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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211790/flpstop-a-tool-for-conditional-gene-control-in-drosophila
#1
Yvette Erica Fisher, Helen H Yang, Jesse Isaacman-Beck, Marjorie Xie, Daryl M Gohl, Thomas R Clandinin
Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209476/the-role-of-a-psp-producing-alexandrium-bloom-in-an-unprecedented-diamondback-terrapin-malaclemys-terrapin-mortality-event-in-flanders-bay-new-york-usa
#2
Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann, Robert J Ossiboff, Craig A Burnell, Carlton D Rauschenberg, Kevin Hynes, Russell L Burke, Elizabeth M Bunting, Kim Durham, Christopher J Gobler
Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are a threatened or endangered species in much of their range along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Over an approximately three-week period from late April to mid-May 2015, hundreds of adult diamondback terrapins were found dead on the shores of Flanders Bay, Long Island, New York, USA. Concurrent with the mortality event, elevated densities of the paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense (>10(4) cells L(-1)) and high levels of PST in bivalves (maximal levels = 540 μg STX eq...
February 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209439/post-polio-syndrome-cases-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Żanna Pastuszak, Adam Stępień, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Dariusz Galbarczyk, Agnieszka Rolewska
It is estimated that around 15 million people survived polio infection worldwide since early twentieth century. In 1950 effective vaccination was used for first time. Since that time number of affected people decreased. The last epidemic of Haine-Medine disease in Poland was in 1950s. Another rare cases of infections were observed till 1970s. About at least 15 years after polio virus infection, slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia were observed in polio survivors...
February 3, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208796/recent%C3%A2-trends%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-marine%C3%A2-phycotoxins%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-australian%C3%A2-coastal%C3%A2-waters
#4
Penelope Ajani, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years...
February 9, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186342/development-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-online-solid-phase-extraction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-detection-of-gonyautoxins1-4-and-gonyautoxins2-3-in-human-urine
#5
Rebecca Coleman, Sharon W Lemire, William Bragg, Alaine Garrett, Geovannie Ojeda-Torres, Rebekah Wharton, Elizabeth Hamelin, Jerry Thomas, Rudolph C Johnson
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), including gonyautoxins and saxitoxins, are produced by multiple species of microalgae and dinoflagellates, and are bioaccumulated by shellfish and other animals. Human exposure to PSTs typically occurs through ingestion of recreationally-harvested contaminated shellfish and results in non-specific symptomology. Confirmation of exposure to PSTs has often relied on the measurement of saxitoxin, the most toxic congener; however, gonyautoxins (GTXs), the sulfated carbamate derivatives of saxitoxin, may be present in shellfish at higher concentrations...
February 10, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161421/introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-leading-into-the-polio-eradication-endgame-strategic-plan-hangzhou-china-2010-2014
#6
Yan Liu, Jun Wang, Shijun Liu, Jian Du, Liang Wang, Wenwen Gu, Yuyang Xu, Shuyan Zuo, Erping Xu, Zhijie An
BACKGROUND: China's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has provided 4 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) since the 1970s. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) became available in 2010 in Hangzhou as a private-sector, parent-chosen alternative to OPV. In 2015, WHO recommended that countries with all-OPV vaccination schedules introduce at least one dose of IPV, to mitigate risk associated with the withdrawal of type 2 OPV. We analyzed polio vaccine coverage and utilization in Hangzhou to determine patterns of IPV use and the occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) in the various patterns identified...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149085/complications-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-of-guillain-barre-syndrome-and-their-prognostic-value
#7
Archana Becket Netto, Arun B Taly, Girish B Kulkarni, G S Uma Maheshwara Rao, Shivaji Rao
INTRODUCTION: The spectrum of various complications in critically ill Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and its effect on the prognosis is lacking in literature. This study aimed at enumerating the complications in such a cohort and their significance in the prognosis and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case record analysis of all consecutive mechanically ventilated patients of GBS in neurology Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care institute for 10 years was done...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142089/effects-of-bioactive-extracellular-compounds-and-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-produced-by-alexandrium-minutum-on-growth-and-behaviour-of-juvenile-great-scallops-pecten-maximus
#8
REVIEW
Elodie Borcier, Romain Morvezen, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Miner, Grégory Charrier, Jean Laroche, Hélène Hegaret
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are a major cause of harmful algal blooms (HABs) that have increasingly disrupted coastal ecosystems for the last several decades. Microalgae from the genus Alexandrium are known to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) but also bioactive extracellular compounds (BEC) that can display cytotoxic, allelopathic, ichtyotoxic or haemolytic effects upon marine organisms. The objective of this experimental study was to assess the effects of PST and BEC produced by A. minutum upon juvenile great scallops Pecten maximus...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119092/a-new-electroneurography-as-a-prognostic-tool-for-marginal-mandibular-nerve-paralysis-after-parotid-gland-surgery-a-preliminary-evaluation
#9
Shin-Ichi Haginomori, Shin-Ichi Wada, Takahiro Ichihara, Tetsuya Terada, Ryo Kawata
OBJECTIVE: Marginal mandibular nerve paralysis is the most frequent complication of benign parotid tumor surgery and results in cosmetic deformity. The purpose of this study was to develop a new electroneurography method for marginal mandibular nerve paralysis using electroneurography (ENoG) and judge its usefulness for clinical practice. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients who underwent surgery for benign parotid tumor were enrolled. We proposed and use the mandibular angle method, in which the recording electrode was placed on the skin above the depressor anguli oris muscle while the reference electrode was placed on the skin of the parietal region, and percutaneous electrical stimulation was applied to enclose the mandibular angle that could measure the function of the marginal mandibular nerve solely...
