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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146176/neosaxitoxin-a-paralytic-shellfish-poison-toxin-effectively-manages-bucked-shins-pain-as-a-local-long-acting-pain-blocker-in-an-equine-model
#1
Gricel Riquelme, Joaquín M Sepúlveda, Zaki Al Ghumgham, Miguel Del Campo, Cecilia Montero, Nestor Lagos
Local anesthesia is an effective method to control pain. Neosaxitoxin is a phycotoxin whose molecular mechanism includes a reversible inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation. The present study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Neosaxitoxin as a local long-acting pain blocker in horse bucked shins, and it was found to effectively control pain. While Neosaxitoxin and Gonyautoxin, another Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) toxin, have been successfully used in humans as long-lasting pain blockers, this finding marks the first time a PSP has been shown to have an established effect in veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144421/paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-cyanotoxins-in-the-mediterranean-new-data-from-sardinia-and-sicily-italy
#2
Antonella Lugliè, Maria Grazia Giacobbe, Elena Riccardi, Milena Bruno, Silvia Pigozzi, Maria Antonietta Mariani, Cecilia Teodora Satta, Daniela Stacca, Anna Maria Bazzoni, Tiziana Caddeo, Pasqualina Farina, Bachisio Mario Padedda, Silvia Pulina, Nicola Sechi, Anna Milandri
Harmful algal blooms represent a severe issue worldwide. They affect ecosystem functions and related services and goods, with consequences on human health and socio-economic activities. This study reports new data on paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from Sardinia and Sicily (Italy), the largest Mediterranean islands where toxic events, mainly caused by Alexandrium species (Dinophyceae), have been ascertained in mussel farms since the 2000s. The toxicity of the A. minutum, A. tamarense and A. pacificum strains, established from the isolation of vegetative cells and resting cysts, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
November 16, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134245/esophageal-pressure-research-or-clinical-tool
#3
REVIEW
E Baedorf Kassis, S H Loring, D Talmor
Esophageal manometry has traditionally been utilized for respiratory physiology research, but clinicians have recently found numerous applications within the intensive care unit. Esophageal pressure (PEs) is a surrogate for pleural pressures (PPl), and the difference between airway pressure (PAO) and PEs provides a good estimate for the pressure across the lung also known as the transpulmonary pressure (PL). Differentiating the effects of mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing on the respiratory system, chest wall, and across the lung allows for improved personalization in clinical decision making...
November 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110733/sigmoid-volvulus-in-children-a-case-report
#4
Fayza Haider, Nabeel Al Asheeri, Barrak Ayoub, Eizat Abrar, Jawad Khamis, Hasan Isa, Husain Nasser, Fatima Al Hashimi
BACKGROUND: Sigmoid volvulus is frequently reported in the "volvulus belt" (Middle East, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Turkey, and South America) and is the third leading cause of large bowel obstruction in North America. It is an uncommon problem in children and adolescents, and is rarely considered a diagnosis in this group. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose sigmoid volvulus in children. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 13-year-old Arabian girl who came with features suggestive of intestinal obstruction...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110087/outcomes-of-open-versus-laparoscopic-surgery-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer
#5
José M Quintana, Ane Anton-Ladislao, Santiago Lázaro, Nerea Gonzalez, Marisa Bare, Nerea Fernandez de Larrea, Maximino Redondo, Eduardo Briones, Antonio Escobar, Cristina Sarasqueta, Susana Garcia-Gutierrez
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic with that of open surgery up to 2 years after intervention in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgery (laparoscopic or open) between June 2010 and December 2012 in 22 acute hospitals. Main outcomes were mortality, complications, reoperation, readmission, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), as measured using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-Q30 and Q29, the Barthel Index (BI), and the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109054/assessing-the-presence-of-marine-toxins-in-bivalve-molluscs-from-southwest-india
#6
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Stephanie Rowland-Pilgrim, Lucy M Turner, Ashwin Rai, Moleyur N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar, Anna Godhe
The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality...
November 3, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101884/application-of-activated-carbon-to-accelerate-detoxification-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-from-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-and-scallops-chlamys-farreri
#7
Jiangbing Qiu, Hua Fan, Ting Liu, Xia Liang, Fanping Meng, Michael A Quilliam, Aifeng Li
Contamination of economic bivalves with paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) occurs frequently in many parts of the world, which potentially threatens consumer health and the marine aquaculture economy. It is the objective of this study to develop a suitable technology for accelerating detoxification of PST from shellfish using activated carbon (AC). The adsorption efficiency of PST by eight different AC materials and by different particle sizes of wood-based AC (WAC) were tested and compared. Then WAC particles (37-48µm) were fed to mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and scallops Chlamys farreri previously contaminated with PST through feeding with dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense ATHK...
November 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100123/comparative-studies-of-saxitoxin-stx-induced-cytotoxicity-in-neuro-2a-and-rtg-2%C3%A2-cell-lines-an-explanation-with-respect-to-changes-in-ros
#8
Zhongyuan Zhou, Xuexi Tang, Hongmei Chen, You Wang
Saxitoxin (STX), a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) produced from toxic bloom-forming dinoflagellates, was selected to comparatively investigate the induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis and a possible mechanism based on changes in the antioxidant defence system of two cellular strains: the mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a and the rainbow trout fish cell line RTG-2. Increasing concentrations of STX (0-256 nM) presented little cytotoxic or apoptotic effects on the two cell lines. Measurements of cellular viability, lethal ratio and LDH leakage showed slight changes in Neuro-2a and RTG-2 cells (p > 0...
