONV in high-risk patients. METHODS: Apfel-score three or four patients, scheduled for laparoscopic procedures to treat abdominal or pelvic cancer, were randomized to receive oral starch (control group) or 80 mg of oral aprepitant (treatment group) before induction of anaesthesia in a double-blind study...
January 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310960/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#7
John R Richards
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a challenging clinical disorder. CHS patients frequently present to the emergency department and may require treatment for intractable emesis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. Thought to be a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, CHS has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis potency and use, as enabled by various states having legalized the recreational use of cannabis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiology of CHS and evaluate the published literature on pharmacologic treatment in the emergency department...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310827/meta-analysis-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-rolapitant-nk-1-receptor-antagonist-for-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#8
REVIEW
Hussien Ahmed, Ali Mohamed Hammad, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Mohamed Zidan, Mohamed Salem, Ahmed Negida, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
Although chemotherapeutic agents represent a cornerstone of cancer treatment, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) affect the patients' quality of life and basic daily activities. Rolapitant is a novel selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK-1 RA), which was clinically approved for prevention of CINV. The aim of the present study is to synthesize evidence about the safety and efficacy of rolapitant in combination with other antiemetic agents for prophylaxis against CINV. We performed a web-based literature search of six authentic databases to identify eligible studies...
December 6, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310609/self-medication-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-at-makongoro-health-centre-in-mwanza-tanzania-a-challenge-to-health-systems
#9
Karol J Marwa, Agnes Njalika, Deodatus Ruganuza, Deogratias Katabalo, Erasmus Kamugisha
BACKGROUND: Self-medication is a universal challenge that requires attention because of the potential threat not only to the pregnant women but also to unborn child. Data on self-medication practice and predictors among pregnant women is lacking in Tanzania. Information on the effects of this practice to the pregnant woman and the foetus globally is also scanty. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study which was conducted using face to face interview with 372 pregnant women at Makongoro health centre...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301160/-pharmacotherapy-of-vestibular-disorders-nystagmus-and-cerebellar-disorders
#10
K Feil, N Böttcher, O Kremmyda, C Muth, J Teufel, A Zwergal, T Brandt, M Strupp
There are currently different groups of drugs for the pharmacotherapy of vertigo, nystagmus and cerebellar disorders: antiemetics; anti-inflammatories, antimenieres, and antimigraineous medications and antidepressants, anticonvulsants, aminopyridines as well as acetyl-DL-leucine. In acute unilateral vestibulopathy, corticosteroids improve the recovery of peripheral vestibular function, but currently there is not sufficient evidence for a general recommendation. There is insufficient evidence to support the view that 16 mg t...
January 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290945/stability-of-azasetron-dexamethasone-mixture-for-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-administration
#11
Bao-Xia Fang, Fu-Chao Chen, Dan Zhu, Jun Guo, Lin-Hai Wang
Combination antiemetic therapy has become common practice for the prevention of nausea and vomiting caused by anticancer drugs. In this study, we investigated the stability of azasetron hydrochloride 0.1 mg/mL plus dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored in polyolefin bags and glass bottles over a period of 14 days at 4°C and 48 hours at 25°C. The stability studies were evaluated by visual inspection, pH measurement, and a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay of drug concentrations...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290563/pulmonary-recruitment-maneuver-reduces-pain-after-laparoscopic-bariatric-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Ebba Kihlstedt Pasquier, Ellen Andersson
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) at the end of laparoscopic gynecologic surgery has been shown to reduce postoperative pain. This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial aimed to investigate postoperative pain (primary endpoint) and nausea when performing a ventilator-piloted PRM at the end of laparoscopic bariatric surgery. SETTINGS: A secondary-level public hospital in Sweden. METHODS: After giving written consent, patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomized to receive routine exsufflation (control group) or a ventilator-piloted PRM to remove residual carbon dioxide from the abdomen at the end of surgery...
November 22, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286355/are-cannabinoids-effective-for-the-management-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#13
Mariaignacia Morales, Oscar Corsi, José Peña
INTRODUCTION: Nausea and vomiting are common side effects in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Proper control of these symptoms might improve quality of life in these patients. Addition of cannabinoids to standard antiemetic treatment has been proposed in order to improve control of these symptoms. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others...