January 21, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118883/distinctly-different-behavioral-responses-of-a-copepod-temora-longicornis-to-different-strains-of-toxic-dinoflagellates-alexandrium-spp
#10
Jiayi Xu, Per Juel Hansen, Lasse Tor Nielsen, Bernd Krock, Urban Tillmann, Thomas Kiørboe
Zooplankton responses to toxic algae are highly variable, even towards taxonomically closely related species or different strains of the same species. Here, the individual level feeding behavior of a copepod, Temora longicornis, was examined which offered 4 similarly sized strains of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. and a non-toxic control strain of the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum. The strains varied in their cellular toxin concentration and composition and in lytic activity. High-speed video observations revealed four distinctly different strain-specific feeding responses of the copepod during 4h incubations: (i) the 'normal' feeding behavior, in which the feeding appendages were beating almost constantly to produce a feeding current and most (90%) of the captured algae were ingested; (ii) the beating activity of the feeding appendages was reduced by ca...
February 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112545/outcomes-of-angioembolization-and-nephrectomy-for-renal-angiomyolipoma-associated-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-a-real-world-us-national-study
#11
Peter Sun, Jamae Liu, Hearns Charles, John Hulbert, John Bissler
OBJECTIVE: To examine outcomes of clinical procedures for renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) based on US national health claims databases. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected two cohorts of TSC patients, who underwent either embolization or nephrectomy (either partial or complete) for renal angiomyolipoma in years from 2000 through 2011. Based on claims diagnosis codes, we estimated the prevalence rates of 10 angiomyolipoma-related conditions and 50 embolization- or nephrectomy-related conditions in the pre- and post-baseline periods respectively, and made cross-year and cross-period comparison of these rates with repeated measures analysis methods...
January 23, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106838/molecular-characterization-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-and-their-relations-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-bioaccumulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#12
Floriane Boullot, Justine Castrec, Adeline Bidault, Natanael Dantas, Laura Payton, Mickael Perrigault, Damien Tran, Zouher Amzil, Pierre Boudry, Philippe Soudant, Hélène Hégaret, Caroline Fabioux
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and block conduction of action potential in excitable cells. This study aimed to (i) characterize Nav sequences in Crassostrea gigas and (ii) investigate a putative relation between Nav and PST-bioaccumulation in oysters. The phylogenetic analysis highlighted two types of Nav in C. gigas: a Nav1 (CgNav1) and a Nav2 (CgNav2) with sequence properties of sodium-selective and sodium/calcium-selective channels, respectively. Three alternative splice transcripts of CgNav1 named A, B and C, were characterized...
January 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096573/prolonged-patient-emergence-time-among-clinical-anesthesia-resident-trainees
#13
L McLean House, Nathan H Calloway, Warren S Sandberg, Jesse M Ehrenfeld
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emergence time, or the duration between incision closure and extubation, is costly nonoperative time. Efforts to improve operating room efficiency and identify trainee progress make such time intervals of interest. We sought to calculate the incidence of prolonged emergence (i.e., >15 min) for patients under the care of clinical anesthesia (CA) residents. We also sought to identify factors from resident training, medical history, anesthetic use, and anesthesia staffing, which affect emergence...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091345/propofol-as-a-risk-factor-for-icu-acquired-weakness-in-septic-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#14
Peter A Abdelmalik, Goran Rakocevic
BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIN) and critical illness myopathy (CIM), together "ICU-Acquired weakness (ICUAW)," occur frequently in septic patients. One of the proposed mechanisms for ICUAW includes prolonged inactivation of sodium channels. Propofol, used commonly in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), primarily acts via enhancement of GABAergic transmission but may also increase sodium channel inactivation, suggesting a potential interaction. METHODS: Electronic medical records and EMG reports of patients with ICUAW and a diagnosis of either sepsis, septicaemia, severe sepsis, or septic shock, concurrent with a diagnosis of acute respiratory failure (ARF), were retrospectively analyzed in a single center university hospital...
