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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342840/evaluation-of-rapid-early-warning-approaches-to-track-shellfish-toxins-associated-with-dinophysis-and-alexandrium-blooms
#1
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Mark W Lusty, Ryan B Wallace, Bennie Haynes, Zhihong Wang, Maggie Broadwater, Jonathan R Deeds, Steve L Morton, William Hastback, Leonora Porter, Karen Chytalo, Christopher J Gobler
Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP), respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2...
January 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338765/infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-a-4-year-experience-from-two-tertiary-care-centres-in-cameroon
#2
Rene Ndongo, Paul Nkemtendong Tolefac, Faustin Félicien Mouafo Tambo, Matin Hongieh Abanda, Marcelin Ngowe Ngowe, Olivier Fola, Bonaventure Dzekem, Patrick Eroyl Weledji, Maurice Aurelien Sosso, Jacqueline Ze Minkande
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with infantile hypertrophic stenosis, management and its outcome in two tertiary care centres in Cameroon. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients were included from the two centres. The mean age at presentation was 5.2 ± 1.2 weeks, predominantly male with a male-to-female ratio of 4.25:1. The triad of vomiting, visible peristalsis and palpable mass was present in only 7 (33.3%) of the participants...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326037/experimental-uptake-and-depuration-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-southern-rock-lobster-jasus-edwardsii
#3
Thomas Madigan, Navreet Malhi, Jessica Tan, Catherine McLeod, Ian Stewart, Tim Harwood, Grant Mann, Alison Turnbull
In October 2012, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) were detected in the hepatopancreas of Southern Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) collected from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. This resulted in the first commercial closure in Australia for this species. Questions were raised on how the toxins were transferred to the lobsters, how long the toxins would persist, whether PST-contaminated hepatopancreas posed a risk to human health, and what management strategies could be applied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PST-contaminated mussels are a potential vector enabling toxin accumulation in J...
January 8, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324599/risk-factors-incidence-and-morbidity-associated-with-obstetric-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
Jacob Ruiter-Ligeti, Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim Arie Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors, incidence, and morbidity associated with the diagnosis of obstetric Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on women admitted for delivery using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the United States. The delivery admission records of pregnant women were reviewed between 1999 and 2013. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, we assessed risk factors for the diagnosis of C difficile infection using unconditional logistic regression...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323278/structural-biology-of-zika-virus-and-other-flaviviruses
#5
REVIEW
S Saif Hasan, Madhumati Sevvana, Richard J Kuhn, Michael G Rossmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped, icosahedral flavivirus that has structural and functional similarities to other human flavivirus pathogens such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses. ZIKV infections have been linked to fetal microcephaly and the paralytic Guillain-Barré syndrome. This review provides a comparative structural analysis of the assembly, maturation and host-cell entry of ZIKV with other flaviviruses, especially DENV. We also discuss the mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322435/vaccine-associated-paralytic-poliomyelitis-in-a-patient-with-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia
#6
Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour, Mohammad Reza Ravanbod
We report a case of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in an immunocompromised patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia who was initially diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. Isolation of Sabin-like type 1 poliovirus from the patient's cerebrospinal fluid made this a case of vaccine-related poliovirus (VRPV) infection. The patient developed paralysis and respiratory distress and deceased a few months after onset of paralysis with respiratory failure. This tragic case report highlights the emergence of VAPP and indicates the importance of timely diagnosis of VRPV infections to improve clinical management of VRPV-infected patients and to prevent the devastating consequences of silent introduction of VRPVs in treatment wards and eventually in the society...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321983/anti-paralytic-medicinal-plants-review