December 28, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279099/a-review-of-the-literature-on-the-relationships-between-genetic-polymorphisms-and-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting
#14
REVIEW
Komal P Singh, Anand A Dhruva, Elena Flowers, Kord M Kober, Christine Miaskowski
Despite current advances in antiemetic treatments, between 30% to and 60% of oncology patients experience chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN) and 13% to 33% report chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV). Inter-individual differences are observed in the occurrence and severity of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This review summarizes and critiques studies on associations between occurrence and severity of CINV and polymorphisms in serotonin receptor, drug metabolism, and drug transport pathway genes...
January 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277090/-vomiting
#15
REVIEW
Ga Hee Kim, Kee Wook Jung
Many disorders can cause either acute or chronic vomiting. However, in most cases, vomiting is self-limited. A correct diagnosis is possible by conducting careful histories and physical examinations. In cases of severe vomiting, further testing, including laboratory studies, radiological images, endoscopic evaluation, and gastrointestinal motility tests, can also be considered. The correction of clinical consequences of vomiting should be initiated, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, malnutrition, and suppression of symptoms via the use empirical antiemetic treatments...
December 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259513/torsades-de-pointes-after-ondansetron-infusion-in-2-patients
#16
Danny Y Lee, Tri Trinh, Sion K Roy
Drugs that prolong the electrocardiographic QT interval increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmias, particularly torsades de pointes. Ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist antiemetic, is one such drug. We present the cases of 2 patients who were given intravenous ondansetron and subsequently developed torsades de pointes. Both had normal QT intervals at baseline but were discovered to have risk factors that predisposed them to drug-induced QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias...
October 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258763/multiple-low-dose-dexamethasone-further-improves-clinical-outcomes-following-total-hip-arthroplasty
#17
Yiting Lei, Qiang Huang, Bin Xu, Shaoyun Zhang, Guorui Cao, Fuxing Pei
BACKGROUND: The recommended dose regimen of dexamethasone in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has not been determined. This study was performed to assess the effects of multiple low-dose dexamethasone on clinical outcomes after THA. METHODS: Two hundred ten patients undergoing THA received 3 doses of normal saline (Group A), 2 doses of intravenous dexamethasone and 1 dose of normal saline (Group B), or 3 doses of intravenous dexamethasone (Group C). The primary outcome was the visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and nausea...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250976/attenuation-of-brain-mitochondria-oxidative-damage-by-albizia-julibrissin-durazz-neuroprotective-and-antiemetic-effects
#18
Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Hamed Fathi, Ali Ziar, Hamidreza Mohammadi
Medicinal plants, as new drugs, are considered for treatment of insomnia, anxiety, depression, confusion, nausea, and vomiting symptoms. The current study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective and antiemetic effects of Albizia. julibrissin Durazz. flower extract in the chickens. Emesis was induced by copper sulfate and ipecac (60 and 600 mg/kg, orally, respectively) and the methanolic extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Mitochondrial function, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC) content, and catalase activity as biomarkers of oxidative damage were evaluated in the brain mitochondria...
December 18, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250761/medical-treatment-guidelines-for-acute-migraine-attacks
#19
Yung-Chu Hsu, Kao-Chang Lin, Treatment Guideline Subcommittee Of Taiwan Headache Society Taiwan Headache Society
In 2015, the American Headache Society (AHS) amended the treatment guideline of acute migraine based on evidence-based medicine (EBM) that all triptans in any form of preparations, acetaminophen, and non-steroid anti-inflammation drugs-NSAID (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen), sumatriptan/naproxen, combined acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine are considered effective (Level A). Previously effective drugs as prochlorperazine, and dihydroergotamine-DHE (excluded inhaled form) were downrated to probable effective (Level B)...
June 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245361/effects-of-remifentanil-with-or-without-midazolam-pretreatment-on-the-95-effective-dose-of-propofol-for-loss-of-consciousness-during-induction-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Jae Chul Koh, Juyeon Park, Na Young Kim, Ann Hee You, Seo Hee Ko, Dong Woo Han
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a rapid, efficient hypnotic agent with antiemetic effects. However, a high dosage is related to hemodynamic abnormalities such as hypotension and bradycardia. Pretreatment with remifentanil can decrease injection pain and stabilize hemodynamics during the induction period. Remifentanil or midazolam in combination with propofol can provide synergistic or additive effects during anesthesia induction. However, the hypnotic doses of propofol required in patients who receive pretreatment with remifentanil or midazolam remain unclear...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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