January 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#15
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073524/distribution-occurrence-and-biotoxin-composition-of-the-main-shellfish-toxin-producing-microalgae-within-european-waters-a-comparison-of-methods-of-analysis
#16
Sara E McNamee, Linda K Medlin, Jessica Kegel, Gary R McCoy, Robin Raine, Lucia Barra, Maria Valeria Ruggiero, Wiebe H C F Kooistra, Marina Montresor, Johannes Hagstrom, Eva Perez Blanco, Edna Graneli, Francisco Rodríguez, Laura Escalera, Beatriz Reguera, Simon Dittami, Bente Edvardsen, Joe Taylor, Jane M Lewis, Yolanda Pazos, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a natural global phenomena emerging in severity and extent. Incidents have many economic, ecological and human health impacts. Monitoring and providing early warning of toxic HABs are critical for protecting public health. Current monitoring programmes include measuring the number of toxic phytoplankton cells in the water and biotoxin levels in shellfish tissue. As these efforts are demanding and labour intensive, methods which improve the efficiency are essential. This study compares the utilisation of a multitoxin surface plasmon resonance (multitoxin SPR) biosensor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analytical methods such as high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for toxic HAB monitoring efforts in Europe...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073499/physiological-and-transcriptional-responses-to-inorganic-nutrition-in-a-tropical-pacific-strain-of-alexandrium-minutum-implications-for-the-saxitoxin-genes-and-toxin-production
#17
Kieng Soon Hii, Po Teen Lim, Nyuk Fong Kon, Yoshinobu Takata, Gires Usup, Chui Pin Leaw
Saxitoxins (STXs) constitute a family of potent sodium channel blocking toxins, causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), and are produced by several species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Two STX-core genes, sxtA and sxtG, have been well elucidated in Alexandrium but the expression of these genes under various nutritional modes in tropical species remains unclear. This study investigates the physiological responses of a tropical Pacific strain of Alexandrium minutum growing with nitrate or ammonium, and with various nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) supply ratios...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073495/influence-of-nitrogen-availability-on-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-saxitoxin-and-analogs-in-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii
#18
Paula Vico, Luis Aubriot, Fátima Martigani, Natalia Rigamonti, Sylvia Bonilla, Claudia Piccini
The development of cyanobacterial blooms in inland aquatic ecosystems is greatly promoted by nutrient availability, especially nitrogen and phosphorous. When blooms are dominated by toxigenic species the harmful effects of nutrient loading becomes particularly relevant. Among toxic species, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii found in South American ecosystems is characterized by the production of saxitoxin and analogs (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning, PSP), for which the factors that trigger their production have not been elucidated...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073476/health-impacts-from-cyanobacteria-harmful-algae-blooms-implications-for-the-north-american-great-lakes
#19
REVIEW
Wayne W Carmichael, Gregory L Boyer
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cHABs) have significant socioeconomic and ecological costs, which impact drinking water, fisheries, agriculture, tourism, real estate, water quality, food web resilience and habitats, and contribute to anoxia and fish kills. Many of these costs are well described, but in fact are largely unmeasured. Worldwide cHABs can produce toxins (cyanotoxins), which cause acute or chronic health effects in mammals (including humans) and other organisms. There are few attempts to characterize the full health-related effects other than acute incidences, which may go unrecorded...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073466/quantity-of-the-dinoflagellate-sxta4-gene-and-cell-density-correlates-with-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-production-in-alexandrium-ostenfeldii-blooms
#20
Henna Savela, Kirsi Harju, Lisa Spoof, Elin Lindehoff, Jussi Meriluoto, Markus Vehniäinen, Anke Kremp
Many marine dinoflagellates, including several species of the genus Alexandrium, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense are known for their capability to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which can cause severe, most often food-related poisoning. The recent discovery of the first PST biosynthesis genes has laid the foundation for the development of molecular detection methods for monitoring and study of PST-producing dinoflagellates. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method for the detection and quantification of the sxtA4 gene present in Alexandrium spp...
February 2016: Harmful Algae
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