#7
REVIEW
Khaling Mikawlrawng, Roma Rani, Suresh Kumar, Ankur R Bhardwaj, Geeta Prakash
Paralysis is the loss of the ability of one or more muscles to move, due to disruption of signaling between the nervous system and muscles. The most common causes of paralysis are stroke, head injury, spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis. The search for cure of paralysis is yet to be found. Many ethnobotanical surveys have reported the use of medicinal plants by various ethnic communities in treating and curing paralysis. The present review discusses the use of medicinal plants in India for ameliorating and curing paralytic conditions, as well as discuses some of the important developments in future possible applications of medicinal plants in treatment of paralysis...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311608/a-novel-rat-cvb1-vp1-monoclonal-antibody-3a6-detects-a-broad-range-of-enteroviruses
#8
Niila V V Saarinen, Jutta E Laiho, Sarah J Richardson, Marie Zeissler, Virginia M Stone, Varpu Marjomäki, Tino Kantoluoto, Marc S Horwitz, Amirbabak Sioofy-Khojine, Anni Honkimaa, Minna M Hankaniemi, Malin Flodström-Tullberg, Heikki Hyöty, Vesa P Hytönen, Olli H Laitinen
Enteroviruses (EVs) are common RNA viruses that cause diseases ranging from rash to paralytic poliomyelitis. For example, EV-A and EV-C viruses cause hand-foot and mouth disease and EV-B viruses cause encephalitis and myocarditis, which can result in severe morbidity and mortality. While new vaccines and treatments for EVs are under development, methods for studying and diagnosing EV infections are still limited and therefore new diagnostic tools are required. Our aim was to produce and characterize new antibodies that work in multiple applications and detect EVs in tissues and in vitro...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301587/foodborne-botulism-due-to-ingestion-of-home-canned-green-beans-two-case-reports
#9
Dorothea Hellmich, Katja E Wartenberg, Stephan Zierz, Tobias J Mueller
BACKGROUND: Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive disease. It has an incidence of less than 10 cases per year in Germany and mostly affects several previously healthy people at the same time. The only specific treatment is the administration of botulism antitoxin. According to the German guidelines administration of antitoxin is recommended only in the first 24 hours after oral ingestion of the toxin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white woman and her 51-year-old white husband presented with paralysis of multiple cranial nerves and rapidly descending paralysis approximately 72 hours after ingestion of home-canned beans...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301317/correction-of-malocclusion-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-injection-into-masticatory-muscles
#10
REVIEW
Hyun Seok, Seong-Gon Kim
Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin, and its injection in masticatory muscles induces muscle weakness and paralysis. This paralytic effect of BTX induces growth retardation of the maxillofacial bones, changes in dental eruption and occlusion state, and facial asymmetry. Using masticatory muscle paralysis and its effect via BTX, BTX can be used for the correction of malocclusion after orthognathic surgery and mandible fracture. The paralysis of specific masticatory muscles by BTX injection reduces the tensional force to the mandible and prevents relapse and changes in dental occlusion...
January 2, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288682/sources-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-accumulation-variability-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#11
Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean
This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters were exposed for 2 days to non-toxic algae and then for 2 other days to the PST producer Alexandrium minutum. Individual clearance rate (CR) of oysters was continuously monitored over the 4 days using an ecophysiological measurement system. Comparison of CR values when exposed to toxic and non toxic algae allowed to estimate a clearance rate inhibition index (CRII)...
December 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280254/characterization-of-the-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-response-to-nociception-in-a-pediatric-population
#12
Vanessa A Olbrecht, Yifei Jiang, Luigi Viola, Charlotte M Walter, Hanli Liu, Charles D Kurth
BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy can interrogate functional optical signal changes in regional brain oxygenation and blood volume to nociception analogous to functional magnetic resonance imaging. AIMS: This exploratory study aimed to characterize the near-infrared spectroscopy signals for oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin from the brain in response to nociceptive stimulation of varying intensity and duration, and after analgesic and neuromuscular paralytic in a pediatric population...