October 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098664/mechanisms-of-l-serine-neuroprotection-in-vitro-include-er-proteostasis-regulation
#9
R A Dunlop, J Powell, G J Guillemin, P A Cox
β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria. Recently, chronic dietary exposure to L-BMAA was shown to trigger neuropathology in nonhuman primates consistent with Guamanian ALS/PDC, a paralytic disease that afflicts Chamorro villagers who consume traditional food items contaminated with L-BMAA. However, the addition of the naturally occurring amino acid L-serine to the diet of the nonhuman primates resulted in a significant reduction in ALS/PDC neuropathology...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095803/update-on-vaccine-derived-polioviruses-worldwide-january-2016-june-2017
#10
Jaume Jorba, Ousmane M Diop, Jane Iber, Elizabeth Henderson, Roland W Sutter, Steven G F Wassilak, Cara C Burns
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (1). Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Since 2014, detection of WPV1 has been limited to three countries, with 37 cases in 2016 and 11 cases in 2017 as of September 27. The >99.99% decline worldwide in polio cases since the launch of the GPEI is attributable to the extensive use of the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and comprehensive national routine immunization programs...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082060/paralytic-ileus-secondary-to-methamphetamine-abuse-a-rare-case
#11
Mark Aidan McKelvie, Yuksel Gercek
Methamphetamine hydrochloride, colloquially referred to as "crystal meth," is a potent psychoactive amphetamine derivate. Methamphetamine produces stimulant effects in the user including increased energy and alertness as well as inducing intense euphoric symptoms and suppressing appetite through its dopaminergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic actions. Use of methamphetamine can adversely affect cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal physiology leading to significant morbidity. We present a rare case of paralytic ileus secondary to methamphetamine abuse which has only once before been described in the literature...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071091/the-use-of-the-renalguard-system-in-cardiac-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-first-in-man-prospective-observational-feasibility-pilot-study
#12
Heyman Luckraz, Ramesh Giri, Benmjamin Wrigley, Anne-Marie Hennessy, Johann Nicholas, Alan Nevill
OBJECTIVES: As proof of concept, this prospective, observational study assessed the feasibility and early clinical outcomes of performing on-pump cardiac surgery with the RenalGuard system. BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported in up to 30% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is a recognised independent predictor of both morbidity and mortality. Forced diuresis with the RenalGuard system reduces the incidence of AKI during percutaneous coronary intervention procedures but its use in cardiac surgery has not been explored...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-screening-of-candidate-therapeutics-to-restore-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a1
#13
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
October 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046475/evidence-for-mast-cells-contributing-to-neuromuscular-pathology-in-an-inherited-model-of-als
#14
Emiliano Trias, Sofía Ibarburu, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Ivan C Moura, Patrice Dubreuil, Olivier Hermine, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito
Evidence indicates that neuroinflammation contributes to motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive muscular paralysis. However, it remains elusive whether inflammatory cells can interact with degenerating distal motor axons, influencing the progressive denervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). By analyzing the muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) following paralysis onset in the SOD1G93A rat model, we have observed a massive infiltration and degranulation of mast cells, starting after paralysis onset and correlating with progressive NMJ denervation...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045280/sedation-practice-in-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-treated-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-retrospective-study
#15
Julian deBacker, Erik Tamberg, Laveena Munshi, Lisa Burry, Eddy Fan, Sangeeta Mehta
Our objective was to characterize sedation management in adult patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). We conducted a retrospective chart review of these patients treated at Toronto General Hospital between January 2012 and October 2015. Medications administered (sedative, analgesic, paralytic, and antipsychotic), sedation depth (Sedation Agitation Scale [SAS] score) delirium assessments, and mobilization were recorded daily...
October 18, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045026/feasibility-of-laparoscopic-surgery-after-stent-insertion-for-obstructive-colorectal-cancer
#16
Hideharu Shimizu, Ryoto Yamazaki, Hideo Ohtsuka, Itaru Osaka, Kunio Takuma, Yasuhiro Morita
INTRODUCTION: A growing number of patients with obstructive colorectal cancer are being treated with self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) followed by laparoscopic resection. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of stent insertion and laparoscopic surgery for obstructive colorectal cancer and to compare these outcomes to regular laparoscopic surgery for non-obstructive colorectal cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with a malignant colonic obstruction who underwent SEMS placement followed by elective laparoscopic resection...
October 17, 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042311/rational-design-of-botulinum-toxin-a1-mutants-with-improved-oxidative-stability
#17
Manuela López de la Paz, Daniel Scheps, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The paralytic effect is generated by the enzymatic activity of the light chain (LC) that cleaves specifically one of the SNARE proteins responsible for neurotransmitter exocytosis. The activity of the LC in a BoNT-containing therapeutic can be compromised by denaturing agents present during manufacturing and/or in the cell...
October 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033792/spontaneous-and-evoked-activity-from-murine-ventral-horn-cultures-on-microelectrode-arrays
#18
Bryan J Black, Rahul Atmaramani, Joseph J Pancrazio
Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH) of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15-16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) by immunocytochemistry...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027912/guanidinium-toxins-and-their-interactions-with-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channels
#19
REVIEW
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026428/evaluation-of-the-physiological-activity-of-venom-from-the-eurasian-water-shrew-neomys-fodiens
#20
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
BACKGROUND: Animal toxins can have medical and therapeutic applications. Principally, toxins produced by insects, arachnids, snakes and frogs have been characterized. Venomous mammals are rare, and their venoms have not been comprehensively investigated. Among shrews, only the venom of Blarina brevicauda has been analysed so far, and blarina toxin has been proven to be its main toxic component. It is assumed that Neomys fodiens employs its venom to hunt larger prey. However, the toxic profile, properties and mode of action of its venom are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
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