December 27, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279643/meckel-s-diverticulitis-masquerading-as-acute-pancreatitis-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#13
C Danny Darlington, G Fatima Shirly Anitha
Meckel's diverticulum is a remnant of the proximal part of the vitellointestinal duct and is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. It may either remain asymptomatic or present with myriad of clinical presentations. Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common presentation in children whereas it is intestinal obstruction in the case of adults. We report a 9-year-old boy who presented with acute onset of periumbilical pain and nonbilious vomiting. His clinical and laboratory parameters were unremarkable, except for serum amylase levels...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278601/shivering-treatments-for-targeted-temperature-management-a-review
#14
Akash Jain, Maria Gray, Stephanie Slisz, Joseph Haymore, Neeraj Badjatia, Erik Kulstad
BACKGROUND: Shivering is common during targeted temperature management, and control of shivering can be challenging if clinicians are not familiar with the available options and recommended approaches. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to summarize the most relevant literature regarding various treatments available for control of shivering and suggest a recommended approach based on latest data. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar were used to identify studies for the literature review using the following keywords alone or in combination: "shivering treatment," "therapeutic hypothermia," "core temperature modulation devices," and "targeted temperature management...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260690/emergence-of-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-during-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-guinea-2014-2015
#15
Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia, Manasi Majumdar, Ousmane Kebe, Aichatou D Fall, Moussa Kone, Mouctar Kande, Moustapha Dabo, Mohamed Salif Sylla, Djenou Sompare, Wayne Howard, Ousmane Faye, Javier Martin, Kader Ndiaye
During the 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 13 type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were isolated from 6 polio patients and 7 healthy contacts. To clarify the genetic properties of cVDPVs and their emergence, we combined epidemiologic and virologic data for polio cases in Guinea. Deviation of public health resources to the Ebola outbreak disrupted polio vaccination programs and surveillance activities, which fueled the spread of neurovirulent VDPVs in an area of low vaccination coverage and immunity...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250285/a-novel-de-novo-mutation-in-lamin-a-c-gene-in-emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy-patient-with-atrial-paralysis
#16
Chaerul Achmad, Almira Zada, Mardlatillah Affani, Mohammad Iqbal, Erwan Martanto, Augustine Purnomowati, Toni M Aprami
We present a 26 year old female Indonesian patient with full spectrum Emery Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD) characterized with contracture of elbows, heel cord and pelvic muscle wasting and weakness and atrial paralysis, as rare cardiac findings in EDMD . A novel de novo pathogenic heterozygous missense mutation (NM_170707.3: c.122G>T, p.Arg41Leu) in exon 1 was detected. Preventing atrial paralytic patients from systemic embolism is important. Early diagnosis, intervention, targeted management and counseling are necessary for a better health and life quality of individuals with EDMD...
April 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240729/introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-and-impact-on-vaccine-associated-paralytic-poliomyelitis-beijing-china-2014-2016
#17
Dan Zhao, Rui Ma, Tao Zhou, Fan Yang, Jin Wu, Hao Sun, Fang Liu, Li Lu, Xiaomei Li, Shuyan Zuo, Wei Yao, Jian Yin
When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2)...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235023/dinoflagellate-cyst-abundance-is-positively-correlated-to-sediment-organic-carbon-in-sydney-harbour-and-botany-bay-nsw-australia
#18
Chang Tian, Martina A Doblin, Katherine A Dafforn, Emma L Johnston, Haiyan Pei, Wenrong Hu
There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234985/ponticoccus-alexandrii-sp-nov-a-novel-bacterium-isolated-from-the-marine-toxigenic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum
#19
Qiao Yang, Xiaoling Zhang, Lingzhi Li, Ruonan Zhang, Lijuan Feng, Jun Mu
During an investigation of the biodiversity of the cultivable bacterial community associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium minutum a novel algal-associated bacterium, designated strain AT2-AT was isolated. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis showed that the strain is a member of the genus Ponticoccus, with high sequence similarity to Ponticoccus litoralis DSM 18986T (97.9%) and Ponticoccus lacteus JCM 30379T (96.0%). However, based on the data obtained for the physiological and biochemical characteristics, and low level of DNA-DNA relatedness analysis, the strain could be genotypically and phenotypically differentiated from two type strains of the genus Ponticoccus...
December 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228856/uncovering-the-proteome-response-of-murine-neuroblastoma-cells-against-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin
#20
Xiao Chen, Ye Sun, Haiyan Huang, Wei Liu, Panpan Hu, Xinfeng Huang, Fei Zou, Jianjun Liu
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton causes paralytic shellfish poisoning syndrome. The toxicity and mode of action of the acute exposure of high-dose saxitoxin have been intensively studied for decades; however, the potential risk of exposure of low-dose saxitoxin remained to be uncovered. Here we present a proteomics study of murine neuroblastoma N2A cell with low-dose saxitoxin exposure (1 nM and 10 nM, 24-h intoxication). Differential proteins were profiled by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
December 11, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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